A multi target approach to fruitspotting bugmanagementDr. Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox , NSW DPI
A multi target approach to fruitspotting  bug management Fruitspotting bugs – Amblypelta  spp. are the most significant  ...
Fruitspotting bugs (FSB) Amblypelta spp. Amblypelta spp.   – Belong to the family Coreidae (squash bugs) There are a num...
Amblypelta nitida and A. l. lutescens Wide host range Major pest in subtropical and tropical horticulture in  Australia...
FSB feeding habits and damage Amblypelta nitida feeds exclusively on fruit while A.  lutescens is also a shoot feeder Fe...
Losses Overall losses difficult to quantify  – Crop losses of more than 50% have been    attributed to FSB,  – Estimated ...
Project components Collation of past research Chemical control options Development of monitoring and trap cropping    –...
Collation of past research  Responsibility: Alana Danne (PhD student (University of Queensland) Collation of past researc...
Monitoring and trap cropping  1. Trap cropping  Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) Monitoring FSB has ...
Monitoring in flower hedge at CTH           Murraya paniculata                Floral sequence hedge                hedges ...
FSBpreferenceforMacadamiaternifolia
EvidenceSpatial distribution of FSB in Germplasm block in 2010 overtime (Total 618 trees)Nov 2010           Dec 2010      ...
Evidence (cont.)Incidence of FSB in Germplasm block in 2010                Macadamia              Macadamia          Macad...
Evidence (cont.)FSB damage in germplasm block 2010/2011                                         %FSB   Macadamia       Tre...
Monitoring and trap cropping (cont.)  2. Pheromone traps  Responsibility: Harry Fay, (DAFFQ) Pheromone compounds for  Amb...
Biological control (cont.)  1. Mass-rearing for FSB and Anastatus  and release strategies  Responsibility: Richard Llewell...
Biological control2. Ecology and initial evaluation of  various biological control agents  Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and ...
Biological control - Ecology Screening of a number of insecticides on Gryon sp.  and Anastatus sp. Screening Gryon sp. f...
IPM case studiesResponsibility: Pest consultants and Jeremy Bright (NSW DPI) Case studies on commercial farms will be  es...
Industry Adoption  Responsibility Mark Hickey (NSW DPI) Adoption strategy and extension plan A communication plan has be...
Conclusion The ecology of FSB is  fairly complex A good understanding  of FSB ecology is  needed to achieve  sustainable...
AcknowledgementsI would like to thank   – all the funding industries   – all project members for their efforts   – all col...
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Crop protection multi targeted approach to fruit spotting bug management - ruth huwer and craig maddox

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Crop protection multi targeted approach to fruit spotting bug management - ruth huwer and craig maddox

  1. 1. A multi target approach to fruitspotting bugmanagementDr. Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox , NSW DPI
  2. 2. A multi target approach to fruitspotting bug management Fruitspotting bugs – Amblypelta spp. are the most significant pest problem for Australian horticulture after fruit fly This project is a multi industry effort It took a long time to pull industries together to support a major collaborative and multi targeted research project.
  3. 3. Fruitspotting bugs (FSB) Amblypelta spp. Amblypelta spp. – Belong to the family Coreidae (squash bugs) There are a number of closely related bug species Pseudotheraptus wayi Amblypelta nitida Paradasynus spinosus Dasynus sp. – Amblypelta spp. (15) (Australia, PNG, New Hebrides, Solomon Is.) – Dasynus piperis (Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia) – Dasynus coccocintus (Taiwan, Philippines) – Paradasynus rostratus (India) – Paradasynus spinosus (Japan) – Pseudotheraptus wayi (East Africa including Kenya,Tanzania, Zanzibar, South Africa) – Pseudotheraptus devestans (Africa)
  4. 4. Amblypelta nitida and A. l. lutescens Wide host range Major pest in subtropical and tropical horticulture in Australia Lifecycle from egg to adult about 6 weeks Adults are long lived Amblypelta nitida Amblypelta lutescens
  5. 5. FSB feeding habits and damage Amblypelta nitida feeds exclusively on fruit while A. lutescens is also a shoot feeder Feeding by FSB nymphs and adults Feeding sites are entry points for pathogens Low bug density can cause major damage L= tip of labium SH = stylet sheath P = phloem sieve tube From Miles & Taylor, 1994
  6. 6. Losses Overall losses difficult to quantify – Crop losses of more than 50% have been attributed to FSB, – Estimated to be in the order of tens of millions A $$$ annually. The Australian Macadamia Industry reports the economic impact of FSB is estimated at $8.9 million per annum,
  7. 7. Project components Collation of past research Chemical control options Development of monitoring and trap cropping – Trap crops – Pheromones Biological control options IPM case studies Area Wide Management (AWM) Industry Adoption
  8. 8. Collation of past research Responsibility: Alana Danne (PhD student (University of Queensland) Collation of past research and management practices of FSB and relatives Chemical controlResponsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) New compounds from chemical industry Biopesticides need to be considered
  9. 9. Monitoring and trap cropping 1. Trap cropping Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) Monitoring FSB has been a challenge FSB are known to show host preference Developing a new monitoring strategy by using trap crops
  10. 10. Monitoring in flower hedge at CTH Murraya paniculata Floral sequence hedge hedges Date Arboretum Highway Avocado Macadamia Guava Longan Murraya cv L64Jul 2011 44 32 0 0 0 0 6Aug 2011 35 60 0 1 0 0 3Sep 2011 14 60 0 0 0 0 10Oct 2011 20 34 2 1 0 0 4Nov 2011 19 40 5 7 0 0 5Dec 2011 21 3 0 4 0 0 0Jan 2012 0 0 0 2 0 3 0Feb 2012 2 1 0 0 1 3 1Mar 2012 42 2 0 0 1 2 2Apr 2012 88 27 0 2 0 0 8May 2012 30 40 0 0 0 0 6Jun 2012 40 34 0 1 0 0 2
  11. 11. FSBpreferenceforMacadamiaternifolia
  12. 12. EvidenceSpatial distribution of FSB in Germplasm block in 2010 overtime (Total 618 trees)Nov 2010 Dec 2010 Jan 2011 Feb 2011before 1st spray before 1st spray after 1st spray after 2nd spray
  13. 13. Evidence (cont.)Incidence of FSB in Germplasm block in 2010 Macadamia Macadamia Macadamia ternifolia Mixed hybrid Maca- tetraphylla (n=188) integrifolia (n=162) (n=30) (uncertain) (n=266) damia species Trees Trees Trees Trees Total % of Total % of Total % of Total % of with with with with FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB FSB 17/08/ 2010 1 1 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23/11/ 2010 5 5 22 0 0 0 8 16 70 1 2 9 9/12/ 2010 8 11 14 1 2 2 12 50 62 12 18 22 7/01/* 2011 2 2 8 0 0 0 5 22 88 1 1 4 24/02/* 2011 3 3 7 3 1 2 5 32 78 3 2 5 3/03/ 2011 1 2 6 2 9 25 6 22 63 2 2 6 *Reinfestation 3 weeks after beta-cyfluthrin spray
  14. 14. Evidence (cont.)FSB damage in germplasm block 2010/2011 %FSB Macadamia Trees Nuts Total KR damage species Sampled Examined Ave (sd) Ave (sd)M. tetraphylla 43 1311 11 (15) 32 (5.1)M. integrifolia 54 1920 6.5 (8.9) 25 (4.3)M. ternifolia 26 775 34 (21) 40 (8.2)Mixed hybrid 13 391 4.2 (5.8) 30 (2.8)
  15. 15. Monitoring and trap cropping (cont.) 2. Pheromone traps Responsibility: Harry Fay, (DAFFQ) Pheromone compounds for Amblypelta spp. have been identified and now need to be fine tuned and tested. The following 4 aspects need to be considered in this study: – Adjustment of pheromone compounds – Field evaluation of pheromones for both Amblypelta spp. – Design optimal trapping device – Evaluate trapping device for both Amblypelta spp. in the field in QLD and NSW
  16. 16. Biological control (cont.) 1. Mass-rearing for FSB and Anastatus and release strategies Responsibility: Richard Llewellyn (BioResources) Mass-rearing of fruitspotting bugs for testing and rearing of biological control agents Mass-rearing of biological control agents Release strategies Evaluation of biological control agents in QLD and NSW. Photos: Richard Llewellyn
  17. 17. Biological control2. Ecology and initial evaluation of various biological control agents Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) Trichopoda Searching for biological control agents in giacomellii QLD and NSW Ecology of biological control agents if Anastatus sp. unknown (including live-cycle, investigation of flora of their environment). Gryon sp. Evaluation of biological control agents in QLD and NSW PhD project Alana Danne will cover Centrodora darwini aspects of biological control including impact of cover crops
  18. 18. Biological control - Ecology Screening of a number of insecticides on Gryon sp. and Anastatus sp. Screening Gryon sp. for cold storage Screening Gryon sp. in insecticides field trial on commercial farm at Alstonville Quantifying impact of biological control agent is difficult
  19. 19. IPM case studiesResponsibility: Pest consultants and Jeremy Bright (NSW DPI) Case studies on commercial farms will be established at a later stage of the project (possibly for year 3)Area Wide Management (AWM)Responsibility: Consultants The new developed control strategies will be integrated and tested at farm level and regionally via an Area Wide Management (AWM) approach (possibly year 4).
  20. 20. Industry Adoption Responsibility Mark Hickey (NSW DPI) Adoption strategy and extension plan A communication plan has been developed Team includes DAFFQ and NSW DPI experts
  21. 21. Conclusion The ecology of FSB is fairly complex A good understanding of FSB ecology is needed to achieve sustainable control – A number of tools need to be combined to maximise success of control and adoption
  22. 22. AcknowledgementsI would like to thank – all the funding industries – all project members for their efforts – all collaborators who have been helping us out with on farm field sitesThe project has been funded by R&D levies from the Avocado,Macadamia, Lychee, Papaya, Passionfruit and Custard Apple industries,with additional funding via the Across Industry Committee and matched bythe Australian Government through HAL. NSW Department of PrimaryIndustries (NSW DPI) and Queensland Department of Agriculture Forestryand Fisheries (QDAFF) are also contributing in-kind funds to the project,and NSW DPI is managing the project on behalf of all partners. Otherproject partners include the University of Queensland, Australian Centrefor International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and BioResources.

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