Appartheid
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Appartheid Document Transcript

  • 1. -556895-509270 <br />Make your own unit | BRAY James and BEAUCLAIRE Quentin<br />NDC 1ère S1Nelson Mandela and the Apartheid18624551191895<br />HISTORY<br />Apartheid in Afrikaan means “to live apart”. It was a political system introduced by the National Party in South Africa in 1948. It was based on racial and ethnic criterions. Under Apartheid, nationality and social status depended on the racial status of the individual. Thus, South African people were distributed in four very distinct racial groups: the White (mainly coming from Europeans), the Indians, the Colored, and the Bantus, who represented approximately 67 % of the South African population. <br />The first racial laws were voted in 1949: mixed marriage was forbidden, in 1950 : establishment of the Group Area Act which divided black and white South African people; in 1953, the right to strike was deleted for black people. A politics of segregation was very quickly established in South Africa by the National Party. The “Non Whites” were gathered in Townships, on the outskirts of the cities. <br />Very quickly, many politicians like Nelson Mandela contested this racial politics. But he was imprisoned during 27 years because he was considered as a terrorist and a communist. In fact, he was a member of ANC, a revolutionary movement. Mandela was released in 1990, and he participated, with Frederik de Klerk, in the gradual abolition of the Apartheid. For this, they received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.<br />3999230607060-356870186690<br /> “Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends:Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty.Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud.Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity's belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all.All this we owe both to ourselves and to the peoples of the world who are so well represented here today.To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld.Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal. The national mood changes as the seasons change.We are moved by a sense of joy and exhilaration when the grass turns green and the flowers bloom.That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression.We, the people of South Africa, feel fulfilled that humanity has taken us back into its bosom, that we, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil.We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity. […] The time for the healing of the wounds has come. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us. [...]”STATEMENT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, NELSON MANDELA, AT HIS INAUGURATION AS PRESIDENT OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, UNION BUILDINGS, PRETORIA, MAY 10 1994<br />“At first glance, Orania seems just like any other South African farming town rising out of the harsh Karoo semi-desert which stretches across the vast Northern Cape province.Then you realise the difference. For while it may be part of the Rainbow Nation - where 95 per cent of the population is black or mixed race - here every face is white.This is the last bastion of apartheid, a settlement where 800 proud Afrikaners have turned their backs on today's South Africa to keep racial segregation alive.Even the summer's multi-coloured football fiesta largely passed them by."We didn't care much for the World Cup," says mayor Carel Boshoff, a grandson of Hendrik Verwoerd, the notorious ex-president dubbed the Architect of Apartheid. "A lot of people here don't even have televisions. Life is much more traditional and often about different, older values."He adds: "As Afrikaners, we despair at what is happening in South Africa. The place is mired in corruption and crime and misery.But Orania is a place for our people to live together, to be self-sufficient and to escape what is taking place in our country."Orania was founded in 1991, when Mr Boshoff's father bought a string of derelict buildings from a water company in apartheid's dying days. Since then, hundreds of Dutch-descendant Afrikaners have moved into the regenerated settlement in a bid to create a homeland for their kind.The result is an exclusively white population unheard of elsewhere in the country.Apartheid in 2010<br />Stewart Maclean and Emily Miller, <br />Apartheid's last stand: Inside South African village Orania where 800 Afrikaners cling to all <br />Whites culture, The Daily Mirror, November, 8, 2010<br />4204335104140<br />Full article: <br />http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2010/11/08/apartheid-s-last-stand-inside-south-african-village-orania-where-800-afrikaners-cling-to-all-whites-culture-115875-22700829/<br />Conversation with Richard Stengel about his speech making style<br />Stengel: Sometimes people do criticize you for not being a more rousing speaker.<br />Mandela: Well, in a climate of this nature, when you are trying to reach a settlement through negotiations you don’t want rabble-rousing speeches. You want to discuss problems with people soberly, because the people would like to know how you behave or how you express yourself, and then they can have an idea of how you are handling important issues in the course of those negotiations. The masses like to see somebody who is responsible and who speaks in a responsible manner. They like that, and so I avoid rabble–rousing speech. I don’t want to incite the crowd. I want the crowd to understand what we are doing and I want to infuse a spirit of reconciliation to them…<br />Stengel: Would you say your speaking style is different now than in the old days before you went to prison?<br />Mandela: Well, I have mellowed, very definitely, and as a young man, you know, I was very radical and using high flown language, and fighting everybody. But now, you know, one has to lead and… a rabble-rousing speech is not appropriate.<br />Written in Prison<br />We do not underestimate the enemy and in past conflicts against superior odds it has fought courageously and received the admiration of all. But then they had something to defend – their independence. Now positions are reversed – they are a minority of oppressors heavily outnumbered here at home and isolated in the entire world. And the result of the conflict will certainly be different. The wheel of life is there and national heroes throughout our history from Autshumayo to Luthuli, in fact the entire people of our country have been working for it for more than three centuries. It is clogged with dry wax and dust but we have managed to make it creak and move backwards and forwards and we live in the hope and confidence that one day we’ll be able to turn it full circle so that the exalted will crumble and the despised be exalted, no – so that all men – the exalted and the wretched of the earth can live as equals.<br />Video of Nelson Mandela who speaks on tolerance: <br />http://youtu.be/6UVCF9Mw4To<br />Video of the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5s8xkjG8bx4&feature=youtu.be<br />Scatterlings of Africa by Johnny Clegg<br />38055551301115Copper sun sinking lowScatterlings and fugitivesHooded eyes and weary browsSeek refuge in the nightChorusThey are the scatterlings of AfricaEach uprooted oneOn the road to PhelamangaWhere the world beganI love the scatterlings of AfricaEach and every oneIn their hearts a burning hungerBeneath the copper sunAncient bones from OlduvaiEchoes of the very first cry"Who made me here and whyBeneath the copper sun?"African ideaAfrican ideaMake the future clearMake the future clearChorus.....And we are the scatterlings of AfricaBoth you and IWe are on the road to PhelamangaBeneath a copper skyAnd we are the scatterlings of AfricaOn a journey to the starsFar below, we leave foreverDreams of what we were<br />Stevie Wonder: It’s wrong (Apartheid), 1985<br />3947795158115<br />The wretchedness of Satan’s wrathWill come to seize you at lastcause even he frowns upon the deeds you are doingAnd you know deep in your heartYou’ve no covenant with Godcause he would never countenance people abusingYou know apartheids wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Like slavery was wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Like the holocaust was wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Apartheid is wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrongIts wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)The pain you cause in God’s namePoints only to yourself to blameFor the negative karma you will be receivingcause when people are oppressedWith atrocities that testThe future of all mankind we, the world won’t stand seeing<br />You know apartheids wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Like slavery was wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Like the holocaust was wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Apartheid is wrong (Qha), its wrong (Qha), wrongIts wrong (Qha), its wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha), wrong (Qha)Oh, freedom is comingSay it againHold on tight, its comingOh, the whole world is with usSay it againHold on tight, cause were with youOh, oh, oh, freedom is coming, yeah, yeah, yeah,Hold on tight, yeah<br />Freedom is comingHold on tight<br />Asimbonanga by Johnny Clegg<br />4081780622300Chorus: Asimbonanga--------------------(We have not seen him) Asimbonang' uMandela thina-----(We have not seen Mandela) Laph'ekhona--------------------(In the place where he is) Laph'ehfeli khona--------------(In the place where he is kept) Asimbonanga--------------------(We have not seen him) Asimbonang' uMandela thina-----(We have not seen Mandela) Laph'ekhona--------------------(In the place where he is) Laph'ehfeli khona--------------(In the place where he is kept)<br />Oh the sea is cold and the sky is grey Look across the Island into the Bay We are all islands till comes the day We cross the burning water Chorus.... A seagull wings across the sea Broken silence is what I dream Who has the words to close the distance Between you and me Chorus.... Steve Biko, Asimbonanga Asimbonang 'umfowethu thina----(we have not seen our brother) Laph'ekhona--------------------(In the place where he is) Laph'wafela khona--------------(In the place where he died) Victoria Mxenge, Asimbonanga Asimbonang 'udadewethu thina----(we have not seen our sister) Laph'ekhona--------------------(In the place where he is) Laph'wafela khona--------------(In the place where he died) Neil Aggett Asimbonanga Asimbonang 'umfowethu thina----(we have not seen our brother) Laph'ekhona--------------------(In the place where he is) Laph'wafela khona--------------(In the place where he died) Hey wena-----------------------(Hey you!) Hey wena nawe------------------(Hey you and you as well) Siyofika nini la' siyakhona----(When will we arrive at our destination)Clip : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGS7SpI7obY<br />Our choice:<br />James : <br />I chose this subject because when I visited South Africa I was impressed by the differences in financial ease of the black and white populations. But the black people told me that things were much better now than they were during apartheid. Things must have been very difficult for many good people just a few years ago and this story needs to be known. That’s why I want to work on this interesting theme.<br />Quentin:<br />This subject interests me because I think that nowadays, our society and our government system make that the gap is widening between French people and the immigrant population. It’s interesting to study the apartheid in South Africa because these events, with the racial Nazi politics, should never happen again.<br />Videos: <br />Goodbye Bafana (2007) ; Trailer : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IFqlLnAYwC0<br />Invictus (2009) ; Trailer : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZY8c_a_dlQ<br />43383202006602407920108585The study of Invictus : <br />Interesting scenes: <br />From 00:00 to 03:15<br />From 07:35 to 08:01<br />From 12:50 to 14:10<br />From 45:44 to 48:32<br />From 55:14 to 58 : 00<br />Pictures: <br />-414020212090<br />Mandela in prisonA Township-240919044704002006601041400<br />