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Integrated control of macadamiapests in South Africa with specific   emphasis on stink bugs  Schalk Schoeman
Introduction• Understand the problem• Difficult to monitor for the stinkbugs (no  pheromones!!)• Low tolerance for damage•...
Materials and methods• Monitoring with branch shaking method since  the spring of 2010• Nut dissection during the early pa...
Relative seasonal abundance -                                                      Nelspruit                              ...
Relative seasonal abundance - Friedenheim        2011               2012
Overwintering/diapause of the two     spotted bug - Nelspruit2010
Overwintering/diapause of the two    spotted bug - Friedenheim
Seasonal succession of indigenous                         stinkbugs at Nelspruit             120             100          ...
Seasonal succession of indigenous                           stinkbugs at Friedenheim             120             100      ...
Relative seasonal abundance of the            coconut bug2011                         2012
80                                           Host switching behaviour                                  70Number of damaged...
80                                           Host switching behaviour                                  70Number of damaged...
140                                            Host switching behaviour                                  120Number of dama...
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Summary of insect ecology in the           orchard
Proposed spraying dates
Proposed spraying dates
Proposed spraying dates
Proposed spraying dates
Proposed spraying dates
Relative abundance of nut borers and           related damage
Relationship between pheromone trap               catches and various nut borer stages                                    ...
Relative seasonal abundance of nut borer moths        in relation to damage - Nelspruit
Relative seasonal abundance of nut borer moths       in relation to damage - Friedenheim
Conclusions•   Summer peak of two spotted bug ± 1220 degree days•   Autumn peak of two spotted bug ± 2220 less well define...
Acknowledgements• Subtrop• Members of the stink bug working group and  particularly Gerhard Nortje• ARC-ITSC• Colleen Hepb...
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Crop protection integrated control of macadamia pests in south africa with specific emphasis on stink bugs - schalk schoeman

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Transcript of "Crop protection integrated control of macadamia pests in south africa with specific emphasis on stink bugs - schalk schoeman"

  1. 1. Integrated control of macadamiapests in South Africa with specific emphasis on stink bugs Schalk Schoeman
  2. 2. Introduction• Understand the problem• Difficult to monitor for the stinkbugs (no pheromones!!)• Low tolerance for damage• Bugs migrate between various crops as well as wild hosts• Most chemicals really only work for a few days• Integrate/coordinate control between a number of crops.• Website regarding macadamia monitoring a beginning but more is needed
  3. 3. Materials and methods• Monitoring with branch shaking method since the spring of 2010• Nut dissection during the early part of the season• Pheromones for the tortricid complex• Quantification of eggs, larvae as well as damage up to physiological maturity• Two localities – unsprayed mixed cultivar orchards
  4. 4. Relative seasonal abundance - Nelspruit 40 35Total number of stinkbugs/10 trees 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 n d j j f mm a a mm j j j j a s s o o n n d d j j f f mm a a m 2010 2011 2012
  5. 5. Relative seasonal abundance - Friedenheim 2011 2012
  6. 6. Overwintering/diapause of the two spotted bug - Nelspruit2010
  7. 7. Overwintering/diapause of the two spotted bug - Friedenheim
  8. 8. Seasonal succession of indigenous stinkbugs at Nelspruit 120 100 80Percentage 60 40 20 0 n d j j f mm a a mm j j j j a s s o o n n d d j j f f mm a a mm j j j j 2010 Two spotted bug Other pentatomid bugs 2012
  9. 9. Seasonal succession of indigenous stinkbugs at Friedenheim 120 100 80Percentage 60 40 20 0 o o n n n n d d d j j j j f f f f f mmmm a a a mmmmm j j j j j j a Weeks 2011 Two spotted bug Other pentatomid bugs 2012
  10. 10. Relative seasonal abundance of the coconut bug2011 2012
  11. 11. 80 Host switching behaviour 70Number of damaged fruit/5 trees 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 o o n n n n n d d d d j j j j j f f f f m m m m Litchis
  12. 12. 80 Host switching behaviour 70Number of damaged fruit/5 trees 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 o o n n n n n d d d d j j j j j f f f f m m m m Macadamia Litchis
  13. 13. 140 Host switching behaviour 120Number of damaged fruit/5 trees 100 80 60 40 20 0 o o n n n n n d d d d j j j j j f f f f m m m m Avocado Macadamia Litchis
  14. 14. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  15. 15. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  16. 16. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  17. 17. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  18. 18. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  19. 19. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  20. 20. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  21. 21. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  22. 22. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  23. 23. Summary of insect ecology in the orchard
  24. 24. Proposed spraying dates
  25. 25. Proposed spraying dates
  26. 26. Proposed spraying dates
  27. 27. Proposed spraying dates
  28. 28. Proposed spraying dates
  29. 29. Relative abundance of nut borers and related damage
  30. 30. Relationship between pheromone trap catches and various nut borer stages Regression coefficient (r2) Eggs Larvae Damage Eggs Larvae 0.372Nelspruit Damage 0.864 0.399 Moths 0.588 0.277 0.47 Eggs Larvae -0.453 Damage 0.676 -0.421Friedenheim Moths -0.641 0.451 -0.488
  31. 31. Relative seasonal abundance of nut borer moths in relation to damage - Nelspruit
  32. 32. Relative seasonal abundance of nut borer moths in relation to damage - Friedenheim
  33. 33. Conclusions• Summer peak of two spotted bug ± 1220 degree days• Autumn peak of two spotted bug ± 2220 less well defined• Coconut bug is important !! – check for fallen nuts during December• Two spotted bug overwinter as adults and nymphs• Very low population levels during early summer – only adults• Other bugs migrate into macadamia orchards during winter but don’t breed.• Moths migrate into mac orchards ± 9 weeks after full bloom.• Mating and oviposition takes place soon afterwards• Best time for spraying a contact insecticide - ± 2 weeks after peak moth flights are recorded during Nov/Dec• Scouting for both complexes will be available on a website before the new season.• Website will be updated weekly• Initially Nelspruit area but Levubu and KZN will be added through the season
  34. 34. Acknowledgements• Subtrop• Members of the stink bug working group and particularly Gerhard Nortje• ARC-ITSC• Colleen Hepburn• Prof. Ben Botha
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