EC 2 lab manual with circulits

38,324 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

EC 2 lab manual with circulits

  1. 1. 0 ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS - II (EE 352) LAB MANUAL Prepared by Sk M Subhani Lecturer in ECE T. Srinivasa Rao Lecturer in ECE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING BAPATLA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, BAPATLA.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  2. 2. 1 INDEX 1. Two Stage RC coupled Amplifier. 2 2. Design of voltage shunt feed back amplifier. 6 3. Clacc B push pull amplifier. 9 4. Complimentary symmetry push pull amplifier. 11 5. Design of RC phase shift oscillator. 15 6. Design of LC oscillators. 18 a.Colpitts oscillators. b.Hartley oscillators. 7. Design of series voltage regulator. 24 8. Linear wave shaping. 29 9. Non-linear wave shaping. 34 10. Bistable multivibrator. 41 11. Monostable multivibrator. 44 12. Astable multivibrator. 47 13. Schmitt trigger. 50 14. UJT relaxation oscillator. 53 15. Blocking oscillator. 57NOTE: A minimum of 10(Ten) experiments have to be performed and recorded by the candidate to attain eligibility for University Practical Examination. Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  3. 3. 2 1. RC COUPLED AMPLIFIERAim: To plot the frequency response characteristics of two stages RC coupledamplifier.Apparatus Required: S. No Name of the Specifications Quantity. Component/ Equipment 1 Two stage RC Coupled ___ 1 Amplifier Circuit Board 2 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20 MHz 1 3 Signal Generator 0 -1MHZ 1 4 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V,1A 1Theory:To improve gain characteristics of an amplifier, two stages of CE amplifier can becascaded. While cascading, the output of one stage is connected to the input ofanother stage. If R and C elements are used for coupling, that circuit is named as RCcoupled amplifier.Each stage of the cascade amplifier should be biased at its designed level. It ispossible to design a multistage cascade in which each stage is separately biasedand coupled to the adjacent stage using blocking or coupling capacitors. In this circuiteach of the two capacitors C1 & C2 isolate the separate bias network by acting asopen circuits to dc and allow only signals of sufficient high frequency to pass throughcascade.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  4. 4. 3Circuit Diagram: Fig A: Two stage RC Coupled AmplifierProcedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Apply supply voltage, Vcc= 12V. 3. Now feed an ac signal of 20mV peak-peak at the input of the amplifier with different frequencies ranging from 20Hz to 1MHz and measure the amplifier output voltage, Vo. 4. Now calculate the gain in dB for various input signal frequencies using AV = 20 log10 (V0/VS). 5. Draw a graph with frequencies on X- axis and gain in dB on Y- axis. From graph calculate bandwidth.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  5. 5. 4Tabular Form: Input voltage, VS = 20mV peak-peak Output Gain, Input Frequency Voltage Av = 20log(Vo/Vs) S. No (Hz) peak-peak (dB) Vo (mV)Model Graph:Observations:Maximum gain (Av) = 52.56dBLower cutoff frequency (Fl) = 4.5 KHzUpper cutoff frequency (FH) =580 KHzBand width (B.W) = (FH – FL) = 575.5 KHzGain bandwidth product = Av (B.W) = 30.24M HzPrecautions: 1. Connections must be given very carefully. 2. Readings should be noted without any parallax error. 3. The applied voltage and current should not exceed the maximum ratings of the given transistor.Result:Frequency response of RC Coupled Amplifier Characteristics of was observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  6. 6. 5 2.VOLTAGE SHUNT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERAim: To plot the frequency response characteristics of voltage shunt feed backamplifier.Apparatus Required: S. Name of the Specifications Quantity. No Component/ Equipment 1 Transistor BC107 1 2 Resisters 100 ,68K ,8.2K ,,220 , 6 506 ,1K 3 Capacitor 10µF,47µF,10µF 3 4 Cathode Ray 20 MHz 1 Oscilloscope 5 Signal Generator 0 -1MHZ 1 6 Regulated Power 0-30V,1A 1 SupplyCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  7. 7. 6MODEL WAVE FORMSElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  8. 8. 7PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Apply an input signal V s (sinusoidal) and measure Vi to be min value to get an undistorted output waveform. 3. By keeping V i to be constant value and vary its frequency such that note down the corresponding output! Signal’s amplitude and tabulate them. 4. Calculate the voltage gain in Db. 5. By removing the feed back resistor (Rf) in the amplifier ckt .repeal [lie above procedure. 6. Now plot the graphs for gain in dB Vs frequency and calculate the- maximum gain bandwidth with feedback & with out feedback and compare the valuesOBSERVATION: At input voltage (Vi) = 50mV With Feedback Av in Sl.No. Frequency (Hz) Vo(V) Av=Vo/Vi dB With out Feedback (by removing Rr in the circuit) Av in Sl.No. Frequency (Hz) Vo(V) Av=Vo/Vi dBCALCULATIONS: With out feed back (when Rf is removed) & With feed back (when Rf in the ckt) 1) Av max = 2) Band width = f2-f1 = HzResult:Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  9. 9. 8 3.CLASS B PUSH-PULL AMPLIFIERAim: To Design a Class B Push pull power amplifier.Apparatus: Sl.No Name of the Component Specifications Qty /equipment 1 Power transistor (BD139) VCE =60V VBE = 100V 2 IC = 100mA hfe = 40 -160 2 Resistor (designed values) Power rating=0.5W 4 Carbon type 3 Center tap Transformers Operating temp =ambient 2 5 Function Generator 0 -1MHZ 1 6 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20MHZ 1 7 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V,1Amp 1CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: CLASS B Push-pull power amplifierElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  10. 10. 9Design Equations: Power input: Pi = 2 Im Vcc / ∏ Power out put: p = Im Vm / 2 = (Im/ 2)(Vcc − V min) Collector citcuit V min Efficiency= ( P / Pi ) X 100 = (∏ / 4)(Vm / Vcc) = ∏ / 4(1 − ) X 100 VccProcedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 2. Apply input voltage and find the input power & output power. 3. Calluculate efficiency of amplifier. 4. Observe the input and output wave forms across each transistor on CRO.Result: Class B Push-Pull power amplifier is designed &Efficiency is calculated.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  11. 11. 10 4. CLASS B COMPLEMENTARY SYMMETRY POWER AMPLIFIERAim: 1. Design a complementary symmetry power amplifier to deliver maximum power to 10 Ohm load resistor. 2. Simulate the design circuit. 3. Develop the hard ware for design circuit. 4 Compare simulation results with practical results.Apparatus: Sl.No Name of the Component Specifications Qty /equipment 1 Power transistor (BD139) VCE =60V VBE = 100V 1 IC = 100mA hfe = 40 -160 2 Resistor (designed values) Power rating=0.5W 4 Carbon type 3 Capacitors(designed values) Electrolytic type Voltage 3 rating= 1.6v 4 Function Generator 0 -1MHZ 1 5 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20MHZ 1 6 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V,1Amp 2Theory: In complementary symmetry class B power amplifier one is p-n-p andother transistor is n-p-n. In the positive half cycle of input signal the transistor Q1 getsdriven into active region and starts conducting. The same signal gets applied to thebase of the Q2. it ,remains in off condition, during the positive half cycle. During thenegative half cycle of the signal the transistor Q2 p-n-p gets biased into conduction.While Q1 gets driven into cut off region. Hence only Q2 conducts during negative halfcycle of the input, producing negative half cycle across the load.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  12. 12. 11Circuit Diagram:Design Equations:Given data: PL (MAX) =5 W, RL= 10 , f = 1KHZ 1. Selection of VCC:- PL (MAX) = VCC ² / 2RL VCC ² = PL (MAX) 2RL = 100V VCC = 10V Selection R and RB:- VBB = VBE = 0.6V , assume R = 150 VBB=VCC.R / (R+RB) 0.6 = 10*150/ (150+RB) RB = 2.35KCapacitor calculations:-To provide low reactances almost short circuit at the operating frequency f=1KHZ. XCC1 = XCC2 = (R RB) / 10 = (150)(2350)/(10)(2550) = 14.1 CC1 = CC2 = 1/ 2 π f XCC1 = 11.28µFElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  13. 13. 12Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit diagram and supply the required DC supply. 2. Apply the AC signal at the input and keep the frequency at 1 KHz and connect the power o/p meter at the output. Change the Load resistance in steps for each value of impedance and note down the output power. 3. Plot the graph between o/p power and load impedance. From this graph find the impedance for which the output power is maximum. This is the value of optimum load. 4. Select load impedance which is equal to 0V or near about the optimum load. See the wave form of the o/p of the C.R.O. 5. Calculate the power sensitivity at a maximum power o/p using the relation.Tabular Form:Simulation:Input power = 2 VCC2 / (πRL) = 6.36WS.No Output Impedance( ) Input Output N=(Po)/( Pi) x100 power Power(po) (pi) (W) (W)Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  14. 14. 13Practical: Input power = 360mWS.No Output Input power Output N=(Po)/( Pi) x100 Impedance( ) (pi) (mW) Power(po) (mW)Model Graph:Precautions:1. Connections should be made care fully.2. Take the readings with out parallax error.3. Avoid loose connections.4. Simulation switch must be off while changing the values.Result: Class B complementary symmetry amplifier is designed for givenspecifications and its performance is observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  15. 15. 14 5. RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATORAim: To determine the frequency of oscillations of an RC Phase shift oscillator.Apparatus Required: S. No Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment 1 Transistor( BC107) Icmax=100mA 1 PD=300mw Vceo=45V Vbeo=50V 2 Resistors - Power rating=0.5w 1 Carbon type 56K ,2.2K ,100K ,10K 3 3 Capacitors 10µF/25V ,0.01µF Electrolytic type 2 Voltage rating=1.6v 3 4 Potentiometer 0-10K 1 5 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V,1A 1 6 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20 MHz 1Theory:In the RC phase shift oscillator, the combination RC provides self-bias for theamplifier. The phase of the signal at the input gets reverse biased when it is amplifiedby the amplifier. The output of amplifier goes to a feedback network consists of threeidentical RC sections. Each RC section provides a phase shift of 600. Thus a total of1800 phase shift is provided by the feedback network. The output of this circuit is inthe same phase as the input to the amplifier. The frequency of oscillations is given by F=1/2π RC (6+4K)1/2 Where, R1=R2=R3=R, C1=C2=C3=C and K=RC/R.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  16. 16. 15 Circuit Diagram: Fig A. RC Phase shift OscillatorProcedure: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig A. 2. Switch on the power supply. 3. Connect the CRO at the output of the circuit. 4. Adjust the RE to get undistorted waveform. 5. Measure the Amplitude and Frequency. 6. Compare the theoretical and practical values. 7. Plot the graph amplitude versus frequencyTheoretical Values: f = 1 / 2 π RC √6+4K =1 / 2 π (10K) (0.01µF) √6+4(0.01) = 647.59HzElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  17. 17. 16Tabular Form: Theoretical Practical S.NO % Error Frequency(Hz) Frequency(Hz)Model Graph:Result:The frequency of RC Phase Shift Oscillator is determined.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  18. 18. 17 6A. HARTLEY OSCILLATORAim:To design a Hartley oscillator and to measure the frequency of oscillations.Apparatus Required: S.No Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment 1. Hartley Oscillator Circuit Board ___ 1 2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20MHz 1 3. Decade Inductance Boxes ___ 2Theory:In the Hartley oscillator shown in Fig A. Z1, and Z2 are inductors and Z3 is ancapacitor. The resistors R and R2 and RE provide the necessary DC bias to thetransistor. CE is a bypass capacitor CC1 and CC2 are coupling capacitors. Thefeedback network consisting of inductors L1 and L2 , Capacitor C determine thefrequency of the oscillator.When the supply voltage +Vcc is switched ON, a transient current is produced in thetank circuit, and consequently damped harmonic oscillations are setup in the circuit.The current in tank circuit produces AC voltages across L1 and L2 . As terminal 3 isearthed, it will be at zero potential.If terminal is at positive potential with respect to 3 at any instant, then terminal 2 willbe at negative potential with respect to 3 at the same instant. Thus the phasedifference between the terminals 1 and 2 is always 1800. In the CE mode, thetransistor provides the phase difference of 1800 between the input and output.Therefore the total phase shift is 3600. The frequency of oscillations is f = 1/2π√LC where L= L1 + L2.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  19. 19. 18Circuit Diagram:- Fig A: Hartley oscillatorProcedure: 1. Switch on the power supply by inserting the power card in AC mains. 2. Connect one pair of inductors as L1 and L2 as shown in the dotted lines of Fig A. 3. Observe the output of the oscillator on a CRO, adjust the potentiometer RE on the front panel until we get an undistorted output. Note down the repetition period (T) of observed signal. Compute fO = 1/T (RE can adjust the gain of the amplifier). 4. Calculate the theoretical frequency of the circuit using the formulae. 5. Repeat the steps 2 to 4 for the second pair of inductors L1 and L2 .Tabulate the results as below.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  20. 20. 19Tabular Form: S.No Frequency , fo (KHz) Condition % Error Practical Theoretical 1 L1 = L2 = 100mH 3.246 3.558 8.7 2 L1 = L2 = 50mH 4.98 5.032 1Model Graph: Fig B: Frequency of oscillationsPrecautions: 1. Connections must be done very carefully. 2. Readings should be taken without parallax error.Result: The frequency of Hartley oscillator is practically observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  21. 21. 20 6B. COLPITTS OSCILLATORAim:To measure the frequency of the Colpitts OscillatorApparatus Required: S. No Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment 1. Colpitts Oscillator Circuit ___ 1 Board 2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20 MHz 1Theory:In the Colpitts oscillator shown in fig 1, Z1, and Z2 are capacitors and Z3 is aninductor. The resistors R and R2 and RE provide the necessary DC bias to thetransistor. CE is a bypass capacitor CC1 and CC2 are coupling capacitors. Thefeedback network consisting of capacitors C1 and C2 , inductor L determine thefrequency of the oscillator.When the supply voltage +Vcc is switched ON, a transient current is produced in thetank circuit, and consequently damped harmonic oscillations are setup in the circuit.The current in tank circuit produces AC voltages across C1 and C2 . As terminal 3 isearthed, it will be at zero potential.If terminal is at positive potential with respect to 3 at any instant, then terminal 2 willbe at negative potential with respect to 3 at the same instant. Thus the phasedifference between the terminals 1 and 2 is always 1800. In the CE mode, thetransistor provides the phase difference of 1800 between the input and output.Therefore the total phase shift is 3600. The frequency of oscillations is f = 1/2π√LC where 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  22. 22. 21Circuit Diagram: Fig A: Colpitts OscillatorProcedure: 1. Switch on the power supply by inserting the power card in AC mains 2. Connect one pair of capacitors as C1 and C2 as shown in the dotted lines of Fig A. 3. Observe the output of the oscillator on a CRO. Adjust the potentiometer RE on the front panel until we get an undistorted output. Note down the repetition period (T) of observed signal. Compute fO= 1/T (RE can adjust the gain of amplifier). 4. Calculate the theoretical frequency of the circuit using formulae. 5. Repeat the step 2 and 4 for the second pair of capacitors C1 and C2. Tabulate the results as below.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  23. 23. 22Tabular Form: Theoretical Practical S.No Condition %Error Frequency (KHz) frequency(KHz) 1 C1=C2=0.01µF 22.507 22.727 0.97 2 C1=C2=0.1µF 7.117 7.23 1.5Model Graph:Precautions:1. Connections must be done very carefully.2. Readings should be taken without parallax error.Result:The frequency of Colpitts Oscillators is practically determined.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  24. 24. 23 7. SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATORAim: 1. Design series voltage regulator to operate on supply of 15v. 2. Simulate the design of regulator. 3. Develop the hardware for design of voltage regulator. 4. Compare the practical results with theoretical results.Apparatus: S.No Name of the Specifications Qty component/equipment 1 Zener diode (Bz6.5) Vz=6.5v 1 2 Transistors (BC 107) I c max =100ma, 1 VCEO =45v, Pd(min) =300mw 3 Resistors(designed values) Power dissipation=0.5w 1 Carbon type Tolerance ±5% 4 Regulated power supply 0-30 V,1Amp 1Theory: A regulator is an electronic circuit which maintains a constant outputirrespective of change in input voltage, load resistance and change in temperature.Series voltage regulator is one type of regulator. If in a voltage regulator circuit , thecontrol element is connected in series with the load ,then the circuit is called seriesvoltage regulator circuit. The unregulated d.c voltage is the input to the circuit. Thecontrol element controls the input voltage, that gets to the output. The samplingcircuit provides the necessary feed back signal. The comparator circuit compares thefeed back with the reference voltage to generate appropriate control signal. In atransistorized series feedback type regulator the output voltage is given by Vo = (1+R1/R2) (VBE2+Vz)Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  25. 25. 24Circuit Diagram:Design Equations:Given data: VL= 9V, IL = 40mA, IZ = 1mA, VZ = 6.5V Vi =15V, IB =1mA, hfe=100 1. Assume the current flowing through the resistor R1 & R3 is 1/10 of the IL I1=I3=IL/10 =40mA / 10 = 4mA 2. IE1=I1+I3+IL = 48mA 3. RL=VL/IL = 9/(40 X 10-3) = 225 4. VO=VL=R3I3+VZ R3=VL-VZ/I3 = 375 5. R1I1+VBE2+VZ=VO R1=VO-(VBE2+VZ)/I1 = 220 4 R2I2 = VBE2 + VZ R2 = 2.04K hfe = 100, IC2 = 3mA 5 I2 = I1-IB2 ( Since hfe = IC2/IB2 ) I2= 3.97mA 6 I4= IB1 + IC2 IB1 = IC1 / hfe1 (IC1 = IE1) I4 = 3.48mA 7 Vi = I4R4 + VBE1 + VO R4 = 2.98KElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  26. 26. 25Procedure: 1. Connect the Circuit diagram as shown in the fig: 2. Apply the input voltage of 15V 3. Keep the input Voltage constant. Vary the load resistance and measure the output Voltage and output current 4. Tabulate the readings 5. Plot the graph between Load current versus Load Resistance and Output Voltage versus Load resistance.Tabular forms:Simulation: S.No Load resistance Output Voltage (v) Output Current RL (Ohms) IL (mA)Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  27. 27. 26 Practical S.No Load resistance o/p voltage o/p current (RL in Ohms) (v) IL (mA)Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  28. 28. 27Model graph:Precautions: 1. Connections should me made care fully. 2. Take the readings with out parallax error.Result: A series voltage regulator of 9V output is designed and verified.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  29. 29. 28 8. Linear Wave ShapingAim: i) To design a low pass RC circuit for the given cutoff frequency and obtain its frequency response. ii) To observe the response of the designed low pass RC circuit for the given square waveform for T<<RC,T=RC and T>>RC. iii) To design a high pass RC circuit for the given cutoff frequency and obtain its frequency response. iv) To observe the response of the designed high pass RC circuit for the given square waveform for T<<RC, T=RC and T>>RC.Apparatus Required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment 1K 1 Resistors 2.2K ,16 K 1 Capacitors 0.01µF 1 CRO 20MHz 1 Function generator 1MHz 1Theory:The process whereby the form of a non sinusoidal signal is altered bytransmission through a linear network is called “linear wave shaping”. An ideallow pass circuit is one that allows all the input frequencies below a frequencycalled cutoff frequency fc and attenuates all those above this frequency. Forpractical low pass circuit (Fig.1) cutoff is set to occur at a frequency where thegain of the circuit falls by 3 dB from its maximum at very high frequencies thecapacitive reactance is very small, so the output is almost equal to the input andhence the gain is equal to 1. Since circuit attenuates low frequency signals andallows high frequency signals with little or no attenuation, it is called a high passcircuit.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  30. 30. 29Circuit Diagram: Low Pass RC Circuit : High Pass RC Circuit :Procedure:A) Frequency response characteristics:1 .Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 and apply a sinusoidal signal ofamplitude of 2V p-p as input.2. Vary the frequency of input signal in suitable steps 100 Hz to 1 MHz and notedown the p-p amplitude of output signal.3. Obtain frequency response characteristics of the circuit by finding gain at eachfrequency and plotting gain in dB vs frequency.4. Find the cutoff frequency fc by noting the value of f at 3 dB down from themaximum gainElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  31. 31. 30B) Response of the circuit for different time constants:Time constant of the circuit RC= 0.0198 ms1. Apply a square wave of 2v p-p amplitude as input.2. Adjust the time period of the waveform so that T>>RC, T=RC,T<<RC and observe the output in each case.3. Draw the input and output wave forms for different cases.Sample readings Low Pass RC Circuit Input Voltage: Vi=2 V(p-p) Frequency O/P Voltage, Vo Gain = 20log(Vo/Vi) S.No (Hz) (V) (dB) High Pass RC Circuit: Frequency O/P Voltage, Vo Gain = 20log(Vo/Vi)S.No (Hz) (V) (dB)Model Graphs and wave formsLow Pass RC circuit frequency response:High Pass RC circuit frequency response:Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  32. 32. 31Low Pass RC circuitElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  33. 33. 32High Pass RC CircuitPrecautions: 1. Connections should be made carefully. 2. Verify the circuit connections before giving supply. 3. Take readings without any parallax error.Result: RC low pass and high pass circuits are designed, frequency response and response at different time constants is observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  34. 34. 33 9. Non Linear Wave Shaping-Clippers Aim: To obtain the output and transfer characteristics of various diode clipper circuits.Apparatus required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment Resistors 1K 1 Diode 1N4007 1 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 20MHz 1 Function generator 1MHz 1 Regulated power supply 0-30V,1A 1Theory: The basic action of a clipper circuit is to remove certain portions of the waveform, above or below certain levels as per the requirements. Thus the circuits which are used to clip off unwanted portion of the waveform, without distorting the remaining part of the waveform are called clipper circuits or Clippers. The half wave rectifier is the best and simplest type of clipper circuit which clips off the positive/negative portion of the input signal. The clipper circuits are also called limiters or slicers.Circuit diagrams:Positive peak clipper with reference voltage, V=2VElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  35. 35. 34Positive Base Clipper with Reference Voltage, V=2VNegative Base Clipper with Reference Voltage,V=-2VNegative peak clipper with reference voltage, V=-2vElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  36. 36. 35Slicer Circuit:Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram shown in Fig.1 2. Obtain a sine wave of constant amplitude 8 V p-p from function generator and apply as input to the circuit. 3. Observe the output waveform and note down the amplitude at which clipping occurs. 4. Draw the observed output waveforms. 5 . To obtain the transfer characteristics apply dc voltage at input terminals and vary the voltage insteps of 1V up to the voltage level more than the reference voltage and note down the corresponding voltages at the output. 6 . Plot the transfer characteristics between output and input voltages. 7. Repeat the steps 1 to 5 for all other circuits. Sample Readings: Positive peak clipper: Reference voltage, V=2V S.No I/p voltage O/p voltage (v) (v)Positive base clipper: Reference voltage V= 2VS.No I/p voltage(v) O/p voltage(v)Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  37. 37. 36Negative base clipper: Reference voltage= 2V S.No I/p voltage(v) O/p voltage(v)Negative peak clipper: Reference voltage= 2 V S.No I/p voltage(v) O/p voltage(v)Slicer Circuit: S.No I/p voltage(v) O/p voltage(v)Theoretical calculations: Positive peak clipper: Vr=2v, Vγ=0.6v When the diode is forward biased Vo =Vr+ Vγ =2v+0.6v = 2.6v When the diode is reverse biased the Vo=Vi Positive base clipper: Vr=2v, Vγ=0.6v When the diode is forward biased Vo=Vr –Vγ = 2v-0.6v = 1.4v When the diode is reverse biased Vo=Vi . Negative base clipper: Vr=2v, Vγ=0.6vElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  38. 38. 37 When the diode is forward biased Vo = -Vr+ Vγ =-2v+0.6v =-1.4v When the diode is reverse biased Vo=Vi . Negative peak clipper: Vr=2v, Vγ=0.6v When the diode is forward biased Vo= -(Vr+ Vγ) = -(2+0.6)v =-2.6v When the diode is reverse biased Vo=Vi . Slicer: When the diode D1 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased Vo= Vr+ Vγ =2.6v When the diode D2 is forward biased and D2 is reverse biased Vo=-(Vr+ Vγ) = -(2+0.6)v =-2.6v When the diodes D1 &D2 are reverse biased Vo=Vi .Model wave forms and Transfer characteristicsPositive peak clipper: Reference voltage= 2VElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  39. 39. 38Positive base clipper: Reference voltage= 2V Negative base clipper: Reference voltage= 2v Negative peak clipper: Reference voltage= 2 VElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  40. 40. 39Slicer Circuit:Precautions: 1. Connections should be made carefully. 2. Verify the circuit before giving supply. 3. Take readings without any parallax error.Result: Performance of different clipping circuits is observed and their transfer characteristics are obtained.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  41. 41. 40 10. BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATORAim: To Observe the stable states voltages of Bistable Multivibrator.Apparatus required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment Transistor BC 107 2 2.2K 2 Resistors 12K 2 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V, 1A 1Theory:The circuit diagram of a fixed bias bistable multivibrator using transistors. The output ofeach amplifier is direct coupled to the input of the other amplifier. In one of the stablestates transistor Q1 and Q2 is off and in the other stable state. Q1 is off and Q2 is on eventhough the circuit is symmetrical; it is not possible for the circuit to remain in a stablestate with both the transistors conducting simultaneously and caring equal currents. Thereason is that if we assume that both the transistors are biased equally and are carryingequal currents i1 and i2 suppose there is a minute fluctuation in the current i1-let us say itincreases by a small amount .Then the voltage at the collector of q1 decreases. This willresult in a decrease in voltage at the base of q2. So q2 conducts less and i2 decreasesand hence the potential at the collector of q2 increases. This results in an increase in thebase potential of q1.So q1 conducts still more and i1 is further increased and the potentialat the collector of q1 is further decreased, and so on . So the current i1 keeps onincreasing and the current i2 keeps on decreasing till q1 goes in to saturation and q2 goesin to cut-off. This action takes place because of the regenerative feed –back incorporatedinto the circuit and will occur only if the loop gain is greater than one.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  42. 42. 41Circuit Diagram:Procedure:1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.2. Verify the stable state by measuring the voltages at two collectors by usingmultimeter.3. Note down the corresponding base voltages of the same state (say state-1).4. To change the state, apply negative voltage (say-2v) to the base of ontransistor or positive voltage to the base of transistor (through propercurrent limiting resistance).5. Verify the state by measuring voltages at collector and also note downvoltages at each base.Observations :Sample Readings Before Triggering Q1(OFF) Q1(ON) VBE1=0.03V VBE2=0.65V VCE1=5.6V VCE2=0.03VAfter Triggering Q1(ON) Q1(OFF) VBE1=0.65V VBE2=0.01V VCE1=0.03V VCE2=5.6VElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  43. 43. 42Precautions:1. Connections should be made carefully.2. Note down the parameters carefully.3. The supply voltage levels should not exceed the maximum rating of the transistor.Result: The stable state voltages of a bistable multivibrator are observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  44. 44. 43 11. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATORAim: To observe the stable state and quasi stable state voltages in monostablemultivibrator.Apparatus Required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment 2 Transistor (BC 107) 1.5K 1 2.2K 2 Resistors 68K 1 1K 1 Capacitor 1µF 2 Diode 0A79 1 CRO 20MHz 1 Function generator 1MHz 1 Regulated Power 1 0-30V, 1A SupplyTheory:A monostable multivibrator on the other hand compared to astable, bistable has only onestable state, the other state being quasi stable state. Normally the multivibrator is instable state and when an externally triggering pulse is applied, it switches from the stableto the quasi stable state. It remains in the quasi stable state for a short duration, butautomatically reverse switches back to its origional stable state without any triggeringpulse.The monostable multivibrator is also referred as ‘one shot’ or ‘uni vibrator’ sinceonly one triggering signal is required to reverse the original stable state. The duration ofquasi stable state is termed as delay time (or) pulse width (or) gate time.It is denotedas ‘t’.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  45. 45. 44Ciircuiitt Diiagram::C rcu D agramProcedure:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.2. Verify the stable states of Q1 and Q23. Apply the square wave of 2v p-p , 1KHz signal to the trigger circuit.4 Observe the wave forms at base of each transistor simultaneously.5. Observe the wave forms at collectors of each transistors simultaneously.6.. Note down the parameters carefully.7 Note down the time period and compare it with theoretical values.8. Plot wave forms of Vb1, Vb2,Vc1 & Vc2 with respect to time .Calculations:Theoretical Values: Time Period, T = 0.693RC = 0.693x68x103x0.01x10-6 = 47µ sec = 0.047 m sec Frequency, f = 1/T = 21 kHzElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  46. 46. 45Model waveforms:Precautions:1. Connections should be made carefully.2. Note down the parameters without parallax error.3. The supply voltage levels should not exceed the maximum rating of the transistor.Result: Stable state and quasi stable state voltages in monostable multivibrator are observedElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  47. 47. 46 12. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATORAim: To Observe the ON & OFF states of Transistor in an Astable Multivibrator.Apparatus required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment Transistor (BC 107) BC 107 2 3.9K 2 Resistors 100K 2 Capacitor 0.01µF 2 Regulated Power Supply 0-30V, 1A 1Theory :.An Astable Multivibrator has two quasi stable states and it keeps on switchingbetween these two states by itself . No external triggering signal is needed . Theastable multivibrator cannot remain indefinitely in any one of the two states .Thetwo amplifier stages of an astable multivibrator are regenerative across coupled bycapacitors. The astable multivibrator may be to generate a square wave ofperiod,1.38RC.Circuit DiagramElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  48. 48. 47Procedure :1. Calculate the theoratical frequency of oscillations of the circuit.2.Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.3 Observe the voltage wave forms at both collectors of two transistorssimultaneously.4. Observe the voltage wave forms at each base simultaneously withcorresponding collector voltage.5. Note down the values of wave forms carefully.6. Compare the theoratical and practical values.Calculations:Theoritical Values : RC= R1C1+ R2C2 Time Period, T = 1.368RC = 1.368x100x103x0.01x10-6 = 93 µ sec = 0.093 m sec Frequency, f = 1/T = 10.75kHzElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  49. 49. 48Model waveforms :Precautions :1. Connections should be made carefully.2. Readings should be noted without parallax error.Result :The wave forms of astable multivibrator has been verified.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  50. 50. 49 13.SCHMITT TRIGGERAim: To Generate a square wave from a given sine wave using Schmitt TriggerApparatus Required: Name of the Values/Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment Transistor BC 107 2 100 1 6.8K 1 Resistors 3.9K 1 2.7K 1 2.2K 1 Capacitor 0.01µF 1 CRO 20MHz 1 Regulated Power Supply 30V 1 Function generator 1MHz 1Theory:Schmitt trigger is a bistable circuit and the existence of only two stable states resultsform the fact that positive feedback is incorporated into the circuit and from the furtherfact that the loop gain of the circuit is greater than unity. There are several ways toadjust the loop gain. One way of adjusting the loop gain is by varying Rc1. Underquiescent conditions Q1 is OFF and Q2 is ON because it gets the required base drivefrom Vcc through Rc1 and R1. So the output voltage is Vo=Vcc-Ic2Rc2 is at its lowerlevel. Untill then the output remains at its lower level.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  51. 51. 50Circuit diagram :Procedure:1 Connect the circuit as per circuit diagram.2 Apply a sine wave of peak to peak amplitude 10V, 1 KHz frequency wave as input tothe circuit.3 Observe input and output waveforms simultaneously in channel 1 and channel 2 ofCRO.4 Note down the input voltage levels at which output changes the voltage level.5 Draw the graph between votage versus time of input and output signals.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  52. 52. 51Model Graph:Precautions: 1. Connections should be made carefully. 2. Readings should be noted carefully without any parallax error.Result: Schmitt trigger is constructed and observed its performance.Inference: Schmitt trigger circuit is a emitter coupled bistable circuit, and existence of only two stable states results from the fact that positive feedback is incorporated into the circuit, and from the further fact that the loop gain of the circuit is greater than unity.Question & Answers: 1. What is the other name of the Schmitt trigger? Ans Emitter coupled Binary 2. What are the applications of the Schmitt trigger? Ans Amplitude Comparator, Squaring circuit 3. Define the terms UTP & LTP? Ans. UTP is defined as the input voltage at which Q1 starts conducting, LTP is defined as the input voltage at which Q2 resumes conduction.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  53. 53. 52 14. UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATORAim: To obtain the characteristics of UJT Relaxation Oscillator.Apparatus Required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment UJT 2N 2646 1 220 1 Resistors 68K 1 120 1 0.1µF 1 Capacitor 0.01µF 1 0.001µF 1 Diode 0A79 1 Inductor 130mH 1 CRO 20MHz 1 Function generator 1MHz 1 Regulated Power Supply (0-30V),1A 1Theory:Many devices such as transistor,UJT, FET can be used as a switch. Here UJT is used asa switch to obtain the sweep voltage. Capacitor C charges through the resistor,Rtowards supply Voltage,Vbb. As long as the capacitor voltage is less than peakVoltage,Vp, the emitter appears as an open circuit. Vp =ηVbb + Vγ where,η = stand off ratio of UJT, Vγ = Cut in voltage of diode.When the voltage Vo exceeds voltage Vp, the UJT fires. The Capacitor starts dischargingthrough R1 + Rb1. Where, Rb1 is the internal base resistance. This process is repeateduntil the power supply is available.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  54. 54. 53Circuit diagram:Design equations:Theoretical Calculations: Vp = Vγ+(R1/ R1 R2 )Vbb =0.7+(120/120+220)10 =8.57V1. When C=0.1µF Tc =RC ln(Vbb- Vv/ Vbb- Vp) =(68K) (0.1µF) (12/12-8.57) = 3.6ms Td =R1C=(120)( 0.1µ)=12 µsec.2. When C=0.01µF Tc =RC ln(Vbb- Vv/ Vbb- Vp) =(68K) (0.01µF) (12/12-8.5) = 365µsElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  55. 55. 54 Td =R1C=(120)( 0.01µ)=1.2 µsec.3. When C=0.001µF Tc =RC ln(Vbb- Vv/ Vbb- Vp) =(68K) (0.001µF) (12/12-8.5) = 36.5µs Td =R1C=(120)( 0.01µ)=0.12 µsec Capacitance value Theoretical time Practical time S.NO (µF) period periodProcedure:1) Connect the circuit as shown in figA.2) Observe the voltage waveform across the capacitor,C.3) Change the time constant by changing the capacitor values to 0.1µF and 0.001 µFand observe the wave forms.4) Note down the parameters, amplitude,charging and discharging periods of the waveforms5)Compare the theoretical and practical time periods.6)Plot the graph between voltage across capacitor with respect to timeModel graph:Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  56. 56. 55Precautions:1.Connections should be given carefully.2. Readings should be noted without parallox error.Result:Performance and construction of UJT Relaxation Oscillator is observed.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  57. 57. 56 15.Blocking oscillatorAim: To obtain the characteristics of Blocking Oscillator.Apparatus Required: Name of the Specifications Quantity Component/Equipment transfotmer 1 Resistors 220 1 Capacitor 0.1µF 1 Transistor NPN 1 CRO 20MHz 1 Function generator 1MHz 1 Regulated Power Supply (0-30V),1A 1Theory:A blocking oscillator is the minimal configuration of discrete electronic Components which can produce a free-running signal, requiring onlya capacitor, transformer, and one amplifying component. The name isDerived from the fact that the transistor (or tube) is cut-off or"blocked" for most of the duty-cycle, producing periodic pulses. TheNon-sinusoidal output is not suitable for use as a radio-frequencyLocal oscillator, but it can serve to flash lights or LEDs, and thesimple tones are sufficient for applications such as alarms or a morse-code practice device. Some cameras use a blocking oscillator to strobe the flash prior to a shot to reduce the red-eye effect.Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  58. 58. 57. Due to the simplicity of the circuit, it forms the basis for many of thelearning projects in commercial electronic kits. A secondary winding ofthe transformer can be fed to a speaker, a lamp, or the windings of arelay. A potentiometer placed in parallel with the timing capacitorpermits the frequency to be adjusted, but at low resistances thetransistor will be overdriven, and possibly damaged. The output signalwill jump in amplitude and be greatly distorted. The frequency of theoscillator is also affected by the supply voltageCircuit diagram:Model graph:Blocking oscillator out put wave formElectronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  59. 59. 58Procedure:1) Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.2) Observe the voltage waveform across the collector of transistor..3) Change the time constant by changing the capacitor values to 0.1µF and 0.001 µFand observe the wave forms.4) Note down the parameters, amplitude,charging and discharging periods of the waveformsResult:Study of blocking oscillator is done.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  60. 60. 59Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.
  61. 61. 60Electronic Circuits II Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla.

×