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Work trends 020107
Work trends 020107
Work trends 020107
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Work trends 020107
Work trends 020107
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Work trends 020107
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Work trends 020107
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Work trends 020107
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Work trends 020107

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  • 1. John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Americans’ Attitudes About Work, Employers and Government heldrich Wo r k Tr e n d s A Workplace Divided: How Americans View Discrimination and Race on the Job A Joint Project with: Center for Survey Research and Analysis University of Connecticut Januar y 2002
  • 2. John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Americans’ Attitudes About Work, Employers and Government Wo r k Tr e n d s A Workplace Divided: How Americans View Discrimination and Race on the Job Embargoed for Release: January 17, 2002, 12:01AM, ET A Joint Project with: Center for Survey Research and Analysis University of Connecticut Project directed by Carl E. Van Horn, Ph.D. director and professor, John J. Heldrich Center and Kenneth E. Dautrich, Ph.D., director Center for Survey Research and Analysis Report written by K.A. Dixon, Duke Storen, and Carl E. Van Horn Januar y 2002
  • 3. Table of Contents Background 1. Overview and Summary 1 Section 1: Profile of Companies 5 Section 2: Worker Perceptions of Discrimination in the Workplace: Who Is Treated Unfairly? 7 Section 3: Personal Experiences with Discrimination in the Workplace 11 Section 4: What Actions Should Employers Take 17 Section 5: Economic Questions 23 Conclusion 27 Appendix 1: Methodology 29 Appendix 2: Survey Results 30
  • 4. Background The John J. Heldrich Center for public school reform must acknowledge that Workforce Development our nation’s “forgotten half” of young people not attending college need help now to The John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce access the economic and social mainstream. Development at the Edward J. Bloustein While workers with skills and the deter- School of Planning & Public Policy at mination to keep them sharp are in heavy Rutgers University was founded as a demand, huge numbers of adults still cannot research and policy organization devoted to read, write, or perform basic math functions strengthening New Jersey’s and the nation’s effectively. A fifth of working Americans workforce during a time of global economic have a zero or minimal literacy level in read- change. The Heldrich Center researches and ing and math. Job seekers and young people puts to work strategies that increase worker entering the workforce need solid literacy skills and employability, strengthen the abil- and numeracy skills, and they need to use ity of companies to compete, create jobs them to acquire the job-specific and career- where they are needed, and improve the building skills that will give them access to quality and performance of the workforce good jobs. development system. The need to improve worker skills has become a crosscutting issue in the informa- tion age. Whereas in the 1950s, six in ten The transformation to a new economy driven by workers were unskilled, today, more than 60 knowledge and its application has thrust work- percent of the workforce is skilled and less force investment strategy to the forefront of than 20 percent unskilled. According to Coopers and Lybrand, in 1997 nearly 70 domestic policy. percent of growth company CEOs pointed to the lack of skilled workers as the number The Heldrich Center is the first univer- one barrier to growth—a figure that had sity-based organization devoted to trans- doubled since 1993. Despite the need, U.S. forming the workforce development system investment in workforce education and at the local, state, and federal levels. We training trails other leading democracies. identify best practices and areas where gov- The transformation to a new economy ernment performance should be improved, driven by knowledge and its application has and provide professional training and devel- thrust workforce investment strategy to the opment to the community of professionals forefront of domestic policy. In globally and managers who run the system and are competitive labor markets, workers who lack responsible for making it work. The Center basic skills and literacy are in greater danger provides an independent source of analysis than ever before. Urban planning and rede- for reform and innovation in policy making velopment strategies cannot ignore the role and is engaged in significant partnerships of education and work skills in preparing with the private sector to design effective young adults to compete for new jobs in the education and training programs. emerging service, retail, and technology sec- tors. Similarly, the nation’s long debate over Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 5. The Center for Survey Research owners and managers, parents, teen-agers, and Analysis college seniors, and university faculty. In addition to quantitative research, Two years ago, the University of CSRA also conducts in-depth qualitative Connecticut announced the formation of research, including nationwide focus groups, its new Center for Survey Research and one-on-one interviewing, and case studies. Analysis (CSRA), thus strengthening its The staff has worked with clients to develop focus on conducting original survey strong secondary research programs in research. The Center is an outgrowth of support of on-going research in a variety of the tremendous success of original survey fields. Expert statisticians are also available research conducted under the aegis of the for additional analysis of original and sec- Roper Center/Institute for Social Inquiry. ondary data. For twenty years, Roper Center/ISI had CSRA strictly adheres to the code of conducted high quality, high profile original ethics published by the American research; this tradition is being continued Association of Public Opinion Research, and expanded. which, among other things, requires us to fully divulge our research methods, treat all respondents with respect and honesty, and To better understand the public’s attitudes about insure that our results are not presented in work, employers and the government, and improve a distorted or misleading manner. workplace practices and policy, the Heldrich During the past three years staff now Center and the CSRA produce the Work Trends affiliated with CSRA have conducted more than seventy national, regional and local Survey on a quarterly basis. survey projects. The Center, a nonprofit, non-partisan research and educational facility, is a leader To better understand the public’s attitudes in conducting important public opinion about work, employers and the government, research in the public and private sectors. and improve workplace practices and policy, CSRA staff have completed more than 300 the Heldrich Center and the CSRA produce survey projects, for a wide variety of clients, the Work Trends survey on a quarterly basis. in the twenty years of survey research at The survey polls the general public on criti- UConn. cal workforce issues facing Americans and The Center for Survey Research and American businesses, and promotes the sur- Analysis has extensive experience in survey- vey’s findings widely to the media and ing special populations, including studies of national constituencies. Members of Congress, journalists, business Download series reports free at www.heldrich.rutgers.edu Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 6. 1. Overview and Summary This report is the ninth survey in the Work Divided demonstrates that for many work- Trends series that polls American workers ers—particularly African- and Hispanic- about issues affecting their lives in the econ- American workers—such an equitable omy, the workforce, and the workplace, and workplace has proved elusive. According to how workers view the policy choices made the Equal Employment Opportunity by employers and lawmakers to address Commission (EEOC), employee complaints their concerns. The project was founded in of discrimination and racial harassment in 1998 and is co-directed by the John J. the workplace have increased significantly in Heldrich Center for Workforce the last ten years, from a little more than Development at Rutgers, and the Center for 3,000 per year in 1991, to almost 9,000 in Survey Research and Analysis at the 2000. At the same time, employee charges University of Connecticut. of retaliation for complaints about discrimi- In this new report, A Workplace Divided: nation and racism have increased, as have How Americans View Discrimination and Race damage awards to employees in EEOC law- on the Job, American workers express their suits involving race-based charges. Clearly, views on the contentious issue of discrimina- despite an increasingly diverse society, dis- tion in the workplace—how they perceive crimination remains a major concern for and experience discrimination, as well as many workers. Almost forty years since the what they expect government and employers passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that to do about it. In this survey, workers mandated legal equality for minorities, race describe two very different workplaces. The remains a major barrier among Americans in workplace described by the white worker is the workplace, both in how people perceive one where equitable treatment is accorded and experience discrimination, and what to all, few personally experience discrimina- they want done about it. tion, and few offer strong support for poli- cies such as affirmative action to correct In this new report, A Workplace Divided: How past discrimination against African- Americans View Discrimination and Race on the American and other minority workers. In Job, American workers express their views on the stark contrast, the workplace of non-white workers is one where the perception of contentious issue of discrimination in the work- unfair treatment is significantly more pro- place—how they perceive and experience discrim- nounced, where many employment policies ination, as well as what they expect government such as hiring and promotion are perceived as unfair to African-American workers, and and employers to do about it. where support for corrective action is high. These workers expect that employers should A Workplace Divided reveals that many play an active role in creating a more equi- Americans do not believe that they or their table workplace. colleagues are the victims of unfair treat- The average American worker spends ment, with white workers far more likely over 40 hours per week at work. Ideally, than workers of other races to believe that this time is spent in an equitable workplace everyone is treated fairly at work. However, that is conducive to worker productivity, further analysis makes clear that race is the morale and safety, and provides all workers most significant determinant in how people with equal opportunity for satisfaction and perceive and experience discrimination in advancement. Work Trends: A Workplace the workplace, as well as what they believe Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 1
  • 7. employers should do to address such inci- large companies, and within large compa- dences and attitudes. Indeed, the racial nies, in that the smaller the company, the divide in the American workplace is more less likely it is that African- and Hispanic- powerful an indicator of opinion than Americans are among the employees. income or education. Doing well does not Almost two-thirds (64%) of those who ease the sense of discrimination. Our survey work at a company that employs less shows that more than half (56%) of higher than 25 people say that they do not work income non-white workers believe that with any African-Americans, while 60% African-Americans are the most likely to say they do not work with any Hispanic- experience discrimination, compared to only Americans. In contrast, at companies 33% of whites in the same income group. that employ 250 or more people, only 8% say they have no African-American col- leagues, and 15% say they do not work Indeed, the racial divide in the American work- with any Hispanic-Americans. place is more powerful an indicator of opinion than income or education. Doing well does White workers are much less influenced by the diversity of their company than non- not ease the sense of discrimination. Our sur- white workers. For instance, regardless vey shows that more than half (56%) of higher of whether they have African-American income non-white workers believe that African- co-workers or not, only about one-third of Americans are the most likely to experience white workers agree that African- American workers are more likely to be discrimination, compared to only 33% of treated unfairly. Conversely, 40% of non- whites in the same income group. white workers who do not have any African-American colleagues agree with Among higher and lower income African- this statement, compared to 62% of those Americans, there is very little difference in whose company employs significant num- the perception of discrimination in the work- bers of African-Americans. place. Other findings include: African-American workers are far more Many Americans work in ethnically likely than white workers or workers of homogenous environments. The survey other races to support the idea of prefer- finds that almost one-third (31%) of ential treatment to address past discrimi- workers indicate that their workplace nation. Half (50%) of African-Americans does not employ any African-American agree with this kind of affirmative action, workers, while 34% indicate that they do and 33% strongly agree. In stark con - not work with any Hispanic workers. trast, only 15% of white workers similarly Among white workers, these figures rise agree, with only 4% voicing strong agree significantly (37% and 41%, respectively), ment for affirmative action. and drop among non-white workers (20% and 22%). Thirty-seven percent of white African-American workers and other workers have no African-American minorities say they are more likely than co-workers and 41% have no Hispanic white workers to say they have personally co-workers. experienced discrimination in the work- place, although in general, relatively few workers report first-hand experience with discrimination. A racial divide is found between small and African-American workers are the least 2 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 8. satisfied with how seriously their employer regards discrimination in the Less than half (49%) of white workplace. The majority (86%) of white workers agree that employers should be workers and almost three-fourths (74%) required by law to maintain a certain level of workers of other races agree that their employer takes incidents of discrimina- of diversity in the workplace. In stark con- tion in the workplace seriously, compared trast, 83% of African-Americans agree with to 61% of African-American workers. such a policy. Workers of all races are almost equally likely to say that their employer has There is far more support among non- clearly defined anti-discrimination whites for laws mandating diversity in the policies. workplace than there is among white workers. Less than half (49%) of white Workers employed at larger companies workers agree that employers should be are more likely than those in smaller com- required by law to maintain a certain level panies to say that their employer takes of diversity in the workplace. In stark incidents of discrimination seriously and contrast, 83% of African-Americans agree has a clearly defined discrimination with such a policy. Among all workers policy, while workers in smaller compa- there is more support for the idea that the nies express more satisfaction with the diversity among a company’s employees way their employer responded to their should reflect the diversity of the city in complaint. which it is located. When asked about certain employment Workers of all races believe that employ- practices—such as hiring and promo- ers and workers, not government, are pri tion—at their workplace as they impact marily responsible for addressing discrim African Americans, the majority of work- ination in the workplace. ers say that employment practices are not carried out in a way that is unfair to African-Americans. However, in each instance, African-American and other non-white workers are more likely than white workers to say that employment practices are carried out in a way that is unfair. Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 3
  • 9. Section 1: Profile of Companies Experiences and perceptions of discrimina- Consistent with statistics from the U.S. 1 tion in the workplace vary among workers Census Bureau’s Statistics of U.S. Business , employed by organizations of different sizes the Work Trends data show that more than and with different purposes. In general, half of all workers are employed by organi- those working for large employers are more zations with 100 or more employees, with likely to have non-white co-workers, believe 44% of workers employed by companies that there are incidences of discrimination in with at least 250 workers. In looking at the workplace, and believe that employers where non-white workers are employed, have policies in place to address discrimina- close to half (49%) are employed by organi- tion. As indicated throughout the report, zations with 250 or more employees with these differences are much more pro- 12% employed by firms with 100-249 nounced when comparing the experience of employees, 17% working for organizations workers from organizations having only with 25-99 employees, and 21% working in white workers with those with colleagues organizations with 25 or fewer employees. from different racial backgrounds. The fol- More than half (52%) of non-white workers lowing profile of companies for which are employed by for-profit businesses, respondents work is based on approximately almost a quarter (24%) employed by 3,000 worker interviews conducted in the government, 15% by not-for-profit organiza- last year as part of the Work Trends project. tions, and only 8% of non-white workers are self-employed. Fig. 1-1: Where Non-White Workers are Employed, by Company Size 1% 21% 250+ 100-249 25-99 49% Less than 25 17% Other 12% 1 U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistics of U.S. Business, 1998. Data can be found at http://www.census.gov/epcd/www/smallbus.html#EmpSize. Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 5
  • 10. Section 2: Worker Perceptions of Discrimination in the Workplace: Who Is Treated Unfairly? American workers do not have to personally (18%) of workers indicate that Arab- experience discrimination in the workplace Americans are most likely to be treated to feel its impact. A person’s belief that he unfairly, and 12% say that Muslims (people or she is more likely than others to be sin- of Islamic faith) are the most likely to expe- gled out for unfair treatment because of rience unfair treatment in the workplace. race, ethnicity, or other characteristics can have a negative impact on a worker’s morale Among those who think certain groups are more and productivity, as well as engender a dis- cordant working environment for all. As a likely than others to be subjected to unfair result, how workers perceive discrimination treatment, 21% say that African-Americans are in the workplace can be as important as the most likely to experience discrimination, actual incidences of unfair treatment. American workers express a range of while 13% say that Hispanic-American workers opinions regarding whom they believe are are the most likely to be treated in an unfair most likely to be subjected to unfair treat- manner. ment. Among those who think certain groups are more likely than others to be Workers are less inclined to think that other subjected to unfair treatment, 21% say that racial, ethnic, or minority groups such as African-Americans are the most likely to people with disabilities, people who have dif- experience discrimination, while 13% say ficulty speaking English, and women are that Hispanic-American workers are the most likely to be treated unfairly at work most likely to be treated in an unfair man- (3%, 5%, and 8%, respectively). ner. Perhaps in reaction to the terrorist attacks of September 11, almost one-fourth Fig. 2-1: Who is most likely to be treated unfairly in the workplace? African-Americans Arab-Americans 24% Hispanic-Americans 21% Muslims 18% Women 13% Difficulty w/English 12% People w/Disabilities 8% Gays/Lesbians 5% No One 3% 3% Groups in the Workplace Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 7
  • 11. Half of African-American workers believe ers are the most likely target. that African Americans are treated unfairly While workers of different income and in the workplace compared to 10% of white education hold varying opinions as to which workers, and 13% of workers from other of their co-workers they believe is most racial backgrounds. African-American work- likely to be subject to unfair treatment at ers are also less likely to believe that all work, race is the key determinant of how workers receive equal treatment with only people perceive discrimination1. It does this 11% of African-American workers holding in two ways: first, many workers are likely this opinion compared to more than a quar- to work in racially homogenous workplaces, ter (27%) of white workers and 24% of with no black or Hispanic co-workers; sec- workers from other racial backgrounds. ond, white workers are more likely than non- Among workers of Hispanic origin, 22% say white workers to think that everyone is that Hispanic-Americans are the most likely treated fairly in the workplace. In stark con- to be the target of unfair treatment, while trast, more non-white workers than white only 5% of non-Hispanic workers hold this workers perceive that African- and Hispanic- belief. Americans are most likely to be treated When asked an open question regarding unfairly in the workplace. their opinion on who is most likely to be The survey finds that almost one-third treated unfairly in the workplace, workers (31%) of workers indicate that their work- are most likely to identify African- place does not employ any African-American Americans, Arab-Americans, Hispanic- workers, while 34% indicate that they do not Americans, and Muslims as the most likely work with any Hispanic workers. Among targets of workplace discrimination. When white workers, these figures rise significantly asked about African- and Hispanic- (37% and 41%, respectively), and drop American workers in particular, a signifi- among non-white workers (20% and 22%). cantly larger percent agree that these groups The fact that many white workers work in a of workers are most likely to be treated racially homogenous environment may con- unfairly in the workplace, with 39% believing tribute to their perception that all workers African-Americans are the most likely target are treated equally—they see no evidence to and 40% believing Hispanic-American work- the contrary. Fig. 2-2: Number of Workers Who Have No African- or Hispanic- American Co-Workers 45 African-Americans 40 Hispanic-Americans 41% 35 37% 30 34% 31% 25 20 22% 20% 15 10 5 0 All workers Whites Non-Whites 1 Work Trends researchers conclude that race is the factor with the greatest significance based on a number of statistical tests including controlling for race, income, and education level throughout the analysis. 8 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 12. Income and education play a secondary say they do not work with any Hispanic- role in influencing how workers perceive Americans. In contrast, at companies that discrimination in the workplace. For exam- employ 250 or more people, only 8% say ple, among white workers earning lessthan they have no African-American colleagues, $40,000 per year, 38% agree that African- and 15% say they do not work with any Americans are more likely to be treated Hispanic-Americans. This trend is consis- unfairly in the workplace, while 33% of tent for companies that employ 25-99 peo- white workers earning more than $40,000 a ple and those that employ 100-249 people. year express similar support. The same At companies employing 25-99 workers, trend is evident among non-white workers, 36% of workers say they have no African- with those earning less than $40,000 a year American co-workers, and almost half (47%) and those earning more than $40,000 a year say they have no Hispanic-American co- demonstrating similar levels of agreement workers. At companies employing 100-249 that African-Americans are more likely to people, 25% of workers indicate they do not experience discrimination in the workplace (59% and 56%, respectively). Education has Company size is inversely proportional to its a greater influence than income on percep- diversity. The smaller the company, the less tions of discrimination, particularly among non-white workers. While non-white likely it is that African- and Hispanic- workders of all education levels are more Americans are among the employees. Over likely than whites to agree that African- two-thirds (68%) of those who work at a com- Americans are discriminated against more often, non-white workers with more than a pany that employs less than 25 people say high school education are more likely than that they do not work with any African- non-white workers with a high school educa- Americans, while 60% say they do not work tion or less to say that African-Americans with any Hispanic-Americans. are more likely to be treated unfairly (62% and 53%, respectively). have African-American colleagues, and 30% The opinion gap is smaller among whites, say they do not have Hispanic-American with those with more formal education voic- co-workers. ing more agreement than those with less for- Company diversity influences the opin- mal education (35% and 28%, respectively). ions of non-white workers more than it does These same trends emerge when workers are those of white workers. For instance, 40% asked about Hispanic-American workers. of non-white workers who say they have no Finally, company diversity plays an inter- African-American co-workers agree that esting role in influencing how workers per- African-Americans, in general, are more ceive discrimination in the workplace, with a likely to be treated unfairly in the workplace. racial divide evident between smaller and In contrast, 58% of non-whites who work larger companies. Company size is inversely with 1-5% of African-Americans and 71% of proportional to its diversity; however, com- those who work with 6-15% agree. pany diversity appears to have modest influ- However, relatively low numbers of white ence on the perception of diversity. The workers, regardless of their company’s diver- smaller the company, the less likely it is that sity, agree that African-Americans are most African- and Hispanic-Americans are among likely to be treated unfairly at work. Only the employees. Over two-thirds (68%) of 36% of whites who do not have African- those who work at a company that employs American co-workers agree that they are less than 25 people say that they do not most at risk of unfair treatment. Among work with any African-Americans, while 57% whites who work with 1%-5% of African- Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 9
  • 13. American co-workers, 32% agree that level of agreement. At companies where the African-Americans are most likely to be workforce is more than 50% African- treated unfairly at work, while 34% of white American, 29% of white workers agree that workers with 6%-15% African American col- African-Americans are most likely to experi- leagues, and 30% of those with 16%-50% ence unfair treatment at work. African-American co-workers voice the same Fig. 2-3: Worker Perception of Unfair Treatment Toward African-Americans by Race and Company Diversity All Workers 80 Whites 71% 70 Non-whites 62% 60 58% 50 42% 40 37% 36% 40% 39% 39% 32% 34% 31% 30% 31% 29% 30 20 10 0 None 1-5% 6-15% 16-50% 50%+ % African-American Co-workers 10 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 14. Section 3: Personal Experiences with Discrimination in the Workplace Beyond the threat or perception of unfair workers are reluctant to report incidents of treatment in the workplace, many workers discrimination or unfair treatment in the actually experience discrimination—against workplace. Either due to fear of retaliation themselves or someone they know—at work. or uncertainty about how to handle the situ- Again, race is the prevailing predictive factor ation, many workers simply keep experi- regarding which workers will actually be dis- ences with unfair treatment to themselves. criminated against while at work and how African-American workers and other workers rate the fairness of workplace poli- minorities are more likely than white work- cies such as hiring. In addition, income and education play a role. Higher income work- ers with more formal education are more Among African-Americans, 28% say they have likely to have personal experience with dis- been treated unfairly at work because of their crimination. Non-white workers—particu- race, compared to 16% of workers of other larly those earning more than $40,000 a year races and 6% of white workers. Workers of and with more formal education—are far more likely than white workers to say that Hispanic origin are also more likely than non- either themselves or someone they know at Hispanic workers to experience race-based work have experienced unfair treatment. unfair treatment (22% and 8%, respectively). In this survey, Work Trends researchers asked workers to evaluate their views about discrimination in the workplace in the coun- ers to say they themselves have personally try as a whole, and to describe their personal experienced discrimination in the workplace. experiences with discrimination. When Among African-Americans, 28% say they thinking about their own workplaces, rela- have been treated unfairly at work because tively few workers say they have had first- of their race, compared to 16% of workers of hand experience with discrimination. A other races and 6% of white workers. small number (18%) of workers report that Workers of Hispanic origin are also more they are aware of instances in the last year likely than non-Hispanic workers to experi- where a co-worker believed they were ence race-based unfair treatment (22% and treated unfairly because of their race or eth- 8%, respectively). nicity. An even smaller number (10%) say African-American workers are also much that there were instances in the last year more likely than workers of other races or where they believe they were being treated white workers to say that they know of unfairly at their workplace because of their instances in the last year where a co-worker race or ethnicity. Respondents say that both felt they were discriminated against because the workers who did believe they were of their race (55%, 21%, and 13%, respec- treated unfairly as well as their employers tively). However, workers of Hispanic origin responded to these incidents in a variety of are no more likely than non-Hispanic work- ways, with many taking no action either to ers to say they know of instances where co- report the discrimination or to address it. workers experienced unfair treatment (18%, Many workers who say they themselves were respectively). the subject of unfair treatment express dis- Difference in company size seems to be satisfaction with their employer’s response an important factor in the probability of to their situation. It is clear that many knowing of an instance of discrimination in Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 11
  • 15. Fig. 3-1: Likelihood of Workers Experiencing Discrimination by Race 55% Experienced Discrimination Know of Discrimination 28% 22% 21% 18% 18% 16% 13% 10% 6% All White Black Hispanic Other Origin Races the respondent’s workplace. As the size of they are unaware of anyone who has been the company increased so did the number of treated unfairly. This figure decreases for respondents who knew of an instance of companies with a 1%-5% or 6%-10%% racial discrimination that had taken place in African-American workforce (62% and 43%, their workplace. Among workers who are respectively), but then increases for those employed at companies with less than one who work with 11%-25% or more than 25% hundred workers, only 10% say that they African-Americans (66% and 57%, respec- know of someone who felt they were treated tively). For non-white workers who have not unfairly. In contrast, 25% of workers at com- personally experienced discrimination, there panies that employ 100 people or more say is almost no correlation with company the same. diversity. Despite the fact that the majority of Almost two-thirds (63%) of workers who believed workers believe that their employer takes they were treated unfairly say that their incidents of discrimination at their work- place seriously (81%), and has a clearly employer ignored their complaint and took no defined anti-discrimination policy (79%), action in response to the incident, while 57% most workers express dissatisfaction with say that they did not believe their employer how their employer responded to their com- responded in a prompt and satisfactory plaint. Almost two-thirds (63%) of workers who believed they were treated unfairly say manner. that their employer ignored their complaint and took no action in response to the incident, while 57% say that they did not believe their The diversity of a company does not nec- employer responded in a prompt and satisfac- essarily mean that workers are more likely to tory manner. Only 7% say that their experience discrimination. Among non- employer reprimanded the person engaging white workers, 78% of those who do not in the discrimination, while even fewer (2%) have African-American co-workers say that workers say that that employee was fired or 12 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 16. Fig. 3-2: Worker Perceptions of Employer Attitudes Toward Discrimination in the Workplace 86% 81% 79% 82% 74% 74% 74% 61% 35% 37% 37% 33% All White African- Other Races American Takes Incidents Seriously Satisfactory Response to Clearly Defined Policy Complaint demoted. In fact, workers were slightly more responded to their complaint. For example, likely (5%) to say that they were transferred among workers at companies with 100+ or fired as a result of their complaint. Even employees, 90% say their company has a though most workers say that their employer clearly defined policy on discrimination, and takes the issue of discrimination in the 85% say their employer takes such com- workplace seriously, many workers remain plaints seriously. In contrast, 67% of work- dissatisfied with how employers respond to ers at smaller firms say that their company actual incidences of unfair treatment. has a clearly defined policy and 77% believe Workers of all races are almost equally their employer takes complaints of unfair likely to say that their employer has clearly treatment seriously. However, among work- defined anti-discrimination policies, but ers who are employed at companies with less there is a pronounced gap between the num- than one hundred employees, almost half ber of white workers and of African- (47%) express satisfaction with the manner American workers who believe that their in which their employer responded to their employer takes incidents of discrimination in complaint of unfair treatment, compared to the workplace seriously. The majority (86%) 27% of workers of larger companies. of whites and 74% of workers of other races believe that their employer takes issues of How Employer Policies Are discrimination seriously, compared to 61% of Perceived African-Americans. When asked about certain employment prac- Workers employed at larger companies tices at their workplace as they impact are more likely than those in smaller compa- African-Americans, the majority of workers nies to say that their employer takes inci- say that employment practices in hiring, pro- dents of discrimination seriously and has a motion, assignment of responsibilities, clearly defined discrimination policy, while salaries, and a safe working environment are workers in smaller companies express more carried out in such a way that they are fair satisfaction with the way their employer to African-American workers (see Fig. 3-3). Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 13
  • 17. Fig. 3-3: Worker Perceptions of How Employment Practices Are Unfair to African-Americans 81% 77% 78% 77% 73% 13% 11% 13% 13% 8% 9% 10% 8% 8% 10% Hiring Promotion Tasks Salaries Workplace Safety Workplace Practices Yes, Unfair No, Fair Don't Know Interestingly, fairly high numbers of workers Workers with at least a high school educa- indicate that they do not know if employ- tion are more likely than workers with more ment practices such as these are carried out education to agree that employment prac- in a way that if unfair towards African- tices are unfair to African-Americans, some- Americans (10% to 13%, respectively). times almost twice as likely. This pattern is African-American workers are far more very likely due to the association between likely than white workers or workers of race and educational attainment (i.e. other races to say that they are not treated African-Americans are more likely than fairly during the administration of these whites to be in the high school only group). practices. For example, almost half (46%) of Similarly, workers earning less than $40,000 a year are approximately two times more likely than workers earning more than Workers who report being treated unfairly in the $40,000 a year to agree that employment workplace most frequently cite being passed practices are unfair to African-Americans. over for promotion, being assigned undesir- The strong association between race and income (i.e. African-Americans are more able tasks, and hearing racist comments as likely than whites to be in the low to moder- the best descriptions for the way in which they ate income group than high income group) were treated unfairly at work (28%, 21%, and is likely an important factor underlying this 16% respectively). pattern. What forms did this discrimination take? African-American workers say that promo- Workers who report being treated unfairly in tions are awarded in a way that is unfair to the workplace most frequently cite being African-Americans, compared to only 6% of passed over for promotion, are being white workers, and 12% of workers of other assigned undesirable tasks, as the best races. descriptions for the way in which they were treated unfairly at work (28% and 21%, 14 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 18. respectively). Many workers (16%) cited a complaint according to company proce- hearing racist comments as a way in which dures (29% and 19%, respectively). Only 4% they were subject to unfair treatment. When of workers say they quit, while only 3% sued asked to categorize the nature of the mis- their company or co-worker, and 2% con- treatment, African-Americans were more fronted the person who perpetrated the inci- than twice as likely as whites to report being dent. Interestingly, whites are far more likely passed over for a promotion (56% and 24%, than African-Americans to keep incidents of respectively). Despite experiencing unfair discrimination to themselves (32% and 50%, treatment, more than one-third (34%) of respectively), perhaps because African- these workers say that they did nothing in American workers feel more justified in response to the incident and kept it to them- reporting such incidents to their employers. selves. Workers who did take action were most likely to report it to a supervisor or file Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 15
  • 19. Section 4: What Actions Should Employers Take Diversity in the Workplace the idea that the diversity among a com- Worker opinion is divided over what actions pany’s employees should reflect the diversity Americans believe employers should take to of the city in which it is located, with 74% of address unfair treatment in the workplace. African-Americans, 70% of workers of other More than half (56%) of all workers strongly races, and 61% of whites offering support or somewhat agree that employers should be for such a policy. required by law to maintain a certain level of Workers of Hispanic origin are also more diversity in the workplace (31% and 25%, likely than non-Hispanic workers to agree respectively). However, one-fourth (25%) with both of these policies. Almost three- strongly disagree with the idea of mandatory fourths (74%) of Hispanic workers agree laws regarding diversity in the workplace. that employers should be required by law to Workers are more likely to agree that the maintain a certain level of diversity in the diversity among a company’s employees workplace, with 44% strongly agreeing with this policy. In contrast, among non- Hispanic workers, 53% agree with the idea Worker opinion is divided over what actions of mandated diversity in the workplace, and Americans believe employers should take to only 29% strongly agree. The majority of address unfair treatment in the workplace. Hispanic and non-Hispanic workers agree that the diversity among a company’s More than half (56%) of all workers strongly employees should reflect the diversity of the or somewhat agree that employers should be city in which it is located (70% and 63%, required by law to maintain a certain level of respectively). diversity in the workplace (31% and 25%, Non-white workers in more diverse com- panies are more likely than non-white work- respectively). However, one-fourth (25%) ers who work in less diverse companies to strongly disagree with the idea of mandatory support the idea that employers should be laws regarding diversity in the workplace. required by law to maintain a certain level of diversity. The opinions of white workers in both diverse and non-diverse companies is should reflect the diversity of the city in similar. Equal (51%) numbers of white and which it is located. Almost one-third (32%) non-white workers who say they do not have strongly agree with this statement, while any African-American co-workers agree that 31% somewhat agree. Only 16% of workers employers should be legally required to strongly disagree with the idea that a work- employ a diverse workforce. But while 81% place should be a reflection of the city in of non-white workers who work with up to which it is located. 5% African-American co-workers, only 44% African-American workers are the most of similarly situated white workers express likely to agree that employers should be the same level of agreement for this policy. required by law to maintain a certain level of Likewise, non-white workers who work with diversity in the workplace. The majority 6-15% of African-American co-workers are (83%) of African-American workers agree much more likely than white workers who with this policy, compared to 66% of work- do the same to support a diversity policy ers of other races and 49% of white workers. (71% and 47%, respectively). There is more support among workers for Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 17
  • 20. Fig. 4-1: Support for Diversity Policies by Race 83% 74% 74% 70% 70% 66% All Workers 63% 61% African-Americans 56% 49% Hispanics Whites Other Races Workplace Diversity Locational Diversity Lower income workers voice more sup- A massive partisan split is found among port for mandated diversity than workers Democrats, Republicans, and Independents with higher incomes. Among workers who regarding support for mandated diversity in earn less than $40,000 a year, 67% agree the workplace. Nearly twice as many that employers should be required by law to Democrats (70%) than Republicans (44%) maintain a certain level of diversity, while support this policy, with 56% of 69% agree that the diversity among a com- Independents expressing support. Nearly pany’s employees should reflect the diversity three-quarters of Democrats (74%) support of the city in which it is located. In compar- the notion that workforces should reflect ison, among workers earning more than the diversity of their home region, as $40,000 a year, less than half (49%) support opposed to 56% of Republicans and 64% the idea of mandated diversity in the work- of Independents. place and 60% agree that a company should A gender and education gap is found, as reflect the diversity of the city in which it is well. Almost two-thirds (63%) of workers located. with a high school education or less, as well as 63% of women, agree that employers A massive partisan split is found among should be required by law to maintain a cer- tain level of diversity in the workplace. In Democrats, Republicans, and Independents contrast, only 49% of men and 50% of work- regarding support for mandated diversity in ers with more than a high school education the workplace. Nearly twice as many agree with workplace diversity laws. Democrats (70%) than Republicans (44%) sup- Affirmative Action port this policy, with 56% of Independents Although significant numbers of people expressing support. say that the risk of unfair treatment is still a problem in today’s workplace, an extraordi- narily small percentage of workers support 18 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 21. the idea of giving preference to one ethnic/racial group over another as a means African-American workers are far more likely of addressing past discrimination. Only 9% than white workers or workers of other races of workers strongly agree that, because of to support the idea of preferential treatment past discrimination, qualified African- or Hispanic-Americans should receive prefer- to address past discrimination. Half of ence over equally qualified white workers in African-Americans agree with this statement, such matters as getting jobs. Another 12% and 33% strongly agree. In stark contrast, somewhat agree with this strategy. In con- trast, 74% of workers disagree, with more only 15% of white workers similarly agree, with than half (54%) strongly disagreeing that only 4% voicing strong agreement. affirmative action is a good strategy for righting past wrongs. Race, income, and political affiliation play an important role in determining who sup- Almost one-third (31%) of workers of ports affirmative action policies. African- Hispanic origin agree with the preferential American workers are far more likely than treatment strategy for African-Americans, white workers or workers of other races to compared to 21% of workers of non- support the idea of preferential treatment to Hispanic origins. Likewise, 28% of address past discrimination. Half (50%) of Hispanics agree that this strategy should be African-Americans agree with this state- applied to Hispanic-American workers, com- ment, and 33% strongly agree. In stark con- pared to 19% of non-Hispanic workers. trast, only 15% of white workers similarly Wealthier workers express less support agree, with only 4% voicing strong agree- for affirmative action policies than lower- ment. Similarly, 45% of African-American income workers. Workers earning less than workers, compared to 14% of white workers $40,000 a year are more than twice as likely and 29% of workers of other races, say that as workers earning more than $40,000 a Hispanic-Americans should receive prefer- year to agree that because of past discrimi- ence when competing with equally qualified nation, qualified African-Americans should white workers. receive hiring preference over equally quali- Fig. 4-2: Support for Affirmative Action, by Income 33% African-Americans 32% Hispanic-Americans 21% 21% 15% 13% All Workers Less than $40K More than $40K Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 19
  • 22. fied whites (33% and 15%, respectively), as who do not have African-American col- should qualified Hispanic workers (32% and leagues disagree with affirmative action poli- 13%, respectively). At the same time, lower cies, compared to 64% of those who work income non-white workers are more likely with 50% or more African-American co- than higher income non-white workers to workers. support affirmative action (44% and 33%, respectively). The same trend is true for Other Workplace Practices to workers of different education levels, with Reduce Discrimination non-white workers with less formal educa- Many workers express the opinion that tion more supportive of affirmative action everyone in the workplace is treated equi- policies than non-white workers with more tably, and that no unfair treatment takes formal education. place. It is therefore not surprising that Democrats are more supportive of affir- 50% of workers do not think that their mative action than Republicans or employer needs to implement practices to Independents. Among Democrats, 30% sup- reduce incidents of discrimination. Among port affirmative action for African-American those workers who do support the imple- workers, and 27% support affirmative action mentation of workplace policies to combat for Hispanic workers. In contrast, only 13% discrimination, 15% say the most effective of Republicans support affirmative action for strategy is written rules for the workplace African-Americans, and 9% support affirma- that outline what their employer considers tive action for Hispanics. Independent sup- discrimination. Almost as many workers port for affirmative action for African- and (14%) favor a written policy about how to Hispanic-Americans falls in the middle (20% report instances of discrimination. Diversity and 21%, respectively). training, instructor-led workshops that Support for affirmative action for African- explain discrimination and the laws that reg- American workers increases slightly as com- ulate it, and strong punitive measures for pany diversity increases. For instance, people who are engage in discrimination among white workers, 87% who have no receive only tepid support from workers African-American co-workers and 80% of (12%, 9%, and 8%, respectively). Almost no those who work with more than 50% of workers favor hiring a more diverse work- black co-workers disagree with affirmative force, creating better awareness of the action. Likewise, 68% of non-white workers problem, or enforcing current policies (1%, 2%, and 2%, respectively). Finally, one-tenth Workers of all races believe that employers and (10%) of workers admit that they do not workers are primarily responsible for address- know what practices their employer should implement to reduce incidents ing discrimination in the workplace, not gov- of discrimination. ernment. Half (50%) of all workers say that Workers of all races believe that employ- employers are primarily responsible for ers and workers are primarily responsible for addressing discrimination in the workplace, addressing discrimination in the workplace, not government. Half (50%) of all workers while 16% say that workers themselves bear say that employers are primarily responsible the responsibility. Less than 10% say that for addressing discrimination in the work- either the federal or state government is pri- place, while 16% say that workers them- selves bear the responsibility. Less than 10% marily responsible (7% and 5%, respectively). say that either the federal or state government 20 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 23. Fig. 4-3: Support for Practices Employers Should Implement to Reduce Discrimination None Don't Need Any 17% Punitive Measures 33% Workshops 8% Diversity Training Employer 9% Policy on Reporting Practices Discrimination 12% Written Rules 14% Re: Discrimination 15% is primarily responsible (7% and 5%, respec- addressing discrimination in the workplace, tively). Clearly, workers are looking to the survey finds. Perhaps reflecting their employers, not government, to take the lead own experiences of isolation in seeking role in addressing issues of discrimination in redress for unfair treatment, as described in the workplace. This is a significant change Section 3, almost one-quarter (23%) of from previous Work Trends surveys, where Hispanic workers, 23% of workers of other workers assigned a high level of responsibil- races, and 20% of African-American workers ity to government in addressing issues such believe they are responsible for addressing as education, job training and aiding the discrimination, as opposed to 14% of white unemployed. Some workers take a broader workers. White workers are more likely view, with 17% believing that government, than African-American workers or workers employers and workers all share the respon- of other races to say that employers are pri- sibility for addressing discrimination in the marily responsible for addressing discrimina- workplace. tion in the workplace (54% and 43%, Workers in minority groups are, in fact, respectively), while workers of other races more likely than white workers to say that are the least likely (41%). workers are primarily responsible for Fig. 4-4: Who is Primarily Responsible for Addressing Discrimination in the Workplace? Government Workers 43% Employers 50% All Three 54% 41% 23% 20% 20% 16% 17% 17% 14% 20% 15% 14% 12% 12% All Workers Whites African-Americans Other Races Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 21
  • 24. Section 5: Economic Questions (this section contains previously released data) In the wake of the attack of September 11, began in 1998. Women express a higher and faced with a slowing economy, American level of concern over the current unemploy- workers are increasingly worried about job ment rate than men. The majority (82%) of security and unemployment. Across the women express concern about the unem- spectrum, Americans express strong support ployment rate, with 46% saying they are very for concerted action by government and concerned. In contrast, only 25% of men employers to assist laid off workers with say they are very concerned. Less than career counseling and information, financial one-fourth (23%) of workers say that now is assistance for training, and short-term grants a good time to find a quality job, plunging for the unemployed to help pay their bills. from levels of nearly 80% in the year 2000 According to the survey, 78% of workers Work Trends surveys. At the same time, say they are now very or somewhat con- 76% of workers are concerned about job cerned about the current unemployment security for those currently working today, rate, a sharp increase from 53% who with more than one-fourth (27%) saying that expressed this level of concern in the previ- they are very concerned. Again, women are ous Work Trends survey in May 2001. more likely than men to express concern Worker concerns about the unemployment about job security for those currently work- rate are the highest since the survey series ing (83% and 71%, respectively). Fig. 5-1: Worker Concern About Economic Issues Over Time 90 80 76 78 69 70 70 60 59 50 percent 44 40 36 35 32 35 30 32 26 24 27 20 18 16 23 20 10 0 Sep 98 Feb 99 Jan 2000 Aug 2000 April 2001 October 2001 Very Concerned About Current Unemployment Rate Very Concerned About Job Security for those Working Think Now is a Good Time to Find a Job Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 23
  • 25. 39% of workers of other races. Among African-Americans, 36% express concern Lower income workers are more likely to over the prospect of losing their job in the think that now is a good time to find a job, coming year, compared to 27% of workers of as are African-American workers. Among other races, and 17% of white workers. workers earning less than $40,000 per year, Despite misgivings about the economy, 30% say that now is a good time to find a most workers remain highly satisfied with job, compared to 20% of workers earning their jobs, and less concerned that they more than $40,000 a year. Similarly, 44% of themselves might lose their job in the next African-American workers think now is a year. The vast majority (87%) report that good time to find a good job, significantly they are satisfied with their job overall, with less than white workers or workers of other 57% saying that they are very satisfied. At races (19% and 25%, respectively). the same time, only 8% of workers are extremely or very concerned that they might More than half (52%) of African-American work- lose their job in the next year. In contrast, ers say they are very concerned about the cur- more than half (59%) are not at all con- cerned about losing their job, and 20% are rent unemployment rate, compared to 30% of not very concerned. white workers and 39% of workers of other This survey shows that American support races. Among African-Americans, 36% express for action on jobs is intense and crosscut- concern over the prospect of losing their job in ting. According to the survey, more than half of American workers (52%) now believe the coming year, compared to 27% of workers that government has a role to play in aiding of other races, and 17% of white workers. the jobless. Of this number, 30% of Americans believe government should be However, African-American workers are primarily responsible for helping those who also more likely to express concern over the have been laid off. When asked a similar current unemployment rate and the likeli- question in a 1998 Work Trends survey, only hood that they might lose their job in the 18% of workers saw government taking a next year. More than half (52%) of African- primary role. African-American workers and American workers say they are very con- workers of other races are the most likely to cerned about the current unemployment think that government should take the lead rate, compared to 30% of white workers and role in aiding the jobless (42% and 38%, Fig. 5-2: Who is Reponsible for Helping Laid Off Workers? All Three 13% Government 30% Employers/Workers 2% Gov/Employers 9% Workers 19% Employers 20% 24 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 26. respectively), while white workers are the As lawmakers seek to implement effec- least likely (27%). tive steps that would help the economy, the Nearly three-quarters (74%) of Americans survey data offer one avenue of action that say it is very or extremely important for gov- simply requires wider promotion of an exist- ernment and employers to provide career ing benefit for education and training assis- counseling to help laid off workers find a tance. According to the survey, fewer than job. Over 80% of workers say that providing 15% of Americans have heard either of the information about jobs in workers’ commu- Hope Credit or the Lifelong Learning nities is very or extremely important. Strong Credit, existing U.S. tax credits passed by majorities of Americans agree that it is very Congress and the White House in 1997 to or extremely important for government and help workers pay for education and work- employers to provide laid-off workers with related training. Many workers and the financial assistance for training (62%), and unemployed may wish to take advantage of short-term financial help to pay their bills these credits over the next few months, at a (66%). time when acquiring new skills could be crit- ical to keeping or finding jobs. Fig. 5-3: Support for Government Actions to Assist Laid Off Workers General Financial Assistance 18% 48% 24% Pay for Training 18% 44% 27% Career Counseling 20% 54% 22% Info on Available 23% 58% 15% Jobs Extremely Important Very Important Somewhat Important Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 25
  • 27. Conclusion Despite the extraordinary economic expan- ment that discrimination is a matter for sion of the 1990s and the modest growth in employers to address within the workplace. median income seen for African-American Indeed, workers feel the sting of discrimina- and Hispanic families, black and white tion most acutely in the concrete practices America still perceive opportunity from dif- of hiring, promotion, and salaries, and many ferent aspects of the economic prism. For African-American and other workers of many, they can go as far as hard work and color agree that they must also take respon- skill can take them; but for others, this same sibility for addressing these issues. Many level of effort and talent may not be workers also agree that employers do at rewarded or may even be penalized. As is least take diversity seriously on paper, and well-known, these differences bring opportu- have stated policies and guidelines. But nity costs to the economy as a whole. these good intentions unfortunately do not Without question, the new survey shows always translate into effective practices. that workers of all races can and do firmly While some workplaces reflect the demo- believe that employers should strive to graphics of their region, other employers reflect the diversity of the communities in have not sought to diversify their workforce which they live and strive to maintain despite the multi-ethnic nature of their local diverse workforces where possible. communities. This undermines mutual However, they are deeply divided as to understanding and sharpens the divide in whether government should mandate these America’s workforce in a time of economic policies by law. Still, it is clear from the sur- recession and concern. vey that Americans across the spectrum would prefer to see the mosaic of people in their communities reflected in their work- places. In contrast to many findings from the multi-year Work Trends series, where Americans sought government and employ- ers to work in partnership with them on improving their skills and workplaces, A Workplace Divided finds workers in agree- Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 27
  • 28. Appendix 1: Methodology The survey was conducted from portion to their share of the total respondents who did not meet September 28 through October 28, U.S. population. Within each of these criteria received a short inter- 2001 by the Center for Survey these regions, telephone numbers view that included demographic Research and Analysis (CSRA) at were generated through a random- questions. An additional 9 respon- the University of Connecticut. digit-dial telephone methodology to dents completed partial interviews This report is based on a total of insure that each possible residential and asked that the interview be 1,005 telephone interviews com- telephone number had an equal completed after the field period pleted with adult members of the probability of selection. Telephone had ended. The results of this workforce in the contiguous United banks which contain no known res- report are based on a total of 1,005 States. idential telephone numbers were complete interviews with members Interviews were conducted at removed from the sample selection of the workforce. The final results the CSRA’s interviewing facility in process. The sample was generated were weighted to adjust for dispro- Storrs, Connecticut, using a using the GENESYS sampling portionate probabilities of selection Computer Assisted Telephone database under the direction of a based on household size and tele- Interviewing (CATI) system. All CSRA survey methodologist. Once phone lines; additional weights CSRA surveys are conducted by selected, each telephone number were applied to match U.S. Bureau professional survey interviewers was contacted a minimum of four of the Census estimates for who are trained in standard proto- times to attempt to reach an eligi- age,educational attainment, gender cols for administering survey ble respondent. Households where and race. instruments. All interviewers a viable contact was made were The sample error associated with assigned to this survey participated called up to 25 additional times. a survey of this size is +/- 3%, in special training conducted by All households who initially refused meaning that there is less than one senior project staff. The draft sur- to be interviewed were contacted at chance in twenty that the results of vey questionnaire and field proto- least one additional time by a sen- a survey of this size would differ by cols received extensive testing prior ior interviewer who attempted to more than 3% in either direction to the start of the formal interview- elicit cooperation. Within each from the results which would be ing period. Interviews were exten- household one adult was randomly obtained if all members of the sively monitored by center staff to selected to complete the interview. workforce in the contiguous U.S. insure CSRA standards for quality A total of 1,470 adults were had been selected. The sample were continually met. interviewed for this survey. error for sub-groups is +/-6%. The sample for this survey was Respondents who worked full or CSRA also attempted to minimize stratified to insure that regions, as part time, or who were unemployed other possible sources of error in defined by the U.S. Bureau of the and looking for work, received a this survey. Census, were represented in pro- full interview. A total of 456 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 29
  • 29. 30 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 30. Appendix 2: Survey Results Hello, my name is $I and I’m calling Q3. How many hours do you work in a Q5. Job security for those currently from the Center for Survey Research typical week? (ENTER 2 DIGITS) working. Are you very concerned, some- and Analysis at the University of N= 904 100% what concerned, not too concerned or Connecticut. We’re conducting a brief 0-20 hours 1 49 5% not at all concerned? national survey of the American work- 21-30 hours 2 73 8% N= 1003 00% force. May I please speak to the person 31-35 hours 3 32 4% Very Concerned in your household who is at least 18 36- 40 hours 4 390 43% 01 27% years old and who has the next birth- 41-45 hours 5 95 11% Somewhat Concerned day? 46-50 hours 6 112 12% 02 49% N= 146 1100% 51-55 hours 7 35 4% Not too concerned Continue 01 100% 56-60 hours 8 65 7% 03 13% 61-65 hours 9 14 2% Not at all concerned Q1. Are you currently employed, are 66-70 hours 10 8 1% 04 10% you unemployed and looking for work, 71-80 hours 11 6 1% Don’t Know or are you not employed and not look- 80 or more hours per week 98 1% ing for work? 12 18 2% Refused 99 *% N= 1461 100% Don’t know 98 6 1% Employed 01 62% Refused 99 1 0% Q6. Do you think that now is a good Mean 42.66 time or a bad time to be looking for a Unemployed and looking for work Median 40.00 job? 02 => IQT1 6% Standard Deviation 12.28 N= 1003 100% Unemployed and not looking for work Good time 03 => INT2 31% 01 23% Don’t know Q4. I’m going to read you a list of Bad time 02 64% 98 => D9 *% some economic issues. For each issue Don’t Know Refused 99 => D9 *% that I read, please tell me whether you 98 13% => IQ4 if QS1==02 are very concerned, somewhat con- Refused 99 *% cerned, not too concerned, or not at all Q2. Which statement best describes concerned about it. First is... your current employment situation: N= 1003 100% => Q9 if QS1==02 (READ CHOICES 1-5) Continue01 100% Q7. How satisfied are you with your N= 922 100% job overall? Are you very satisfied, I work full-time for only one employer Rotation => Q5 somewhat satisfied, neither satisfied or 01 74% Q4. The current unemployment rate. dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or I work full time for one employer and Are you very concerned, somewhat very dissatisfied? part-time for another employer concerned, not too concerned or not at all concerned? N= 920 100% 02 6% Very satisfied I work one part-time job N= 1003 100% 01 57% 03 9% Very Concerned Somewhat satisfied I work two or more part-time jobs 01 35% 02 30% 04 2% Somewhat Concerned Neither satisfied or dissatisfied I am self-employed 02 43% 03 5% 05 8% Not too concerned Somewhat Dissatisfied Don’t know 03 12% 04 6% 98 => D9 *% Not at all concerned Very dissatisfied Refused 99 => D9 — 04 9% 05 2% Don’t Know Don’t Know 98 1% 98 1% Refused 99 *% Refused 99 *% Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 31
  • 31. Q8. How concerned are you that you Q10A. Provide information about avail- Q10D. Provide financial assistance for might lose your job in the next year? able jobs in their community. (PROBE a limited period of time to help laid off Are you extremely concerned, very WITHCATEGORIES 1-5 AS workers pay their bills. (PROBE WITH concerned, somewhat concerned, not NEEDED) CATEGORIES 1-5 AS NEEDED) very concerned or not at all con- N= 1003 100% N= 1003 100% cerned? Extremely Important Extremely Important N= 920 100% 01 23% 01 18% Extremely concerned Very Important Very Important 01 3% 02 58% 02 48% Very concerned Somewhat Important Somewhat Important 02 5% 03 15% 03 24% Somewhat concerned Not very important Not very important 03 12% 04 1% 04 4% Not very concerned Not important at all Not important at all 04 20% 05 1% 05 3% Not at all concerned Don’t know Don’t know 05 59% 98 1% 98 2% Don’t know Refused 99 *% Refused 99 1% 98 *% Refused 99 *% Q10B.Provide career counseling to Q11. Have you ever heard of the Hope help laid off workers understand the Credit offered by the federal govern- Q9. In times of economic downturn, jobs that they are qualified for and help ment? many companies experience large lay- them with the job search process. N= 1003 100% offs. Who should be primarily respon- (PROBE WITH CATEGORIES 1-5 AS Yes 01 11% sible for providing services to workers NEEDED) No 02 => Q12 89% who have been laid off from their job? N= 1003 100% Don’t know The government, employers or the Extremely Important 98 => Q12 *% workers themselves? 01 20% Refused 99 => Q12 *% N= 1003 100% Very Important The government 02 54% Q11a. For what does the Hope Credit 01 30% Somewhat Important offer a tax credit? (ASK AS OPEN Employers 03 22% ENDED) 02 20% Not very important N= 123 100% Workers 03 19% 04 3% Education01 63% Government and employers (volun- Not important at all Taking public transportation teered) 04 9% 05 1% 02 — Employers and workers (volunteered) Don’t know Low-income families to supplement 05 2% 98 1% their income All three equally (volunteered) Refused 99 *% 03 4% 06 13% Telecommuting Other (SPECIFY)(volunteered) Q10C. Provide financial assistance for 04 — 80 1% training to upgrade laid off workers’ Other (SPECIFY) Don’t know skills to make them more competitive 80 2% 98 6% in the labor market. (PROBE WITH Don’t know Refused 99 *% CATEGORIES 1-5 AS NEEDED) 98 31% N= 1003 100% Refused 99 — Q10. I am going to read you a list of Extremely Important actions that government or employers 01 18% might take to assist those who have Very Important been laid off from their job. For each 02 44% one, please tell me whether you think Somewhat Important these actions are extremely important, 03 27% very important, somewhat important, Not very important not very important or not important at 04 6% all. First... Not important at all N= 1003 100% 05 3% Continue Don’t know 01 100% 98 2% Refused 99 *% 32 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 32. Q12. Have you ever heard of the USE DOWN ARROW TO VIEW ALL Rotation => Q14B Lifelong Learning Credit? CHOICES Q14a. In general, African Americans N= 1003 Q13. In your opinion, what racial, eth- are more likely to be treated unfairly in 100% nic, or other minority groups do you the workplace than other groups. Yes 01 14% think are most likely to be treated (PROBE: STRONGLY/SOMEWHAT No 02 => IQ13 85% unfairly in the workplace? (ASK OPEN AGREE/DISAGREE) Don’t know ENDED) (ACCEPT UP TO THREE N= 1003 100% 98 => IQ13 1% RESPONSES) Strongly agree Refused 99 => IQ13 *% N= 1003 100% 01 13% Blacks/African Americans Somewhat agree Q12a. For what does the Lifelong 01 21% 02 26% Learning Credit offer a tax credit? Hispanic Americans 02 13% Somewhat disagree (ASK AS OPEN ENDED) 03 25% Women 03 8% N= 156 100% People with disabilities Strongly disagree Education 04 3% 04 30% 01 50% Gays or Lesbians Don’t know Public transportation 05 3% 98 5% 02 *% People with difficulty speaking Refused 99 1% English 06 5% Low-income families to supplement Arab-Americans their income | Q14b. In general, Hispanic Americans 07 18% 03 4% Muslims (people of Islamic faith) are more likely to be treated unfairly in Telecommuting 08 12% the workplace than other groups. 04 2% Jewish people (PROBE: STRONGLY/SOMEWHAT Other (SPECIFY) 09 *% AGREE/DISAGREE) 80 3% Christian people N= 1003 100% 10 *% Don’t know Strongly agree No one/Everyone treated equally 98 42% 11 24% 01 9% Refused 99 — All minority groups Somewhat agree 12 2% 02 31% Now I am going to ask you some ques- Asians/Asian-Americans Somewhat disagree tions about some workplace related 13 2% 03 28% issues. Native Americans Strongly disagree 14 *% N= 1003 100% 04 26% Immigrants Continue 15 *% Don’t know 01 100% People with little education 98 6% 16 *% Refused 99 1% Whites/ Caucasians 17 5% Q15a. Employers should be required Men 18 1% by law to maintain a certain level of Older people diversity in the workplace. (PROBE: 19 *% Other (specify) STRONGLY/SOMEWHAT 80 3% AGREE/DISAGREE) Don’t know N= 1003 100% 98 13% Strongly agree Refused 99 2% 01 31% Somewhat agree Q14. Please tell me whether you agree 02 25% or disagree with each of the following Somewhat disagree statements. 03 15% N= 1003 100% Strongly disagree Continue01 100% 04 25% Don’t know 98 4% Refused 99 *% Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 33
  • 33. Q15b. The diversity among a com- => Q28 if QS1==02 Q17b. Approximately what percentage pany’s employees should reflect the For the next few questions, please of people at your workplace are diversity of the city in which it is think about the people you immedi- Hispanic-Americans, just your best located. (PROBE: ately work with. guess is fine? (ASK OPEN ENDED, STRONGLY/SOMEWHAT N= 920 100% ENTER 3 DIGITS FOR PERCENT- AGREE/DISAGREE) Continue01 100% AGE) N= 1003 100% N= 904 100% Strongly agree Q17a. Approximately what percentage None 001 => IQ18 34% 01 32% of people at your workplace are 1-5 002 20% Somewhat agree African- Americans, just your best 6-10 003 12% 02 31% guess is fine? (ASK OPEN ENDED, 11-15 004 4% Somewhat disagree ENTER 3 DIGITS FOR PERCENT- 16-25 005 9% 03 15% AGE) 26-50 006 12% Strongly disagree N= 904 100% 51-75 007 1% 04 16% None 76-99 008 2% Don’t know 001 => Q17B 31% All 100 2% 98 1% 1-5 002 21% Company is too big too know Refused 99 1% 6-10 003 10% (volunteered) 11-15 004 4% 997 1% Rotation => Q16B 16-25 005 11% Don’t know Q16a. Because of past discrimination, 998 3% qualified African Americans should 26-50 006 13% Refused 999 1% receive preference over equally quali- 51-75 007 2% Mean 14.37 fied whites in such matters as getting 76-99 008 2% Median 5.00 jobs? (PROBE: STRONGLY/SOME- All 009 1% Standard Deviation 22.45 WHAT AGREE/DISAGREE) Company is too big too know N= 1003 100% (volunteered) IQ18. At your company, do you feel Strongly agree 997 => Q17B 2% any of the following practices are car- 01 9% Don’t know ried out in a way that is unfair to Somewhat agree 998 => Q17B 3% African Americans? First... 02 12% Refused N= 920 100% Somewhat disagree 999 => Q17B 1% Continue 01 100% 03 20% Mean 14.43 Strongly disagree Median 5.00 Rotation => Q18E 04 54% Standard Deviation 20.66 Q18a. Hiring (PROBE: Practices are Don’t know carried out in a way that is unfair to 98 3% African Americans) Refused 99 1% N= 920 100% Yes unfair Q16b. Because of past discrimination, 01 8% qualified Hispanic Americans should No fair 02 77% receive preference over equally quali- Don’t know fied whites in such matters as getting 98 13% jobs? (PROBE: STRONGLY/SOME- Refused 99 2% WHAT AGREE/DISAGREE) N= 1003 100% Q18b. Promotion (PROBE: Practices Strongly agree are carried out in a way that is unfair 01 9% to African Americans) Somewhat agree N= 920 100% 02 12% Yes unfair Somewhat disagree 01 11% 03 21% No fair 02 73% Strongly disagree Don’t know 04 54% 98 13% Don’t know Refused 99 3% 98 4% Refused 99 1% 34 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 34. Q18c. Assigning tasks and responsibili- Q20. Has there been any instance in Q22. How did you respond to this inci- ties (PROBE: Practices are carried out the last year where you felt you were dent? (READ CHOICES 1-5. in a way that is unfair to African treated unfairly at your workplace ACCEPT UP TO 5 RESPONSES) Americans) because of your race or ethnicity? Rotation => 5 N= 920 100% N= 920 100% N= 84 100% Yes unfair Yes 01 10% Nothing/Kept it to myself 01 9% No 02 => Q25 88% 01 34% No fair 02 78% Don’t know Filed a complaint according to com- Don’t know 98 => Q25 2% pany procedures 98 10% Refused 99 => Q25 *% 02 19% Refused 99 2% Reported it to supervisor Q21. Please tell me which of the fol- 03 29% Q18d. Salaries (PROBE: Practices are lowing best describes the way in which Sued company/co-worker 04 carried out in a way that is unfair to you felt you were treated unfairly at 3% African Americans) work. Was it...(READ CHOICES 1 to Avoided certain areas/people in the N= 920 100% 5) office 05 10% Yes unfair Rotation => 5 Quit 06 4% 01 8% N= 84 100% Confronted person/ Explained No fair 02 77% Hearing racist comments in the situation 07 2% Don’t know workplace Other(specify) 98 13% 01 16% 80 5% Refused 99 3% Receiving a threat of physical violence Don’t know 02 2% 98 *% Q18e. Creating a safe working environ- Being passed over for a promotion Refused 99 5% ment (PROBE: Practices are carried 03 28% out in a way that is unfair to African Getting fired or laid-off USE DOWN ARROW TO VIEW ALL Americans) 04 6% CHOICESQ23. Did your employer N= 920 100% Being assigned undesirable tasks take any action response to the inci- Yes unfair 05 21% dent? (IF YES ASK ) What did they 01 8% Didn’t get a raise [VOL] do? (ACCEPT UP TO 5 No fair 02 81% 06 3% RESPONSES) Don’t know Personal Treatment/ Disrespect N= 84 100% 98 10% [VOL] 07 6% Reprimanded person engaging in dis- Refused 99 2% Sexual Harassment crimination |[VOL] 08 2% 01 7% IQ19. Now I am going to ask you some Something else (specify) Fired or demoted person engaging in questions about your specific experi- 80 8% discrimination ences in the workplace. Don’t know 02 2% N= 920 100% 98 4% Made reparations or reassignment in Continue01 100% Refused 99 5% response to correct discrimination 03 1% Q19. Do you know of any instances in Referred matter to another company the last year where someone felt they official 04 2% were treated unfairly at your workplace No/Ignored the complaint of because of their race or ethnicity? discrimination N= 920 100% 05 63% Yes 01 18% Never filed a complaint No 02 79% 06 5% Don’t know Transferred/ Fired employee 98 3% 07 5% Refused 99 1% Compensation/ Raise 08 5% Conference/ Talked about problem 09 1% Other(specify) 80 4% Don’t know 98 2% Refused 99 6% Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02 35
  • 35. Q24. In your opinion, did your Better awareness/ Communication employer respond in a prompt and sat- 09 2% isfactory matter? Enforce Current policies N= 84 100% 10 *% Yes 01 35% Apply policies equitability toward all No 02 57% work 11 2% Don’t know Other (SPECIFY) 98 6% 80 3% Refused 99 3% No discrimination/Don’t need any 96 33% Q25. Does your employer have clearly None 97 17% defined anti-discrimination policies? Don’t know N= 920 100% 98 10% Yes 01 79% Refused 99 1% No 02 14% Don’t know Q28. In your opinion, who do you 98 6% think is primarily responsible for Refused 99 1% addressing discrimination in the work- place? (READ CHOICES 1-4) Q26. In general, do you feel that your N= 1003 100% employer takes incidents of discrimina- Employers tion at your workplace seriously? 01 50% N= 920100% Federal government Yes 01 81% 02 7% No 02 12% State government Don’t know 03 5% 98 6% Workers 04 16% Refused 99 1% None of the above (volunteered) 05 1% All of the above (volunteered) USE DOWN ARROW TO VIEW ALL 06 17% CHOICES Don’t know Q27. What practices do you think your 98 3% employer should implement to reduce Refused 99 1% incidents of discrimination? (ASK OPEN ENDED. ACCPET UP TO 6 REPONSES) N= 920 100% Notes: Written rules for the workplace Results reported reflect weighted per- outlining what the employer centages and unweighted sample sizes considers discrimination 01 15% * Indicates less than .5% of responses Written policy about how to report in category instances of discrimination 02 14% — Indicates no responses in category Instructor-led workshops that explain discrimination and the laws that Percentages of all responses to a ques- regulate it tion may add to more than 100% 03 9% because of rounding. Diversity training 04 12% Strong punitive measures for people who engage in discrimination 05 8% Problems can’t be changed 06 *% Hire more diverse workforce 08 1% 36 Heldrich Work Trends Survey, v.3.3: winter ‘02
  • 36. John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 33 Livingston Avenue, Fifth Floor New Brunswick, NJ 08901 732/932-4100, ext. 717 www.heldrich.rutgers.edu University of Connecticut 341 Mansfield Road, Room 400 Storrs, CT 06269-1164 860/486-2579 $14.95

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