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Motivation
 

Motivation

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Motivation Motivation Presentation Transcript

  • Motivation “ A great man is one who can make a small man feel great, and perform great.”
  • What Is Motivation?
    • Motivation
      • Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait.
      • Is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal.
        • Energy: a measure of intensity or drive.
        • Direction: toward organizational goals
        • Persistence: exerting effort to achieve goals.
      • Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
  • Definition
    • Getting results through people
    • Getting the best out of people
    • Peters&Waterman: “Management’s principal job is to get the herd heading roughly west.”
  • Motivational theories
    • People work to satisfy their needs.
    • People work to satisfy their needs.
    • They work at their best when they are achieving the greatest satisfaction from their work.
    • The motivational theorists focus on
      • examining human needs
      • considering how the needs are met and can be better met in work
  • Whom do we need to motivate?
    • “ telling role”: the subordinates
    • “ selling role”: equals and superiors
    • “ There is nothing I cannot achieve provided that my boss gets the credit for it.”
  • Early Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • MacGregor’s Theories X and Y
    • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
  • Early Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
      • Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.
        • Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.
        • Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
        • Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.
      • Hierarchy of needs
        • Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
        • Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Food, drink, shelter, sex, warmth, physical comfort MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS Freedom from danger and want ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE SATISFIED Robinson Crusoe’s first thoughts were to find water, food and shelter. His second was to build a stockade and to get in reserves of food and water.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS Friendship, love, affection, belongingness
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS Ego, status, respect, prestige, promotion, influence, power, recognition,et.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY I NDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION It explains why people write poetry, plays, book and music, play music, act in films, take up hobbies, climb mountains, take part in charity activies, etc.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION SELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZING ONE’S POTENTIAL BECOMING ALL ONE IS CAPABLE OF BECOMING
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Early Theories of Motivation
    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
      • Theory X
        • Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.
      • Theory Y
        • Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
      • Assumption:
        • Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
  • McGregor's Theory Y
    • The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
    • People can exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
    • The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
    • The capacity for creativity in solving problems is widely distributed among population.
    • Motivation occurs at the social, ego, and self-realization levels as well as at the first two levels.
  • McGregor's Theory X
    • People inherently dislike work and will avoid it if they can.
    • People must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened in order to make them work.
    • The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, and has relatively little ambition.
    • Most people have little capacity for creativity for solving problems.
    • Motivation occurs only at the first two levels.
  • Early Theories of Motivation
    • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
      • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
        • Hygiene factors: extrinsic ( job environment) factors that create job dissatisfaction.
        • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological factors/job content ) factors that create job satisfaction.
      • Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance.
        • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
  • Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction
  • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivato rs
    • Achievement : This is a measure of the opportunities for you to use your full capabilities and make a worthwhile contribution.
    • Responsibility : A measure of freedom of action in decision-taking, style and job development.
    • Recognition : An indication of the amount and quality of all kinds of ‘feedback’, whether good or bad, about how you are getting on in the job.
    • Advancement : This shows the potential of the job in terms promotion. The story of the monkey.
    • Work itself : The interest of the job, usually involving variety, challenge and personal conviction of one’s significance.
    • Personal Growth : Opportunities of learning and maturing.