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Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
Crop protection   assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn
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Crop protection assessment of thrips species complex and economic loss in macadamia orchards in south africa - colleen hepburn

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  • 1. Towards Understanding the Economic Impactof Thrips in South Africa: Preliminary Findings Colleen Hepburn¹, Michael Stiller² & Martin Villet¹ ¹Department of Zoology & Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa²Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute, National Collection of 1 Insects: Biosystematics, Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa
  • 2. Aims and objectives:• Thrips complex - identify and assign to guilds (damaging / predatory / beneficial).• Phenology of thrips causing damage.• Develop practical monitoring and scouting strategies.• Ascertain damage to flush, blossoms, nut-set, small & mature nuts.• Determine % premature nut drop and abscission attributed to thrips. 2
  • 3. Aims and objectives:• Does thrips damage affect pre- and post-zygotic development of nut?• Does cosmetic damage (bronzing) affect photosynthesis and / or kernel characteristics (size / weight / oil content)?• Are some cultivars more susceptible to thrips damage?• Begin working on IPM programme which is ecologically sound.• Determine % economic loss of yield.• Thrips complex distribution in macadamia-growing areas. Photos: Michael Stiller, ARC-PPRI (2012) 3
  • 4. Order: Thrips (Thysanoptera)• 2 suborders – Terebrantia and Tubulifera• 9 families• 750 genera• 8000 extant species (> 5500 described) 50% - feed on fungi 40% - feed on dicotyledonous plants (i.e. grasses) 9% - predatory or feed on mosses, gymnosperms or cycads 1% - identified as serious pests (+ transmission of viruses) 4
  • 5. Average Thrips Life Cycle (2½ - 4 days) (1 - 2 days)(Longevity30 - 45 days (2 - 4 days)150 - 300 (Immature stages = max.eggs) 15 days) (1 - 2 days) (1 - 3 days) 5
  • 6. Field work (over 33 weeks) - samplingprotocol• 13 cultivar sites• 5 data trees in each cultivar site (n = 65)• 20 racemes / growth points on each tree sampled weekly (n = 1300) In total n = 42900 6
  • 7. Study sites (13) and variety of cultivarsLOCALITY CULTIVAR AGE TREATEDARC-ITSC Nelmak D Orchard Nelmak D 8 yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard Beaumont 13 Yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard Nelmak 2 13 Yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard 788 13 Yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard A4 13 Yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard 816 13 Yrs NoARC-ITSC Variety Orchard A16 13 Yrs NoARC Friedenheim Farm Beaumont 6 yrs YesCommercial Farm 788 4 yrs YesCommercial Farm Nelmak D 6 yrs YesCommercial Farm 816 4 yrs YesCommercial Farm Beaumont 12 yrs YesCommercial Farm Nelmak D 12 yrs Yes 7
  • 8. 20 growth points per tree (i.e. newflush, blossoms, nut set, smallnuts, mature nuts) sampled weekly 8
  • 9. Photos representing raceme developmental stagesand abscised nuts for each site were taken weekly(phenology) 9
  • 10. During the last 7 weeks of sampling, abscised nutswith and without thrips damage + 20 random nutsample from trees were tested for maturity (i.e.dehusked, dried, cracked & floated) 10
  • 11. AVERAGE # OF THRIPS COLLECTED FROM DATA TREES ATALL 13 SITES OVER THE 33 WEEK PERIOD 900 30 850 800 750 25AVERAGE # THRIPS FROM ALL SITES WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE °C 700 650 ARC NELMAK D 8YRS 600 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD BEAUMONT 13YRS 20 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD NELMAK 2 13YRS 550 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD 788 13YRS 500 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD A4 13YRS 450 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD 816 13YRS 15 400 ARC VARIETY ORCHARD A16 13YRS ARC FRIEDENHEIM BEAUMONT 6YRS 350 COMMERCIAL FARM 788 4YRS 300 10 COMMERCIAL FARM NELMAK D 6YRS 250 COMMERCIAL FARM 816 4YRS 200 COMMERCIAL FARM BEAUMONT 12YRS COMMERCIAL FARM NELMAK D 12YRS 150 5 AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 50 0 0 WEEKS 11
  • 12. COMMERCIAL FARM SPRAY DATES: BEAUMONT (12 yrs) & NELMAK D (12 yrs) SITES [N.B. Sprays based on weekly scouting records] 300 30 250 25 WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE °C COMMERCIAL FARM BEAUMONT 12YRS 200 20 COMMERCIAL FARM NELMAK D 12YRS AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C)AVERAGE # THRIPS 150 15 Cypermethrin Cypermethrin Acephate Cypermethrin Cypermethrin 100 10 50 5 0 0 WEEKS 12
  • 13. Defining thrips damage:Only green, shiny nuts ontree and green abscisednuts as at 11 November2011 13
  • 14. Two weeks later (26 November 2011), therewas a change in colour of some of the nuts 14
  • 15. Abscised nuts: different types of husk damage 15
  • 16. TOTAL # ABSCISED NUTS OVER 33 WEEKSAMPLING PERIOD 4200 30 4000 3800 3600 25 3400 3200 WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 3000 ARC NEL D 8YRS ARC VAR ORCH BMONT 13YRS 2800 20TOTAL # ABSCISED NUTS ARC VAR ORCH NEL 2 13YRS 2600 ARC VAR ORCH 788 13YRS 2400 ARC VAR ORCH A4 13YRS 2200 ARC VAR ORCH 816 13YRS 15 2000 ARC VAR ORCH A16 13YRS 1800 ARC FHEIM BMONT 6YRS 1600 COMM FARM 788 4YRS 1400 COMM FARM NEL D 6YRS 10 1200 COMM FARM 816 4YRS COMM FARM BMONT 12YRS 1000 COMM FARM NEL D 12YRS 800 AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C) 5 600 400 200 0 0 WEEKS 16
  • 17. AVERAGE NUMBER OF ABSCISED NUTS SHOWN BYSTUDY SITE IN DESCENDING ORDER AVERAGE # RATING STUDY SITE ABSCISED NUTS 1. Commercial Farm Beaumont 12 Yrs 391 2. Commercial Farm Nelmak D 12 Yrs 222 3. Commercial Farm 816 4 Yrs 170 4. ARC Variety Orchard Nelmak 2 13 Yrs 139 5. ARC Variety Orchard A16 13 Yrs 135 6. ARC Variety Orchard A4 13 Yrs 94 7. ARC Variety Orchard 816 13 Yrs 93 8. ARC Nelmak D Orchard 8 Yrs 62 9. ARC Variety Orchard 788 13 Yrs 61 10. Commercial Farm Nelmak D 6 Yrs 54 11. ARC Variety Orchard Beaumont 13 Yrs 53 12. Commercial Farm 788 4 Yrs 44 13. ARC Friedenheim Farm Beaumont 6 Yrs 25 17
  • 18. TOTAL # ABSCISED NUTS WITH THRIPS DAMAGE OVER TIME. 1200 30 1000 25TOTAL # NUTS WITH THRIPS DAMAGE WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE °C ARC NEL D 6YRS ARC VAR ORCH BMONT 13YRS 800 20 ARC VAR ORCH NEL 2 13YRS ARC VAR ORCH 788 13YRS ARC VAR ORCH A4 13YRS 600 ARC VAR ORCH 816 13YRS 15 ARC VAR ORCH A16 13YRS ARC FHEIM BMONT 6YRS COMM FARM 788 4YRS 400 COMM FARM NEL D 6YRS 10 COMM FARM 816 4YRS COMM FARM BMONT 12YRS COMM FARM NEL D 12YRS 200 5 WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C) 0 0 WEEKS 18
  • 19. AVERAGE # ABSCISED NUTS WITH AND WITHOUT THRIPS DAMAGE – ALL SITES 700 30 650 600 25 550 WEEKLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE °C AVE # ABSCISED NUTS 500AVERAGE # ABSCISED NUTS AVE # ABSCISED NUTS NO THRIPS DAMAGE 20 450 AVE # ABSCISED NUTS WITH THRIPS DAMAGE 400 AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (°C) 350 15 300 250 10 200 150 5 100 50 0 0 WEEKS 19
  • 20. ARC NELMAK D: MATURITY COMPARISON OFABSCISED NUTS WITH AND WITHOUT THRIPSDAMAGE200 200 # NUTS ABSCISED # NUTS ABSCISED180 # NUTS (Thrips dam) 180 # NUTS (No thrips dam) # MATURE (Thrips dam) # MATURE (No thrips dam)160 160140 140120 120100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 WEEKS WEEKS 20
  • 21. ARC VARIETY ORCHARD 816: MATURITY COMPARISON OFABSCISED NUTS WITH AND WITHOUT THRIPS DAMAGE 90 90 # NUTS ABSCISED # NUTS ABSCISED 80 # NUTS (Thrips dam) 80 # NUTS (No thrips dam) # MATURE (Thrips dam) # MATURE (No thrips dam) 70 70 60 60# NUTS 50 50 # NUTS 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 WEEKS WEEKS 21
  • 22. ARC VARIETY ORCHARD A16: MATURITY COMPARISON OFABSCISED NUTS WITH AND WITHOUT THRIPS DAMAGE 320 320 300 # NUTS ABSCISED 300 # NUTS ABSCISED 280 # NUTS (Thrips dam) 280 # NUTS (No thrips dam) # MATURE (Thrips dam) 260 # MATURE (No thrips dam) 260 240 240 220 220 200 200# NUTS # NUTS 180 180 160 160 140 140 120 120 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 WEEKS WEEKS 22
  • 23. ARC NELMAK D: Photos of damage to nuts with thripsdamage, without thrips damage and 20 nut sampletested for oil content and maturity (N.B. Stinkbug damage) a b c 23
  • 24. IdentificationDuring the 2011-2012 season atotal of 44 062 specimenscollected and countedA number of morphologicalcharacters are used to identify tospecies (i.e. setae, surfacesculpture, detail on antennae,wing venation and setation)Adults 1.0 – 1.6 mm long 24
  • 25. Some of the thrips species being identified byMichael Stiller, ARC-PPRI National Collection of Insects:Biosystematics, Pretoria, South AfricaSo far no S. aurantii (citrus) orHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis(greenhouse)Thrips gowdeyi (Bagnall)Thrips tenellus TrybomThrips pusillus BagnallTaeniothrips sp.Scirtothrips ?combreti FauréMegalurothrips sjostedtiTrybomHercinothrips sp.Helionothrips sp. 25
  • 26. Identification/Photos: Michael Stiller, ARC-PPRI Biosystematics, Pretoria, SA 26
  • 27. Species of mites identified byEddie Ueckermann, ARC-PPRI NationalCollection of Insects: Biosystematics,Pretoria, South Africa Hexibdella sp. (Bdellidae)ALL PREDATORY MITES Snout Mite Photo: Tom MurrayPhytoseiidae Amblyseius herbicolus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) vescus Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) celastrus Neoseiulus barkeriBdellidae Hexibdella sp. near singula Anystis baccarum (Anystidae) Whirligig mite Photo: BugGuide.netAnystidae Anystis baccarumStigmaeidae Agistemus africanusTetranychidae Eutetranychus sp. Mononychellus nr, heteromniae Agistemus africanus (Stigmaeidae)So far no broad mite or citrus mites Red Velvet Mite Photo: Edublogs.org 27
  • 28. Aims & Objectives: 2012-2013 Season13 July 2012: Set up study sites andbegan scouting and monitoring.Continuing with identification of thripsspecies and sorting into guilds,incorporated temperature and rainfall indata, working out phenology ofmacadamia cultivars from photo data.Aug: Soil application of Metarhizium(entomopathogenic fungi) at some ofthe sites.Field collections: thrips complexdistribution of thrips in macadamia Photo Source: Wikipedia.orggrowing areas of South Africa. Metarhizium on cockroach 28
  • 29. Acknowledgements:SAMAC (Research Project Funding 2011-2012, 2012-2013)Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa(Scholarship 2011)National Research Foundation, Pretoria, South Africa(Scholarship 2012-2014)Ernst & Ethel Eriksen Trust, Bryanston, South Africa(Scholarship 2011 & 2012)Mr Johannes Ngomane, Dr Schalk Schoeman, Prof RandallHepburn, Dr Eddie Ueckermann, Messrs Gerhard Nortjé,Andrew Sheard, Alwyn du Preez and Len HobsonSubtrop, Tzaneen, and ARC-ITSC, Nelspruit, South Africa ERNST AND ETHEL ERIKSEN TRUST 29

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