Contours Standards & Uses In LAby Muhammad Ali Sarai 0558588
presentation Contests❖ What are Contour Lines ? ❖ Diﬀerent Types of Contour Lines standers in❖ How To Draw Contour Deigns (Large Scale , Small Lines ? Scale)❖ Important terms . ❖ Slopes❖ Importance of Contour ❖ Examples Lines in LA?
What are Contour Lines?❖ An imaginary line in topographic maps that pass through points of equal elevation vales to show the hight from the sea level.
How to Draw Contour Lines❖ To Draw Contour lines We Must Know a few signs :-❖ Site Survey❖ Spot elevations❖ The lines❖ how to connect them
Spot Elevations❖ It is Describing the hight Of this Spot From the reference Point (Usually sea level)
Contour Lines❖ They are the Lines that represent an Area with the Same value (high)
Terms that Must be known❖ Ridge :- a long & narrow elevated piece of land .❖ Valley a Depression between hills with a River ﬂowing through it.
Importance of Contour In a Design❖ The World was not created Flat Thus we As professionals Must understand the land we are Given. & cause minimal impact to the environment we are designing
Importance of Contours❖ Functional Reasons :-❖ To ﬁt the Design in the Site.
Importance of Contours❖ To provide Surface Drainage.❖ To Create a wind or Noise barer
Importance of Contours❖ To add more Soil depth
Importance of Contours❖ To Correct Undesirable Land forms
Slopes❖ When Studying Contours we Must Study & understand Slopes .❖ To calculate a Slope we Divide the vertical hight On the Horizontal distance .❖ The smoother the Slope the easier it is to pass on it.
Types of Slops❖ in small scale Projects the way we deal with levels is Dif than the Way we deal with them in large scale projects
Importance of Contours❖ Esthetic Reasons :-❖ To Create interesting Landforms
Importance of Contours❖ To Hide Designs in nature❖ To Capture or Hide Views
Dangers Of a Sloped Site❖ Land Slides :- Cause a step ❖ Rain when rain falls On slope when rain falls the Site it will need a Moves the Soil Or Drainage system to see the Expansion in the Soil path of the water n how it which makes will Accumulate on the Ground .
Small Scale Contours❖ Which include Ramps Steps & levels in open Areas.❖ Ramps .❖ Bridges .
Ramps❖ Normal Ramps❖ Ramp slopes should be no greater than1 :12 or 8 .33 percent❖