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  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) Carrying solid bulk cargoes involves serious risks, which must be managed carefully to safeguard the crew and the ship. These risks include reduced ship stability, and even capsizing, due to cargo liquefaction; fire or explosion due to chemical hazards; and damage to ship structures due to poor loading procedures. The main legislation governing safe carriage of solid bulk cargoes is the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code, which became mandatory on January 1, 2011, under the SOLAS Convention. Contents: Section1: General Provisions Section 2:Loading ,Carriage and unloading Precautions Section3: Safety of Personnel and Ship Section4:Assessment of Accessibility of Consignment for safe shipment Section5:Trimming Procedures Section6: Methods of determining the Angle of Repose Section7: Cargoe’s That May Liquify Section8:Test Procedures for Cargoe’s that may Liquify Section9:Materials Possessing chemical Hazards Section10:Carriage of Solid Waste in Bulk Section11:Security Provision Section12:Stowage Factor Conversion Tables Appendix1: Indivisual Schedules for solid Bulk Cargo Appendix2:Laboratory Test Procedures Appendix3:Properties of Solid Bulk Cargo CONTENTS: REMEMBER ATLEAST 5 TO 6 POINTS AT RANDOM ******Question: How will you go about loading a Bulk Carrier****** Once the cargo to be loaded is known I shall refer to the IMSBC code “which will give me necessary information on the safe stowage and shipment of the Solid Bulk Cargoe‟s by providing the information on dangers associated with the certain types of shipment and the instructions on the procedures to be adopted during such times.” And will also refer to the “BLU CODE” which will give necessary guidance to the shipowners,master,shippers,charterers and terminal operators for safe handling,loading and unloading of the solid bulk cargoe‟s. 1.The Code has the following contents ( refer the contents of the code) 2.Accepting cargoes for shipment : Information required from the shipper Before you can accept a cargo for shipment, the shipper must provide the Master with valid, up-to-date information about the cargo’s physical and chemical properties. The exact information and documentation they must provide is listed in the Code under „Assessment of acceptability of consignments for safe shipment; Provision of 1
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) Information‟, and includes the correct Bulk Cargo Shipping Name and a declaration that the cargo information is correct. Information shall include( as per section 4 of the code)       BCSN(Bulk cargo Shipping name),the cargo gropu(A,B,C) UN number of the cargo Total quantity of the cargo offered and the Stowage factor Trimming requirements,angle of repose if applicable,likeleyhood of shifting Self heating properties,flammability,toxicity of the cargo Port/place of departure and port/place of destination and any other information as required by the authorities. 3.The IMSBC Code categorises cargoes into three groups: Group A – cargoes which may liquefy if shipped at a moisture content exceeding their Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) Group B – cargoes which possess a chemical hazard which could give rise to a dangerous situation on a ship. Group C – cargoes which are neither liable to liquefy (Group A) nor possess chemical hazards (Group B). Cargoes in this group can still be hazardous. Typical requirements for accepting and loading Group A cargoes Make sure the shipper has supplied the required information, including the TML and the actual moisture content. – Only accept the cargo if the actual moisture content is less than its TML. – Carry out visual monitoring during loading. If there are any indications of high moisture content, stop loading and seek further advice. – Consider trimming the cargo to reduce the likelihood of cargo shift. – Take measures to prevent water or other liquids entering the cargo space during loading and throughout the voyage. 4.Checking the cargo schedule Individual cargoes are listed in „schedules‟ which are contained in Appendix 1 of the Code. These describe each cargo’s properties and detail the requirements for handling, stowing and carrying it safely. However If a cargo not listed in the Code is presented for shipment, the shipper and the appropriate competent authorities must follow this process: 1. Before loading, the shipper must provide details of the characteristics and properties of the cargo to the competent authority of the port of loading as per Section 4 of the code. 2. Based on this information the competent authority of the port of loading will assess the acceptability of the cargo for shipment. 2
  3. 3. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) 3. If the assessment defines the cargo as Group A or B, the competent authorities will set the preliminary suitable conditions for carriage. 4 If the cargo is Group C then carriage can be authorised by the port of loading and the competent authorities of the unloading port and flag state will be informed of the authorisation. The code also gives information on the Trimming Procedures to be followed and methods of determing the Angle of Repose. In case of the Cargoe’s possessing “Chemical Hazards” and dangerous goods in packaged form the code gives a Seggregation table. In this case the IMDG code shall be consulted for any further requirement. NOTE: PLEASE CHECK ON HOW TO LOOK FOR A PARTICULAR CARGO AND USE THE CODE Draught survey: Before the start of loading the chief mate will normally undertake a draught survey. If an independent surveyor has been appointed the chief mate will accompany him on his survey, agree soundings and draught readings with him and then complete a separate set of calculations before comparing the final results with the surveyor. If no surveyor has been appointed the chief mate will simply take his own readings and complete his own calculations. Similar procedures will be followed on completion of loading. Instructing junior officers: It is the chief mate who normally prepares the ship’s loading/deballasting plan, and who is answerable to the Master for its implementation. The chief mate will have supervised the cleaning and preparation of the holds. The second and third mates, and engine room staff if necessary, will be provided by the chief mate with copies of the loading/deballasting plan and will be instructed by the chief mate as to his requirements. If there are any special matters to which he wants to draw particular attention, the chief mate will to put them in writing. When in writing they are available to the OOW for further reference and study as the loading progresses. Commencement of loading: The chief mate will normally be in attendance at the commencement of loading to ensure that a swift response can be made to any unexpected problems which occur. Monitoring of tonnages delivered: Problems can be expected if the tonnages of cargo delivered by the shore installation are inaccurate. When possible it is prudent to make an accurate check of the tonnages loaded at intervals during the loading, and this is something that the chief mate should try to do by undertaking informal draught surveys from time to time, without interrupting loading. Such surveys are useless unless the precise ballast condition is known, so they are best undertaken at the end of a stage in the deballasting when a full. This informal survey is less important than an actual draught survey, so it is acceptable to use earlier soundings for ballast tanks which have not been pumped in the meantime. With the information obtained from the informal draught surveys, the chief mate can calculate whether the shiploader is 3
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) loading the planned tonnages or whether it appears to be loading too much or too little. Final stripping of ballast tanks: The chief mate will normally take the opportunity at a time when the main deballasting is complete and the ship has a good stern trim, to satisfy himself that all the ballast tanks have been stripped to the fullest extent possible The final soundings to which the strippings in the ballast tanks are reduced should be carefully recorded for inspection by any independent draught surveyor. Trimming pours: The chief mate will calculate the quantities required for the trimming pours when he has obtained a full set of draught readings and has verified that all pumpable ballast has been discharged . To speed the process and to minimise the interruption in loading he may rely upon officers with VHF handsets to report some of the draught readings to him. Topping off of holds: When the ship is loading a low-density cargo such as coke or grain, where the holds have to be completely filled, the chief mate will try to view the completion of each hold to satisfy himself that it has been entirely filled and that no space has been lost. Where a cargo requires trimming to provide a level stow or to ensure the maximum tonnage loaded, the chief mate should satisfy himself that the work has been properly done Special requirements for particular cargoes: Many bulk cargoes require special attention. The lashing of steel cargoes and of timber deck cargoes, the separation of small parcels of bulk cargo. Whenever the cargo requires special attention the chief mate will be actively involved, either by his presence in person or by the detailed instructions that he gives to his junior officers. Damage claims: It is essential that stevedores are warned immediately when they have caused or seem likely to cause damage to the ship or cargo. The chief mate should regularly emphasise the importance of this to his junior officers and should ensure that they issue the appropriate warnings, and/or report to him immediately, when damage occurs. When damage occurs the chief mate will probably speak to the stevedores immediately to ensure that they are aware of the matter and should always follow this up immediately with a digital photo or photos and a written notice (which can be a standard stevedores’ damage form, or cargo damage form) when damage has occurred. Securing for sea: The chief mate will superintend the securing of the ship for sea, rechecking for himself where necessary the work of the crew as supervised by the officers of the watch. In some trades, hatch covers and accesses must be sealed by an official, who issues an appropriate certificate 4
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) BLU CODE: CODE OF PRACTICE FOR SAFE LOADING AND UNLOADING OF THE BULK CARRIERS. This code applies to the loading and unloading of the solid bulk cargoes from carriers of more than 500 gross tonnage. This code does not apply to ships which use shipboard equipments for loading and unloading. “This code gives necessary guidance to the shipowners,master,shippers,charterers and terminal operators for safe handling,loading and unloading of the solid bulk cargoe’s.” The code contains       Procedures between ship and shore prior to ships arrival Procedures between the ship and terminal prior to cargo handling Cargo loading and handling of ballast Cargo unloading and handling of ballast Loading and unloading plan Ship/shore safety checklist for loading and unloading of bulk cargo carriers. The “BLU Manual” is intended to complement the BLU code by providing guidance on good practice,regardless of ship size,terminal capacity or the cargo quantity. It helps the terminal representatives to implement the code including those who are responsible for training the personnel It contains the following        Procedures between ship and shore prior to ships arrival Procedures between the ship and terminal prior to cargo handling Cargo loading and handling of ballast Cargo unloading and handling of ballast Avoidance of damage during cargo handling Repair of damage incurred during loading and unloading Hazards and emergency procedures. Definitions: High density cargoe’s: means a solid bulk cargo with stowage factor of 0.56cubicmetre / tonne or less. Transportable moisture limit: this is the maximum moisture content of the cargo which is considered safe for carriage. Angle of Repose: this is measured as an angle between a horizontal plane and the cone slope of the cargo. Angle of Repose 5
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME SOLID BULK CARGO CODE ( IMSBC) Flow State: means a state occuring when the cargo is staurated with liquid to an extent that,under the influence of the external forces such as the vibration of the ship, it behaves like a liquid. Flow Moisture Point: means a percentage moisture point at which the flow state of the cargo develops. 6