0
DECOLONIZING PEACE RESEARCH?

Paul Cormier PhD Candidate
The Mauro Centre for Peace and Justice
University of Manitoba
pnc...
Presentation Overview
The Art

of Perspectivism
A Perspective on Peace & Violence
Decolonizing Peace Research
The Art
of
Perspectivism
ME?
ME?
ME?
ME?
ME?
Perspective
Perspectivism posits that we can know no fact
without interpretation, hold no claim of reality
independent of ...
Considerations
One

cannot view a phenomenon without
relaying on a catalog of assumptions
Theories and perspectives guid...
Real Examples in Contemporary
Society
Examples

from school

 Visiting scholars
 The View Abroad

The

Hockey Rink Con...
Culture – Health/Peace
The way in which conflict is defined, perceived,
responded to, and managed is culturally
embedded o...
Language - Concepts of Holistic
Health/Peace
Miyupimaatisiiun – ‘being alive well’
Adelson, N. (2007). Being Alive Well: H...
Land / Peace Interface – The Nexus of Land and
Culture in Indigenous Contexts

Shearer, J., Peters, P., and Davidson-Hunt,...
A Perspective
on
Peace &Violence
A Perspective on Peace and
Violence
“Just as a coin has two sides, one side alone being only
one aspect of the coin, not t...
Galtung & Cultural Violence (1990)


“Cultural violence”: “those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere
of our existence...
Examples of Cultural Violence
Religion
Ideology
Languages
Formal

Science
Cosmology
Resource Management (Consultatio...
Examples of Processes in Resource
Management
Nuclear

Energy
Caribou Reintegration Strategy (Species
at Risk)
Black Stu...
A Process of Division
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦

Assumptions
Land / Culture Interface
Differences in “Protection”
“Cooperative Management”...
Historical Examples
 Brownlie, R.J. (2003). A

Fatherly Eye: Indian agents,
government power, and Aboriginal resistance i...
Decolonizing Peace
Research?
Is it Possible?
Decolonizing Research?
 “Not

necessarily post-colonial research. Decolonization
is a process that critically engages, at...
Indigenous Methodology?
“Research

by and for Indigenous Peoples,
using techniques and methods drawn
from the tradition a...
The Assertion
Similar to Indigenous research (Wilson, 2008) and Indigenous Philosophy (Turner,
2006), Indigenous peace bui...
Key Assumptions


For Indigenous Peoples, peace and peace building is not a separate process to be applied when
conflict ...
Based On Traditional Values and
Culture
Kinoo’amaadawaad Megwaa Doodamawaad
(Kino-a-ma-da-wad Ma-gwa Do-da-ma-wad)
“They a...
What did I do?
Topic

selection
Process – when does research begin?
(negotiations theory)
Data gathering
◦ How? Questio...
pncormier@hotmail.com
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Transcript of "Decolonization of peace research nov 2013"

  1. 1. DECOLONIZING PEACE RESEARCH? Paul Cormier PhD Candidate The Mauro Centre for Peace and Justice University of Manitoba pncormier@hotmail.com University of Manitoba Nov. 12, 2013
  2. 2. Presentation Overview The Art of Perspectivism A Perspective on Peace & Violence Decolonizing Peace Research
  3. 3. The Art of Perspectivism
  4. 4. ME?
  5. 5. ME?
  6. 6. ME?
  7. 7. ME?
  8. 8. ME?
  9. 9. Perspective Perspectivism posits that we can know no fact without interpretation, hold no claim of reality independent of belief. Perspectivism also holds that there are many ways of viewing a phenomenon, many angles that offer promise to the viewer. There is no best perspective, only a field of choices from which to select. Folger, J.P., Poole, M.S., & Stutman, R.K. (2001). Working Through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships, Groups, and Organizations. Fourth Edition. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
  10. 10. Considerations One cannot view a phenomenon without relaying on a catalog of assumptions Theories and perspectives guide our choices, final decision is left largely to our discretion The assumptions you privilege and the premises you prefer form your perspective, form the lens through which you will view conflict
  11. 11. Real Examples in Contemporary Society Examples from school  Visiting scholars  The View Abroad The Hockey Rink Conversation “Dr”  My daughters view  The Aboriginal communities view
  12. 12. Culture – Health/Peace The way in which conflict is defined, perceived, responded to, and managed is culturally embedded or that there is a “culture of conflict” (Fisher, 2001, p. 18) in each society, there is also a culture of peace. Thus, peace is defined, perceived, responded to, and managed within a society. Fisher, R.J. (2001). Methods of Third-Party Intervention. In, the Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Berlin Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.
  13. 13. Language - Concepts of Holistic Health/Peace Miyupimaatisiiun – ‘being alive well’ Adelson, N. (2007). Being Alive Well: Health and the Politics of Cree Well-Being. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. Ioterihwakwarihshion Tsi Ihse – ‘Walking in a good way’ Cooper, I.T, & Moore, G.S. (2009). Walking in a Good Way Ioterihwakwarihshion Tsi Ihse: Aboriginal Social Work. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars Press. Mino-Pimatisiwin - ‘ the good life’ Hart, M.A. (2002). Seeking Mino-Pimatisiwin: An Aboriginal Approach to Helping. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing
  14. 14. Land / Peace Interface – The Nexus of Land and Culture in Indigenous Contexts Shearer, J., Peters, P., and Davidson-Hunt, I. (2009). Co-producing a Whitefeather forest cultural landscape framework. In M.G. Stevenson and D.C. Natcher (Eds.), Changing the culture of forestry in Canada: Building effective institutions for Aboriginal engagement in Sustainable forest management. Edmonton, AB: CCI Press.
  15. 15. A Perspective on Peace &Violence
  16. 16. A Perspective on Peace and Violence “Just as a coin has two sides, one side alone being only one aspect of the coin, not the complete coin, peace also has two sides: absence of personal violence, and absence of structural violence. We shall refer to them as negative peace and positive peace respectively”(p. 183). Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace, and peace research. The Journal of Peace Research, 6, 167-191.
  17. 17. Galtung & Cultural Violence (1990)  “Cultural violence”: “those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence ─ exemplified by religion and ideology, language and art, empirical science and formal science (logic, mathematics) ─ that can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence” (p. 291).  Cultural violence makes direct and structural violence look, even feel, right ─ or not wrong. The evidence of structural violence exists in western countries not meeting every day basic needs (clean water, health care, education) of some resident minority populations.
  18. 18. Examples of Cultural Violence Religion Ideology Languages Formal Science Cosmology Resource Management (Consultation)
  19. 19. Examples of Processes in Resource Management Nuclear Energy Caribou Reintegration Strategy (Species at Risk) Black Sturgeon Damn Removal Hydro Development Parks Canada LSNMCA
  20. 20. A Process of Division ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Assumptions Land / Culture Interface Differences in “Protection” “Cooperative Management” Division in working together (Native / nonNative) ◦ How does this lead to open violence? (N.B.)
  21. 21. Historical Examples  Brownlie, R.J. (2003). A Fatherly Eye: Indian agents, government power, and Aboriginal resistance in Ontario, 1918-1939. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.  Shewell, H. (2004). Enough to Keep Them Alive: Indian Welfare in Canada, 1873 – 1965. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.  Mills, A. (1994). Eagle Down is Our Law: Witsuwit’en Law, Feasts, and Land Claims. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
  22. 22. Decolonizing Peace Research? Is it Possible?
  23. 23. Decolonizing Research?  “Not necessarily post-colonial research. Decolonization is a process that critically engages, at all levels, imperialism, colonialism, and postcoloniality. Decolonizing research implements Indigenous epistemologies and critical interpretive practices that are shaped by Indigenous research agendas” (Smith, 1999, p. 20).  Elimination of violence in the process (Walker, 2004)
  24. 24. Indigenous Methodology? “Research by and for Indigenous Peoples, using techniques and methods drawn from the tradition and knowledges of those people” (Evans, Hole, Berg, Hutchinson & Sookraj, in Press). In Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies, Denzin, Lincoln, Smith, 2008)
  25. 25. The Assertion Similar to Indigenous research (Wilson, 2008) and Indigenous Philosophy (Turner, 2006), Indigenous peace building must leave behind dominant paradigms (Wilson, 2008) and follow an Indigenous paradigm for building peace based on the Indigenous worldview often defined in literature as “holism”. “Clearly, peace studies must begin to pursue holism as the framework, process as the primary method, and peace in its widest sense as the goal, if it is to energize the intellectual transformation necessary to a paradigm of peace” (Reardon, 1992, p. 402). Research and the research process, when viewed through the Indigenous worldview, is in fact a peace building process. For Indigenous Peoples, peace and peace building are not applied only when conflict occurs. It is a lived, continuous process of applying balance and harmony to all aspects of one’s life (Rice, 2005; Alfred, 1999). Process must reconnect Indigenous peoples to their traditional physical environment.
  26. 26. Key Assumptions  For Indigenous Peoples, peace and peace building is not a separate process to be applied when conflict occurs. It is a lived, continuous process of applying balance and harmony to all aspects of one’s life. It is embracing complexity and change as constant, and analyzing the patterns of change to understand how it is connected to every aspect of our lives (Bopp, Bopp, Brown, & Lane, 1985). Inherent in this lens is learning;  In Indigenous contexts, land and the health of the land are intimately linked to the health of the people. Thus, if the land is unhealthy, the people are unhealthy and vice versa;  In Indigenous contexts, peace can only be achieved with external groups once peace is achieved within. This can equally be applied within an individual, a family, a community, a nation, or internationally;  In Indigenous contexts, historical connection to the land is essential for community health. Rediscovering these connections through development of a community narrative about the land will increase resiliency and facilitate community health. A healthy Indigenous community is predicated on a strong attachment to the land;  Action research can be used as a culturally congruent process for peace building in Aboriginal contexts.
  27. 27. Based On Traditional Values and Culture Kinoo’amaadawaad Megwaa Doodamawaad (Kino-a-ma-da-wad Ma-gwa Do-da-ma-wad) “They are Learning With Each Other While They Are Doing”
  28. 28. What did I do? Topic selection Process – when does research begin? (negotiations theory) Data gathering ◦ How? Questions? Analysis Results – Presentation and usefulness
  29. 29. pncormier@hotmail.com
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