Crop protection multi targeted approach to fruit spotting bug management - ruth huwer and craig maddox
A multi target approach to fruitspotting bugmanagementDr. Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox , NSW DPI
A multi target approach to fruitspotting bug management Fruitspotting bugs – Amblypelta spp. are the most significant pest problem for Australian horticulture after fruit fly This project is a multi industry effort It took a long time to pull industries together to support a major collaborative and multi targeted research project.
Fruitspotting bugs (FSB) Amblypelta spp. Amblypelta spp. – Belong to the family Coreidae (squash bugs) There are a number of closely related bug species Pseudotheraptus wayi Amblypelta nitida Paradasynus spinosus Dasynus sp. – Amblypelta spp. (15) (Australia, PNG, New Hebrides, Solomon Is.) – Dasynus piperis (Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia) – Dasynus coccocintus (Taiwan, Philippines) – Paradasynus rostratus (India) – Paradasynus spinosus (Japan) – Pseudotheraptus wayi (East Africa including Kenya,Tanzania, Zanzibar, South Africa) – Pseudotheraptus devestans (Africa)
Amblypelta nitida and A. l. lutescens Wide host range Major pest in subtropical and tropical horticulture in Australia Lifecycle from egg to adult about 6 weeks Adults are long lived Amblypelta nitida Amblypelta lutescens
FSB feeding habits and damage Amblypelta nitida feeds exclusively on fruit while A. lutescens is also a shoot feeder Feeding by FSB nymphs and adults Feeding sites are entry points for pathogens Low bug density can cause major damage L= tip of labium SH = stylet sheath P = phloem sieve tube From Miles & Taylor, 1994
Losses Overall losses difficult to quantify – Crop losses of more than 50% have been attributed to FSB, – Estimated to be in the order of tens of millions A $$$ annually. The Australian Macadamia Industry reports the economic impact of FSB is estimated at $8.9 million per annum,
Project components Collation of past research Chemical control options Development of monitoring and trap cropping – Trap crops – Pheromones Biological control options IPM case studies Area Wide Management (AWM) Industry Adoption
Collation of past research Responsibility: Alana Danne (PhD student (University of Queensland) Collation of past research and management practices of FSB and relatives Chemical controlResponsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) New compounds from chemical industry Biopesticides need to be considered
Monitoring and trap cropping 1. Trap cropping Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) Monitoring FSB has been a challenge FSB are known to show host preference Developing a new monitoring strategy by using trap crops
Monitoring and trap cropping (cont.) 2. Pheromone traps Responsibility: Harry Fay, (DAFFQ) Pheromone compounds for Amblypelta spp. have been identified and now need to be fine tuned and tested. The following 4 aspects need to be considered in this study: – Adjustment of pheromone compounds – Field evaluation of pheromones for both Amblypelta spp. – Design optimal trapping device – Evaluate trapping device for both Amblypelta spp. in the field in QLD and NSW
Biological control (cont.) 1. Mass-rearing for FSB and Anastatus and release strategies Responsibility: Richard Llewellyn (BioResources) Mass-rearing of fruitspotting bugs for testing and rearing of biological control agents Mass-rearing of biological control agents Release strategies Evaluation of biological control agents in QLD and NSW. Photos: Richard Llewellyn
Biological control2. Ecology and initial evaluation of various biological control agents Responsibility: Ruth Huwer and Craig Maddox (NSW DPI) Trichopoda Searching for biological control agents in giacomellii QLD and NSW Ecology of biological control agents if Anastatus sp. unknown (including live-cycle, investigation of flora of their environment). Gryon sp. Evaluation of biological control agents in QLD and NSW PhD project Alana Danne will cover Centrodora darwini aspects of biological control including impact of cover crops
Biological control - Ecology Screening of a number of insecticides on Gryon sp. and Anastatus sp. Screening Gryon sp. for cold storage Screening Gryon sp. in insecticides field trial on commercial farm at Alstonville Quantifying impact of biological control agent is difficult
IPM case studiesResponsibility: Pest consultants and Jeremy Bright (NSW DPI) Case studies on commercial farms will be established at a later stage of the project (possibly for year 3)Area Wide Management (AWM)Responsibility: Consultants The new developed control strategies will be integrated and tested at farm level and regionally via an Area Wide Management (AWM) approach (possibly year 4).
Industry Adoption Responsibility Mark Hickey (NSW DPI) Adoption strategy and extension plan A communication plan has been developed Team includes DAFFQ and NSW DPI experts
Conclusion The ecology of FSB is fairly complex A good understanding of FSB ecology is needed to achieve sustainable control – A number of tools need to be combined to maximise success of control and adoption
AcknowledgementsI would like to thank – all the funding industries – all project members for their efforts – all collaborators who have been helping us out with on farm field sitesThe project has been funded by R&D levies from the Avocado,Macadamia, Lychee, Papaya, Passionfruit and Custard Apple industries,with additional funding via the Across Industry Committee and matched bythe Australian Government through HAL. NSW Department of PrimaryIndustries (NSW DPI) and Queensland Department of Agriculture Forestryand Fisheries (QDAFF) are also contributing in-kind funds to the project,and NSW DPI is managing the project on behalf of all partners. Otherproject partners include the University of Queensland, Australian Centrefor International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and BioResources.