Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS Food, drink, shelter, sex, warmth, physical comfort MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND PSYCHOLOGICALLY
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS Freedom from danger and want ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE SATISFIED Robinson Crusoe’s first thoughts were to find water, food and shelter. His second was to build a stockade and to get in reserves of food and water.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS Friendship, love, affection, belongingness
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS LOVE, AFFECTION, AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS Ego, status, respect, prestige, promotion, influence, power, recognition,et.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY I NDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION It explains why people write poetry, plays, book and music, play music, act in films, take up hobbies, climb mountains, take part in charity activies, etc.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SELF- ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF ACTUALIZATION IS A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME MOTIVATION SELF-ACTUALIZATION MEANS ACTUALIZING ONE’S POTENTIAL BECOMING ALL ONE IS CAPABLE OF BECOMING
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Early Theories of Motivation
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.
Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
McGregor's Theory Y
The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
People can exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.
The capacity for creativity in solving problems is widely distributed among population.
Motivation occurs at the social, ego, and self-realization levels as well as at the first two levels.
McGregor's Theory X
People inherently dislike work and will avoid it if they can.
People must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened in order to make them work.
The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, and has relatively little ambition.
Most people have little capacity for creativity for solving problems.
Motivation occurs only at the first two levels.
Early Theories of Motivation
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.