Crop protection crop protection management in brazil macadamia production - leonardo moriya

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Crop protection crop protection management in brazil macadamia production - leonardo moriya

  1. 1. 6 th International Macadamia SymposiumCrop protection Management in Brazil Macadamia Production LEONARDO MORIYA Agronomist Queen Nut Macadamia
  2. 2. TOPICS OF PRESENTATION• ON FIELD RESULTS• The “Vaversa farm case”• The “Firma farm case”• Insects that occur in Brazil
  3. 3. Key points for a good crop Favorable climate conditions Trees Crop nutrition protection
  4. 4. “VAVERSA CASE”• 500 hectares• 120.000 trees• Average age of 25 years old• Trees spacing of 8 x 5 m• Staff of 90 people – 70 for harvesting• Since 2008 they had a drastic drop on crop
  5. 5. VAVERSA CROPS VAVERSA Productivity 1400 2,5 1200 2,0 1000 Ton/ha 800 1,5Tons 600 1,0 400 0,5 200 0 0,0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Years Years NIS 10% Moisture
  6. 6. “FIRMA FARM CASE”• 10.000 trees• Spacing of 8 x 5• 15 years old orchard• Reasonable trees nutrition program• Trees with not bad structure of vegetation and condition• That lead to a good crop on the next years• First action was to correct all the operations related to crop protection
  7. 7. FIRMA FARM CROPS FIRMA FARM Productivity TON/ha 200 5,0 180 4,5 160 4,0 140 3,5 3,0 Ton/ha 120Tons 100 2,5 80 2,0 60 1,5 1,0 40 0,5 20 0,0 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2009 2010 2011 2012 Years Years NIS 10% Moisture
  8. 8. QUEEN NUT CROPS QUEEN NUT Productivity 900 4,0 800 3,5 700 3,0 600 2,5 Tons/ha 500Tons 2,0 400 1,5 300 200 1,0 100 0,5 0 0,0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 NIS 10% Moisture Years Years
  9. 9. GENERAL EVALUATION“VAVERSA CASE”• Bad nutrition program• Wrong products sprayed for the wrong problems• They didn’t know what the insects pests• The sprayers was wrong regulated, also with wrong nozzles
  10. 10. STRATEGIES SET UP• Established a new nutrition program - Based on leaf and soil analyses• Established a insects pest monitoring and control - Staff training• Started a pruning program• Set up a list of on field control papers
  11. 11. FOR PEST CONTROL AND LEAF NUTRITION• Volume sprayed of 1.500 to 2.000 liters per hectare• Application around 6 times from flower to shell hardening• Application of micronutrients on raceme setting and nut set - Zinc, Boron, Calcium, Magnesium and Copper• Application of aminoacids plus micronutrients
  12. 12. AMINOACIDS• Alanine Act directly on flower formation• Arginine• Leucine and pollen fertilization• Isoleucine• Threonine• Proline• Lysine• Tryptophan
  13. 13. INSECTS• What’s the damage and what’s the insects?• Which moment they attack?• How to control?• Do they promote loss of productivity?• Do they promote loss of quality?
  14. 14. BLACK APHID (Toxoptera citricida)
  15. 15. THRIPS
  16. 16. GREEN PLANTHOOPER (Empoasca sp.)
  17. 17. WHITE BROAD MITE (Polyphagotarsonemus latus)
  18. 18. STINK BUGS (Nezara viridula, Loxa sp. and others)
  19. 19. LONG-TAILED MEALYBUG (Pseudococcus sp.)
  20. 20. NUT BORER (Ecdytolopha aurantiana)
  21. 21. SPRAYER
  22. 22. 6 th International Macadamia Symposium LEONARDO MORIYA Agronomist leonardo@queennutmacadamia.com.br

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