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Riceplus Magazine September 2013 vol 5 ,issue 8

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Qurartelry Riceplus Magazine (www.ricepluss.com) …

Qurartelry Riceplus Magazine (www.ricepluss.com)
We share Latest R&D News,Aricles and views and news about Rice Industry including Exlcusive Interview of Ricepersonality.You /Organisation can publish research in our Magazine.
We can reserve separate pages/Corner for R&D organisations to publish their researchers.You can encourage your researchers/Writers to write for RPM on regular basis.
For more information contact mujahid.riceplus@gmail.com
+92 321 3692 874

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  • 1. September, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 8 www.ricepluss.com “The dynamics of rice market have been changed now. We still love old conventional approach which was successful in yesterday, but today latest technology and innovation has provoked to adopt this way. We have to understand the new emerging trends and should do Investments in value addition and by products of rice”. Shahzad A. Malik See interview insight…….
  • 2. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine Editorial Board Chief Editor Hamlik Managing Editor Rahmat Ullah Rozeen Shaukat English Editor Maryam Naseer Business Development Manager Mujahid Ali Graphic Designer Mohammad Zakriya Marketing Executive (s) Sarfraz Ahmed Khalid Shabbir (UAE) Shamsahd Ahmad (Saudi Arabia) Legal Advisor Advocate Zaheer Minhas Contents Pg Harvesting and Post-Harvest Management in Rice 3 Rice Culture or Rice Science: A Matter of Time and Timing Rice Varietal Development in Pakistan 4 Origin of Basmati Rice 7 An Exclusive Interview 8 U.S. Rice Imports from Asia – Data Insights 10 Whiff of Pearls 12 Game Changers in the Global Rice Market 13 Rice, Health, and Toxic Metals 15 Rice Production in Pakistan vs India 16 Up gradation of Basmati DNA Testing 17 6 Editorial Advisory Board        Admiral (R) Hamid Khalid Javaid Islam Agha Ch. Hamid Malhi Dr. Akhtar Husain Dr. Fayyaz Ahmed Siddique Dr. Abdul Rashid (UAF) Islam Akhtar Khan Print Subscription US$ 5/ PKR 400- per copy inclusive of postage US$ 18/ PKR 1400-annually (four issues) inclusive of postage For Print Subscription & Advertisement Contact: Mujahid Ali Cell: 92+321-369 2874 Email: mujahid.riceplus@gmail.com YOUR IDEA has a great worth---JUST share it through RICE PLUS MAGAZINE   Share Developments in Rice and Allied Sectors Promote the Concept of Knowledge Economy Share your feedback or Send your write up to: riceplus@irp.edu.pk Disclaimer: Rice plus Magazine is owned, managed and published by Induss Pak Corporation Lahore, represented by Hamid Malik, which has been outsourced to Institute of Research Promotion (IRP). All the rights of ownership, reprinting, editing and copyrighting are reserved with Induss Pak Corporation. No responsibility is assumed by Induss Pak Corporation for any kind of contribution/published material by authors. Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine IRP, Suite # 11, Floor # 7, Central Plaza, Barkat Market, New Garden Town, Lahore, Pakistan. Tel: +92-42-3584 5551 ,+92-42-3584 6988, Fax: +92-42-3585 3157 2
  • 3. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Harvesting and Post-Harvest Management in Rice R Dr. Muhammad Tahir* and Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar** ice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area of approximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons of milled rice). Studies have shown that 10-35% losses can occur due to mismanagement of operations such as harvesting, handling, threshing, drying, storage and milling. Inefficient and improper harvesting and threshing can cause 10-14% losses. The normal sequence in the handling of a rice crop after it matures is harvesting, threshing, cleaning, drying, storage and milling. Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. Timely and good harvesting methods help to maximize grain yield and quality, minimize grain damage and deterioration, resulting in higher markets and consumer’s recognition. Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically. Manual harvesting is common across Asia. It involves cutting the rice crop with simple hand tools like sickles and knives however it is labor intensive. Manual harvesting requires Levels of 40 to 80 man-hours per hectare and it takes additional labor to manually Post Harvest Management collect and haul the harvested crop.  Threshing Mechanical harvesting using reapers or combine harvesters is  Cleaning another option, but not so common due to the availability and cost of  Drying machinery. Generally the appropriate harvesting time ranges from 28-32  Storing days after flowering. At this stage moisture contents of grain are about 20 Milling 24 %. To be surer about the harvesting time, the hull a few grains from the most matured panicles. Grains ready for harvesting are clear and firm. Post-Harvest Management levels are: Threshing Rice farmers generally thresh the crop by beating small bundles of harvested crop against a raised mud ridge or steel drum or wood. A considerable quantity of grains is shattered and lost with shifting of bundles from the field to the threshing place. Threshing can also be done with threshers. Combines are also available which harvest and thresh simultaneously and through this mechanization, harvest and post-harvest losses can be minimized. Cleaning Traditional winnoweres are used for paddy cleaning in almost all rice producing countries which does not fulfill all the requirements of clean paddy because of containing stones, small mud lumphs, small pieces of straw and other foreign material resulting in low price fetching for farmers. So farmers should clean paddy to entire satisfaction of millers and commission agent for getting higher price for paddy. Drying is the process that reduces grain moisture content to a safe level for storage. Delays in drying, incomplete or ineffective drying will reduce grain quality and result in losses. Sun drying of threshed grain, being the cheapest method, is practiced by all sectors. Almost 70-90 per cent of field harvest retained in the farm is sun dried. Improper and over-drying as normally happens in sun drying, produces “sun checking” (cracking of the grain) and many of the grains break during milling are the potential factor responsible for reducing the marketability and profitability of rice. Therefore it is proposed that farmers should adopt shade drying and millers mechanical drying to reduce higher broken in rice. Storing grain is done to reduce grain loss to weather, moisture, rodents, birds, insects and micro-organisms. The moisture content must be below 9 % for satisfactory storage of rice. A poly thene sheet spread on the floor is an operative prevention against percolation of moisture in the lower layer of grains. Fumigation of storage, insect proofing of bags and disinfestations with inorganic salts are some of the approaches that can easily and successfully be practiced for safe storage of rice. Milling is a crucial step in post-production of rice. The basic objective of a rice milling system is to remove the husk and bran layers, and produce an edible, white rice kernel that is sufficiently milled and free of impurities. The available milling machines in the country are automatic modern mills, shellers and huskers. But head rice produced by our automatic modern mills is still low as paralleled to other progressive rice producing countries because of a diversity of causes like impurities and foreign matter, chalky grains and grain classification, damaged and sun cracked grains. Therefore outdated milling machinery needs thorough renovating. * Author is Assistant Professor in Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 3
  • 4. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Rice Culture or Rice Science: A Matter of Time and Timing A Gelia T. Castillo* lthough our everyday life is governed by clock time and in many offices by a bundy clock, in rice culture, clock time is rarely ever the arbiter of what to do. It is the rice crop in its locationspecific habitat, both natural and human, which determines what is done, when, how and by whom. Mostly everything we do with rice has time and space dimensions which impact on human lives. As Fred Blum says: “It is the substance of time and the quality of space which renders life meaningful.” This statement seems to apply as well to rice culture where the interactions between time and space differ whether rice is grown in the uplands, the lowlands, the rain fed, the irrigated, the flooded, the drought-prone, and the saline soils. Time, timing and timeliness in the world of rice are inevitable but not always recognized on their own merits. Time is often mentioned only as descriptive of other features regarded as more important such as: early maturity; delayed rains; peak labor demand; cropping intensity; turn-around time; plant recovery etc. Perhaps this is because time is curious. It flows only one-way onward from the past, to the present to the future. Time cannot be recaptured; it cannot even be repeated. We cannot go back in time. Only memories do that. In 1968, Daniel Bell of the Commission on the Year 2000 cites ST Augustine’s concept of Time is as threefold present: The present as we experience it; the past as a present memory; and the future as a present expectation. There at least 8 different ways TIME manifests itself in rice culture and in rice science: Time in Technology: Although the green revolution ushered in a new era of HYVs (high-yielding varieties), less heralded and yet is one of the most significant features of HYVs is its early maturity. In the olden days, it took about 150-160 or even up to 180 days for a rice crop to be harvested. These varieties which were photoperiod sensitive meant there was a period of planting, hence a period for harvesting, usually once a year without irrigation. The rhythm of life in rice-growing villages was determined by this fact of life. Even timing in rice transplanting was provided by guitar music which resulted also in seedling spacing. The new rice varieties have a maturity period of about 105-110 days. This means 40 to 45 days shorter than the old varieties. This shorter maturity is much appreciated by farmers because they can fit in one or two more rice crops, other crops, livestock and non-farm activities. This also means a reduction in days-at-risk of the rice crop in terms of pests, diseases, possible escape from floods, avoidance of drought, plus an earlier access to rice for food. In a manner of speaking, TIME is embedded in the genes for early maturity, drought tolerance, flood avoidance, and suitability for dry or wet season. Perhaps it can be said that rice can be bred and developed for “time-sensitivity”. In Asia, it seems that long-duration varieties are no longer preferred especially if there are no yield or grain quality penalties in shorter maturity rice. Time Comes in Growth Stages: The growth stages of the rice crop, the life cycle of insects, the timing of farm activities with respect to nutrient and water management, and judicious use of loss-reducing inputs are basic parameters in rice science and rice culture. The most sophisticated cultural management practices which are very time-conscious are referred to as precision farming which means not just doing the “right” things but doing them at the “right” time. As far as the stage of the rice crop is concerned, gone are the days of prescribed calendar days for spraying and so many bags of fertilizer per hectare. The ecological approach says: “Feed the rice crop as needed.” “No early spraying during the first 40 days.” These simple heuristics are a product of much research hence the expression: “High science but low-Tech.” These are by-products of ecological time. Significant events in the life of the rice plant as exhibited in rice research are shown in these phrases and sentences: “seasonal influence of flowering behavior”, “determining seeding intervals”, “adjusting flowering”, etc.” and R.Lafitte’s conclusion that “Stress at flowering is most devastating.” Another case of time sensitivity is shown by A.Ismail who says that “rice is particularly sensitive to salt stress during its seedling and reproductive stages. All of these imply an acute sense of recognition of the stages in the growth of the rice crop and what works best given each differentiating stage. But farmers also need sophisticated judgments on what is early and what is late. Time in Livelihood Systems: Studies in Asia have shown that for farm households, the share of total income derived from rice and other agricultural activities has been declining while that from non-farm employment and remittances has been increasing. In the past, rice planting calendars were promoted to guide farmers with respect to appropriate times for rice production activities. At that time, rice was the dominant and often the only preoccupation. This gradually evolved into calendars for cropping systems, then farming systems, and now livelihood-systems. Ruralurban migration, particularly of males is a widely-recognized phenomenon with its corresponding consequences for females left behind to pick up more rice farming chores. Women’s time is active time engaged not only in rice but in other livelihood activities. Time and space considerations include sequencing, intercropping, and choice of crops along with alternative feeds for livestock; labor availability (family and hired) including farm machinery; pest and disease occurrences; markets, prices; weather; household food needs; schooling of children plus timing of migration and of remittances. A livelihood systems framework covers all livelihood activities. It highlights times of plenty; times of scarcity, times of intensive, even simultaneous activities, and niches of time when some other income source might fit in. Lean period is a critical time to migrate in search of non-farm jobs. It is clear however, that rice farming households, contrary to the stereotyped image, do not have much “time on their hands” doing nothing. Time to Meet Hunger: For a long, long time and up to now, the issue of whether and how much to invest in research on rice in the uplands is still being debated despite * Author is a Filipino national scientist and former visiting scientist at International Rice Research Institute. 4
  • 5. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 pro-poor rethoric of the international development community. F.Heidhues and B. Rerkasem argue that “although upland rice area has been declining in many Asian countries, for a considerable amount of time to come, a large number of farmers in the uplands of Asia, particularly the poorest groups, will remain dependent on upland rice in sloped areas. Moreover, even farm households that can diversify their income sources and integrate new production lines into their farming activities continue to grow rice as an important component of their farming system, providing the staple for the household’s food security”. Sushil Pandey describes the phenomenon of HUNGRY MONTHS: “In most parts of South and Southeast Asia, upland rice is normally harvested about a month earlier than the lowland rice. Typically upland rice is harvested in September while the harvest of main season lowland rice starts in October/November. Even though the output of upland rice may be small, it serves the important role of supplying the family food needs during the HUNGRY MONTHS of September/October when the previous year’s food stock has been exhausted and the lowland crop of the current year is yet to be harvested.” Time is Now: By its very nature, TIME does not wait, neither does rice. The preceding sections have shown not just the urgency but the “right timing” vis-à-vis rains, growth stages, life cycle, livelihood, space season, hunger, labor, etc. As cited earlier whether or not improved rice varieties and technologies are available, rice will continue to be grown because in Asia and increasingly in Africa, rice is our life. “The Future is NOW?” comes from those who take care of rice seeds so the present and the next generations can still have those seeds we inherited; those we produced and those from the wild. But there is also a concept of intergenerational equity which says that the present generation is just a steward of what should be enjoyed equally by the next generations. This is the message not just of environmentalists but of our COMMON FUTURE. Sustainability which lies at the heart of this future embodies TIME, for nothing can be regarded as sustainable unless it has stood the test of time. The gene bank is a very futureoriented facility which aims to conserve that which should benefit the next generations. Periodically the stored seeds are grown to test their viability. Experience has shown that their lifespan can go from 20 to more than 30 years (37 or 38). They could probably live longer in temperatures of -18 to -20 OC except that the IRRI gene bank is only about 40 years old. There is a time element in these seeds in cold storage with the longest-term being the coldest. Time has Value: In the popular song: “The best things in life are free”, time is not one of them. Time does not come free. As a matter of fact the value of time appreciates as the number of competing uses for it increases. If rice were the major preoccupation of the farm household, the rice production cycle determines time allocation of its members. If the rains come on time or if irrigation water is released when needed; if short maturity rice is planted and crop production activities are managed as per the demands of ecological time, hunger is averted, and life is good. However as rice cropping progresses into livelihood systems and the calendar of activities go beyond agriculture and own village, priorities i.e. decisions as to which comes first, come into play. As the economists put it: when the alternatives for the use of one’s time is limited or almost mil, the opportunity cost is zero. Time in rice culture is also very much tied to the use of labor which means money, sweat, time for exchange labor, or rice share of the crop paid to labor or to land. As more knowledge and skills are acquired, they tend to substitute for labor and other inputs. Farmer’s time becomes more management time rather than back-breaking work time. Labor is hired to do the manual work. Even wages for labor increase as their skills improve. The time of a laborer who operates a hand tractor will be worth more than that of someone unskilled. Time Establishes Trends: Monitoring means watching or checking on something for some reason. Without at least two points in time it would not be possible to detect stability or change and to establish trends. Monitoring rice crops implies tracking trends overtime. Time series data (the longer the better) are always required to determine patterns of production, consumption yield performance, price, shortage or surplus, land use, population, weather etc. PhilRice, for example, has developed agroclimatic indices based on 20-year agromet data for one of their dryland areas, such as: Dry weather, harvest reliability and sunshine reliability analysis implies that January-April and October-December are favorable months for growing and harvesting of crops. Rainfall probability is high starting from the third week of May until the third weeks of October and peaks in August. It has also been established that the Philippines experiences an average of 20 typhoons a year. In 2005, the IRRI Annual Report of the Director General reports that seventeen disturbances passed through the Philippines’ area of responsibility. Three of these were super typhoons: Feria (15 -19 July); Jolina (2-4 September); and Maring (29 September to 2 October). These trends are realities which Filipinos have to live with from year to year. Time to Import or Export: In rice-eating Asia, rice is an emotional issue and self-sufficiency or not having to import is a matter of national pride for almost every country. With trade liberalization, the rice “row” heats up between the exporters and the importers. The most opportune time to import may not be the best time for the exporters to export. It is like a zero-sum game where the benefit to one is about of equal harm to the other. Until now, there does not seem to be a win-win scenario. In the Philippines where, historically, it has been almost an annual rice importer, no politician would want to be caught with a low rice supply at a high price especially if people have to queue to purchase it. Election time is the worst time for this to happen. A delay in decision to import was said to have caused at least one Minister of Agriculture to lose his job. Concluding Statements: From seed to seed, rice culture has time and timing requirements which must be identified, learned, and practiced if the rice crop is to have a good life. Because time never stops, rice science deserves a sense of urgency because rice culture does not wait for research products. It goes on because the rice farmer must plant and the hungry must eat. Time does matter. The vulnerabilities and responsiveness of the rice crop are timesensitive and are defined by ecological time. Although nature still decides when the rains will come, some features of the rice crop can be “designed” for effective escape or clever avoidance. There is no perfect rice crop for all seasons and all reasons but the search is for those which will do better given time and space considerations. That’s what rice science is all about. 5
  • 6. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Rice Varietal Development in Pakistan V Hafeez ur Rehman* arietal diversification process involves adaptation of genotypes over diverse-agro-climatic conditions coupled with continued human selection for his diverse quality preference. Basmati rice, one of unique varietal group is result of this natural selection widely accepted all over the world. Oryza sativa known as Asian rice is derivative of its perennial progenitors Oryza rufipogan and since domestication have been differentiated into three eco-geographical sub-species, indica, japonica (temperate japonica) and javanica (tropical japonica). According to Glaszmann, Asian cultivar should be differentiated into six varietal groups viz., Indica, aus, ashina, rayada, aromatic and Japonica. Nonetheless, aromatic varieties have been cultivated in north-western foot hills of the Himalayas in the Indian subcontinent. Pakistan is also famous for Ecological Zones its long grain and aromatic basmati and non-aromatic rice is grown here Zone I: consists of northern mountainous areas in flat valleys or terraced valley sides grown under diverse climatic conditions with short duration cold tolerant varieties. Zone II: lies between broad strip of river land of Ravi and Chenab and with sub-humid, divided into four ecological zones. Several breeding efforts subtropical climate “Kallar tract” suitable for some coarse and fine grain aromatic varieties. have been taken to improve the Zone III: is large tract of land on west bank of river Indus with sub-tropical climate that favors genetic basis of rice for high yield heat tolerant coarse varieties. and better nutritional quality. More Zone IV: consists of Indus Delta with arid tropical climate had no marked season. than 20 varieties developed are cultivated in Pakistan with Basmati-370 as first aromatic variety through pure line selection in 1933 by Rice research Institue Kala Shah Kaku (RRI-KSK). Two other varieties, Mushkan-7 and -41 were also approved in 1933 but due to their low yield potential and poor grain quality characteristics, could not sustain among growers. Then continued efforts started on developing high yielding aromatic and Kernel Basmati (Basmati Pak) with longer grains than Basmati 370 was released in 1968 through cross breeding of Basmati-370 x CM 7-6. This was followed by Basmati 198, Basmati 385 in 1985 readily adopted by farmers due to its high yield. As leading for breeding of basmati rice in Pakistan, the institute RRI-KSK released Super basmati in 1996 with extra grain long, higher yield and better resistance to pests and diseases. The variety is still planted on more than 90 per cent of the basmati growing area. The latest development had been release of Basmati 2000 with better threshing quality in 2000 and of Basmati 515 with extra grain length and high yield. Some efforts have also been undertaken to develop salt tolerance variety for saline areas is Shaheen Basmati in 2001 at Soil salinity research institute Pindi Bhattian. It is fairly resistant to salinity than other basmati types, however, genetic variation exists for this trait and efforts are on underway. Due to increasing water crisis in country, efforts for varietal trials under development and dissemination of water saving technologies in South Asia by Asian Development Bank (ADB) at RRI-KSK have been done. Four promising high yielding basmati types donors; Bas 385, 515, 2000 and Super Bas have been identified to develop breeding lines with more closeness to Basmati rice. Likewise, marker assisted breeding to introgress QTLs for drought stress environment using drought tolerant donor parents viz, Azucena, APO and IR55419-04 into Super Bas and use of isotope discrimination techniques to improve Water Use Efficiency (WUE) using Bas 385 and 370 are in progress. Since many years, non-existent of rice research in different institutions of country, stagnant yields and competition in international market have come up with depleted area under basmati; no introduction to new variety has resulted in shortfall in export of Pakistani basmati. Farmers prefer to grow Basmati 386 an early maturing and high yielding variety than Super and Kainat producing low yield with late maturity. One of the reasons, of losing Super basmati strength is increasing area under hybrid cultivation difficult to understand and shift of rice area to other crops. The reasons for widespread technology of hybrid rice are the high average yield of 89 maunds per acre even higher up to 110-120 maunds despite of coarse high yielding IR-6 varieties also losing its strength. On other hand, competition with India has become tough and its exporters have captured Pakistan most of the traditional markets. The Indian exporters are selling their non-aromatic varieties at $1200 against $1350 per tone of Basmati Kainaat due to rise in its consumption in UAE and Iran. In fact, Indian exporters have made aggressive and smart marketing moves to convince our traditional buyers in these countries for their 1121 Basmati variety to claim well as our Kainaat. Although the buyers may be interested in better quality of our rice but the price difference have reflected them to move for Indian rice. Since basmati varieties are of several types and grown in several countries, this can harm its export, and there is need for legislation rights to protect the country’s rice industry. Due to lack of Geographical Indicators (GI) about basmati registering of our country, we have to register it as common Geographical Indication with India. Pakistan should also pass our own GI act otherwise we will lose our rice export in International market as Phillipine and Bangladesh have also indicated to export its basmati rice. Meanwhile Pakistan should strengthen its basic infrastructure to support the rice research. As a quote of India, Rice Exporters Association of Pakistan (REAP) should also take cue from it to provide and spent resources on rice research rather than to blame the government. Industry has to play role by helping the researchers to develop new varieties, take them to farmers and keep the marketing process clean and transparent. Unfortunately, there are no bridges between them to maximize their profits at the cost of each other. * Author is a lecturer in Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 6
  • 7. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Origin of Basmati Rice Dr. Muhammad Ashfaq* and Farooq Ahmed* Background: The boundary of ancient Punjab was clear before the Indo-Pak partition done by the authorities of British Empire for the independence. Old Punjab which is found in western Punjab is in Pakistan whereas eastern Punjab and Haryana is in India. Most districts of Punjab are known to have rice with the best aroma i.e Basmati rice so these districts are also called as rice belt. All these belts located in Himalayan foothills and constitute home of Basmati, with particular climatic conditions and knowledge on traditional cropping of Basmati rice (Giraud 2008). For example, cropping in districts of Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura in Pakistan and Kurukshetra, Amritsar in India, is well known for giving high quality and aroma to Basmati may be due to specific association of climatic conditions and soil. The Facts and Gap: Basmati rice is known due to its long grain, high value, aroma in both raw and cooked and the grain has distinctive shape which elongate to almost double to its original length but its width remains same. It also has unique eating qualities and reported that it is a good source of slow releasing carbohydrates. Basmati rice can be identified commonly by three factors; Aroma, Taste and appearance. It is characterized by superfine grain, soft texture, extreme grain elongation and pleasant aroma. It best grows under warm, humid, valley like conditions. In western Punjab where 91.2% of all Pakistan Basmati crops are grown, Basmati acreage increased by 39.7% in ten years, yield increase by 32.8%. Annual export of Basmati rice is 328373 MT (Metric Tons) of Pakistan during In the Nutshell, the competition 2012-13. (REAP). Pakistan earned 319.518283 million is now between yield, aroma dollars in 2012-13 by exporting Basmati rice. (REAP). But still low yield can be observed in Pakistan with 1721 kg/ha size improvement and pure in 2006 in western Punjab as compared to 2116 kg/ha for all rice produced. While in eastern Punjab 3858 kg/ha and 3051 lineage in Basmati percentage kg/ha in Haryana, are the major Basmati producing regions for new varieties. So we have to of India. If we talk about the reasons, it depends upon yield improvement, substitution of Basmati instead of coarse divert our minds and invest varieties, adoption of new breeding technologies, introduction of new advanced extra long basmati rice more on Basmati rice instead of varieties, minimizing the harvest losses and improvement in coarse varieties. milling process etc. Basmati represented 61.6% of rice acreage and 50.3% of production in Pakistan. According to Mushtaq and Dawson, Basmati rice acreage is not responsive to price shocks but more sensitive to variation in irrigated areas ( Mushtaq and Dawson, 2002). Solutions: Agricultural extension should;     Promote and aware farmers in order to keep them to use best practices in rice growing, yield improvement mainly vary due to genetic selection and cross breeding. Researchers should also work hard to help farmers in order to increase Basmati yield and spreading crop areas (Singh et al., 2007; Abedullah, 2007) which will be economically benefical for Pakistan. However end use characteristics are related to the growing place. The same seeds do not provide the same final traits according to variation in planting location. Hence the competition is now between yield, aroma size improvement and pure lineage in Basmati percentage for new varieties. So we have to divert our minds and invest more on Basmati rice instead of coarse varieties. * Authors belong to Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore. 7
  • 8. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH SHAHZAD A. MALIK Founder of Modern Rice Sector of Pakistan Shahzad Ali Malik is the pioneer of modern rice industry in Pakistan, serving industry from the last two decades and has influenced the sector to grow from minor to major export sector. Mr. Shahzad inherited great values, national spirit, welfare and business sense for the country from ancestors. He exercised the same in his professional life. He is known as man of R&D in rice, always trying to keep the sector on competitive edge through latest technologies and new varieties. Rice Plus Team: Please share something about experiences of early life and brought up. Shahzad Malik: I grew up in a business family struggling for business community particularly and general public as well. I did my Graduation in 1978 and entered in the business of Auto Part- A unit of Guard Group of Industries. Rice Plus Team: What was the special feature which influenced your life most? Shahzad Malik: I learned very unique business skills from my elders which framed my personality mostly. Doing business ethically, respect and care for customer, quality concerns, good for others and business which give profit to us but must be fruitful for others too. Along with successful business, I found my elders fighting for two social objectives. 1) Working for the rights and good of business community and 2) Working for the welfare of common people. I grew in such kind of environment and I continued on such patterns in my business life. Rice Plus Team: Please share your entry in rice sector and early developments. Shahzad Malik: We ventured into rice business in 1985 by realizing that we are far behind the world in rice milling. Our aim was to promote modern rice milling in Pakistan. We started by importing rice machinery and selling it in local markets. Gradually local engineering firms got encouraged to do reverse engineering and thus resulted in local production of modern rice machinery in Pakistan. The second breakthrough we made in rice seed. We We (Myself, Javed Agha Islam and Zahid Khawaja) set up REAP and mobilized exporters realized that without better to join REAP to safeguard their interest. We did fight with Government for two years and variety, neither we will be finally Ishaaq Dar helped us to get license for REAP. After the license, we were heard by able to compete in the EU and Dr. Majeed made lot of briefings to convince the policy makers of EU. world market, nor our industry can grow. There was variety in Rice Research Institute-Kala Shah Kaku (RRI-KSK), called Super Basmati developed by Dr. Abdul Majeed. After retirement, Dr. Majeed joined Guard Rice and we started multiplication of Super Basmati seed. We made extensive struggle and got the variety accepted by more than 40% rice market within a span of six years. The farmers found Super Basmati better and similarly, exporters and processors also trusted this variety due to wider acceptance in national and international market. Rice Plus Team: What is the role of Government and other bodies? Shahzad Malik: The dynamics of rice market are changed. R&D people should understand that future is extra long grain. Variety was developed in Rice Research Institute-Kala Shah Kaku but the high risk was involved if not being properly commercialized. Guard Rice commercialized this variety which made Pakistan stand at the top in rice exporters of the world. As far as the role of Government is concerned, they approved this variety after 6 years when it was widely cultivated and exported from Pakistan. We are not aware of any other role of Government or any other department in this development. The whole rice sector like exporters, processors, machinery manufacturers, farmers and traders have benefited from the development and commercialization of Super Basmati. Rice Plus Team: How REAP was established and what were driving factors? 8
  • 9. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Shahzad Malik: This is a very interesting story and shows how industry survives by taking various initiatives. We started facing tough competition with other countries due to duties imposed by European Union 1995. We were no more competitive in EU market and our export would down to great extent, if newly imposed duties continue, we found at that time. India was given more relaxation than Pakistan. We (Myself, Javed Agha Islam and Zahid Khawaja) set up REAP and mobilized exporters to join REAP to safeguard their interest. We did fight with Government for two years and finally Ishaq Dar helped us to get license for REAP. After the license, we were heard by EU and Dr. Majeed made lot of briefings to convince the policy makers of EU. Thanks God, that we got relaxation in duty. I have also taken a recent initiative of setting up Seed Association of Pakistan. I am hopeful that this will also promote Seed industry of Pakistan like REAP. Rice Plus Team: Are we left behind other countries in rice varieties? What Guard Rice is doing in this regard? Shahzad Malik: It is true that we are left far behind other countries in rice varieties. The dynamics of rice market have been changed now. We still love old conventional approach which was successful in yesterday, but today latest technology and innovation has provoked to adopt this way. I found my elders fighting for two social objectives. Markets are moving toward extra long grain of rice and our R&D  Working for the rights and good of business people are unable to understand this trend. Hybrid rice is the future of rice market. Only hybrid rice can guarantee to this great community  Working for the welfare of common people. I grew in alarming challenge of food security due to increasing food such kind of environment and I continued on such demand of the world. Our R&D stakeholders should work on the development of hybrid variety of rice. We must learn this patterns in my business life. from China how to excel in this field. Guard Rice has also introduced 5015 as extra long grain variety which is gradually being promoted. We do hope that Government of Pakistan will register these varieties to boost our rice export, which is now second largest export item after textile. We have also extended our R&D sector in the pipeline, and we will serve this nation and industry by developing more varieties in order to meet the growing challenges of rice industry. Rice Plus Team: How do you find Free Trade with India and its effects on rice industry of Pakistan? Shahzad Malik: Regarding Trade with India a level playing field is required as import duty in Pakistan is 10% whereas in India it is 70% on import of rice. How can Pakistan export rice to India under the circumstances when the import duty in India is so high. Rice Plus Team: What drives your passion to make such breakthrough developments? Shahzad Malik: I strongly believe that business has Hybrid rice is the future of rice market. Our R&D stakeholders should work on the dual meaning, not only to earn development of hybrid variety of rice. We must learn this from China how to excel profit but also to work for the in this field. welfare of community. I inherited this spirit from my elders. My family is very active in social welfare as we manage a large hospital for the poor community. We are also active in promoting and protecting interests of business community so that we may not left far behind in the race of development. Here lies business opportunity as well as area to serve the country. Secondly development plays a great role in the live hood of poor people. For example the income of Sindhi farmers doubled due to the high yield variety. We need such varieties to improve the live hood of agro community . Rice Plus Team: Which areas of R&D need to be addressed by research community of Pakistan? Shahzad Malik: In my view following issues must be resolved through national R&D sectors:  Less water consuming varieties  Development of high yield varieties  Acre under rice cultivation needs to be increased than plant population  Extra long grain varieties should be developed  Local harvester for rice crop to be developed Rice Plus Team: Any advice for new investments in rice sector? Shahzad Malik: Sure, but not only in rice export as it reached to optimum level now. However investment in value addition and by products of rice is very much needed. New investments must be appreciated like Rice bran oil, Value added products , High tech tools and techniques in rice cultivation and Processing, Improving storage and Transportation of rice and Lab testing facilities in Pakistan. Rice Plus Team: What is your advice to young generation? Shahzad Malik: Honesty, integrity and hard work is a key of success for personal growth business development and progress of our nation. Short term and unfair means may produce temporary results but in fact takes you towards long term failure. 9
  • 10. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 U.S. Rice Imports from Asia – Data Insights A famous report titled as “World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates 2013” presents following very encouraging trends of rice primarily exported by Asia countries. “U.S. rice imports have increased in recent decades, largely because of the growing demand for aromatic varieties, partly driven by the expanding population of rice-consuming ethnic groups. Aromatics, primarily jasmine and basmati rice are imported from Thailand, India, and Pakistan. U.S. plant breeders have yet to develop aromatic rice varieties with the same characteristics as Asian varieties. Imports of aromatic rice are expected to continue increasing until U.S. breeders develop varieties that satisfy this part of domestic demand”. Import of Long Grain Year Imports 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 9.155 10.037 9.79 10.515 12.254 14.249 17.656 15.859 16.496 15.815 17.5 The import of long grain in total has increased from 9.15 to 17.65 in 2008. The import of long grain rice observed slight decrease in next three years from 2009 to 2011 which recovered back and touched the figure of 17.5 in 2012. (Millions in CWT). This trend especially represents the above cited text by report. There is another story of Asia rice export presented by data inside the report. The story is based on 10 years export data of rice to USA by 5 Asian countries. Each country presents a unique insight. There are three trends observed in this entire data of 10 years rice export by 5 countries to USA. Trend 01. The Increase in Export – Vietnam and China Year Vietnam 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 257 106 105 237 261 1162 557 17478 41554 15901 10846 Vietnam is country which exported around 257 (matric tons) in 2001 to USA. Vietnam experienced ups and downs in next four years from 100 the lowest to 269 the highest in 2005. Vietnam just stepped up to 1162 which is almost four times higher growth. After down in 2007, the export of Vietnam is grown up to 17478 and then 41554, the peak of export. And now Vietnam is exporting 10846 (metric tons) to USA. The policy makers in Rice sector can guess the growth rate and penetration of this country. Insight: export of Vietnam is net stable and constant. High fluctuation is area of concern for good export planners. Year China 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 539 39890 97318 1139 50753 119662 122996 3951 3787 3100 2075 Similar to Vietnam, China also follows trend 01 of increase in export. In total China has grown from 539 in 2001.02 to 2075 in 2011/12 registering a four times increase in rice supply to USA market. The four times growth is not the peak of supply in this decade. China has supplied 39890 in 2002, 97318 in 2003, 119622 in 2006 and 122996 in 2007 making these years as the highest selling years of rice to USA market. There are decline years like 2004 (1139), 2008 (3951) and 2010 (3100) where rice export to USA has decreased. The export has fallen sharply after drastic increase and decrease. Insight: export of China to USA market is highly volatile and unstable. Such fluctuation leaves no choice for prediction. The exporters of countries like Pakistan can take good share of China by gauging the next move of this trend. Note: Statistics for analysis is taken from http://www.indexmundi.com 10
  • 11. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Trend 02. The Same Level of Export – India Year 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 India 47257 53483 52531 56817 70345 71028 119054 74050 94810 96454 48361 India exported rice 47257 in 2001/02 and about same quantity as 48361 in 2011/ 12 just repeating the export history after a decade of increase and decrease. The peak of export sale of Indian rice was observed in 2007/08 with 119054 of rice export followed by 94810 and 96454 in 2009 and 2010. These three years are highest export of years. Export of Indian rice in other years range between 52531 and 74050 during last decade. Insight: The Indian export of rice to USA market has observed fluctuation and remains unstable. But as compared to China, India export is quite stable and maintained a high end fluctuation without taking a big dip or decline. Year 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 Pakistan 11388 12259 13779 16253 16668 16715 19377 16852 19387 17317 6774 Trend 03. The Decrease in Export – Pakistan and Thailand Pakistan is among those countries who observed 50% decline in export of rice to USA market. Pakistan exported 11388 in 2001/02 and decreased to 6774 in 2011/12. Pakistan export quantity is very less as compared to Vietnam and India and have downward trends is more alarming for exports and policy makers of Pakistan. Pakistan has made good exports in 2009 and 2007 as 19387 and 19377 according. These two years are peak years of Pakistan regarding rice export to USA. Insight: Pakistan needs to revisit its planning for rice export to USA market. By making better planning, Pakistan can exploit instability of export trend by other countries. Year Thailand 2001/02 287848 2002/03 315827 2003/04 300880 2004/05 331683 2005/06 349094 2006/07 394367 2007/08 454383 2008/09 422132 2009/10 400977 2010/11 393401 2011/12 215624 Thailand has also exported slightly less in 2011/12 as compared to 2011/12 as decreasing from 287848 to 215624. In other years of Thailand export remains stable with slight fluctuation ranging from 300880 to 454383. Thailand is also one of the largest exporters to USA market and has maintained its supply for entire decade. Insight: USA market is very promising for good returns and effectively capitalized by Thailand. Such export stability also positively affects rice growers in the country. Summary Highlights Rice Industry needs to pay attention to market trends and changing scenario in the world market of rice. The proven role of business to capitalize the gap between supply and demand. Sometime this gap is of few hours and days. The traders of rice having command on pluses of market can play and win out of these opportunities. 11
  • 12. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Whiff of Pearls R Naeem Fiaz*, Farhan Khalid** and Muhammad Aleem Sarwar* ice is the largest source of nourishment to the world’s population. Scented rice fetches a higher premium. In the 1990s, the demands for aromatic rice started to blow in the popular markets compel the scientists to develop a number of specific cultivars with unique flavors and scents. The volatile compounds responsible for aroma, get detected on perceiving by millions cilia (hair like) located on epithelium in the roof of the nasal cavity. The aroma combined more than 200 volatile compounds which are not limited to the seed but present in the whole plant. Methods like microsteam distillation-solvent extraction, simultaneous steam distillation-solvent, direct solvent extraction and static headspace are used for the isolation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is developed and used for its determination. Important Types of Aromatic Rice Basmati. The most popular types of scented rice liked and sold around the world. This long grain rice tends to be fluffy but not sticky. Unfortunately, it has tendency of susceptibility to pests and disease, lower in grain yield and shedding on maturity. The compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is found responsible for fragrance and a powerful food stimulant. It is present in basmati rice around 630 UGg/KG, that is many fold high than fluffy popcorn (24μg/kg). Pakistan and India are well renowned for Basmati rice. 2-AP has simple chemical structure but its biosynthesis is still unknown. Texmati. This rice exhibits the nutty flavor and rich aroma of basmati rice as well as the dry, fluffy characteristics of American long grain rice. Perhaps the only cultivable (primarily in Texas, America) basmati variety developed by crossing of American long grain rice and basmati. It is better in flavor and fragrance than its American parent but lesser than basmati. It was developed to suit the tastes of the Americans who were got crazy for Basmati. Jasmine. Thailand and China are famous for this type of aromatic rice and it is harvested Aroma is Affected by: green in some parts of Asia for its unusual delicacy. Jasmine rice has been bred for easy  Nitrogen fertilizers play key role in the production of rice but harvest, unlike Basmati it does not shatter when it their improper use can deteriorate the crop. Aroma and amylose ripens. It had greater concentrations of other (responsible for good texture of cooked rice) contents do not vary compounds, responsible for aroma, like hept-2significantly with higher N. enal; 2-pentylfuran methyl salicylate; but-2-enal,  The higher concentration of 2-AP and lower levels of off-flavor deca-2,4-dienal etc along with 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline compounds (2- pentylfuran and n-hexanal) is observed when rice (present in Basmati). was sun dried (30- 40°C). Wehani. Red-brown colored variant of longgrain brown rice that splits while cooking and  Off-flavors and odors develop by hydrolysis lipids to form free emits a smell similar to popcorn. It is also called as fatty acids, particularly linoleic and linolenic acids, that on popcorn rice and was developed at the famous riceoxidation produce ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, furanones and growing Lundberg Family (largest producers of lactone etc. organic rice in the country) Farms, California.  High degree milled rice; it has more 2-AP than lower degree Likewise Texmati, it is also developed milled rice. from basmati rice. A very distinctive form of aromatic rice, created to appeal primarily to  Preservation of 2-AP is moderately affected by packing material.  Pre-cook soaking facilitates uniform cooking. During soaking, American proletarian cooks. thorough activation of amylases, a considerable amount of Wild Pecan. This scented, basmati hybrid, oligosaccharides (which are not digested and accumulate in large rice also specifically created (in Louisiana, America) to accommodate the growing demand for aromatic intestine and on anaerobic fermentation by bacteria, some gases rice in and the word "Wild" is just a marketing term; such as methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are produced) are there is nothing wild about it. It has aroma similar to formed on outer layers that can be removed by repeated washing. popcorn with a flavor giving rich nutty taste. There  Water washing not only removes oligosaccharides but also 60has been a quest for over three decades to identify the 80% of total surface lipids, thus preventing from off-flavor and factors affecting the aroma and flavor of cooked rice. odors compound to develop. Efforts are made to find numerous volatile compounds responsible for aroma by studying the rice genetics, preharvest, (cultural & environmental) and postharvest (drying, milling, storage, cooking) aspects. A small region on chromosome 8 is potentially considered for aromatic gene in rice but because of the lack of high throughput sensory evaluation, no one has reached the gene. * Sugarcane Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 12
  • 13. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Game Changers in the Global Rice Market Samarendu Mohanty* F or the past four decades, rice market has been dominated by a few exporters namely, Thailand, Vietnam, the United States, and Pakistan, accounting for 60–70% of the total exports. During this period, Thailand has remained the top rice exporter in the world. Unlike the export side, the import side looks quite fragmented, with many countries each importing a small amount of rice. The top six importers account for only 20−30% of the market share. New roles for China and India Through the years, both China and India, the top two rice producers and consumers in the world, have played a minor role globally with occasional exports and imports. Despite India's rise as an exporter since the mid1990s, both these countries, which account for half of global rice production, have largely focused on domestic food security. Trade is an afterthought for these two giants and it is mostly used to manage occasional surpluses and deficits. But, with India’s meteoric rise to the top of the export chart and China's unexpected rise to near the top of the import chart in 2012 (Fig.1), this might be a thing of the past. In2012, India displaced Thailand from the top spot by exporting 10.4 million tons of rice vis-à-vis 6.9 million tons for Thailand. India’s removal of its export ban on the non basmati market in late 2011 after a gap of 4 years, burgeoning domestic stocks, and a weak rupee definitely increased India's export prospects in 2012. But, Thailand’s mortgage scheme should get most of the credit for India’s rise to the top by making India’s broken and parboiled rice fly off the shelves like hotcakes. Like India, nobody expected China to come close to displacing Nigeria as the top importer in 2012, with 2.9 million tons of imports compared with 3.4 million tons by Nigeria. A majority of these imports have come from Vietnam and Pakistan. Apart from rice, China also imported large amounts of wheat and corn (maize) in 2012. Altogether, Chinese grain (wheat, rice, and corn) imports increased from 2.5 million tons in 2011 to 11 million tons in2012 (Fig. 2). Tight corn supplies and greater demand for wheat from the feed sector increased their imports. But, it is still intriguing to many why China is importing so much rice because domestic production has no apparent shortfall in the past few years, and the carry over stocks (according to FAO and USDA) suggest that these stocks have been steadily rising since 2007. A plausible explanation, shared by many, could be that the large price spread between domestic and international rice prices is making it attractive for Chinese traders to import cheap foreign rice. Another reason could be that Chinese consumers are * Dr. Samarendu Mohanty is the head of the Social Sciences Division at the International Rice Research Institute. Source with thanks: Rice Today July-September, 2013 13
  • 14. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 diversifying their food consumption, thus creating demand for different types of rice such as sticky rice from Vietnam, Jasmine rice from Thailand, and long-grain rice from Pakistan. This raises another important question: Will China go back to its traditional insignificant role in the global rice market (low imports and exports) and India goes back to its familiar territory of mainly exporting basmati rice will selfIndia and China are new forces to reckon and sufficiency remain their primary motto? Or will they continue with the recent trend and evolve as dominant players in the global rice market in the coming years? Both India and China have maintained their respective positions as dominant exporters and importers in the global rice market in the first quarter of 2013. From January to March 2013, China imported 692,200tons of rice (according to oryza.com) whereas India exported nearly 2million tons of rice (data compiled from different sources). If this trend continues, they are likely to grab the top importer and exporter spots respectively by the end of 2013.Some indications suggest that China and India are here to stay for the “long haul.” In India’s case, the government wants to move non basmati rice area from the northwestern states of Punjab and Haryana, which are plagued by water shortages and pest and disease problems, to eastern India. Several programs such as the National Food Security Mission, National Rural Livelihood Mission, and Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India have been rolled out by the government to expand rice production in the eastern states, and the impact is already evident from the rapid rise in production in the last few years. The Chinese government is also trying to expand rice production to keep up with the demand, but the rapidly rising costs of production and pressure on rice area from other competing crops are likely to keep imported rice a lot cheaper than producing rice domestically. Unless the Chinese government is strongly determined to achieve rice self-sufficiency through trade measures, it is reasonable to assume that Chinese imports will continue in the near term to mid-term. Some Implications On the positive side, the greater participation of China and India in the rice market is likely to increase the volume of trade, thus making the market more stable. Ideally, the global rice market should account for15−20% of total production compared with 6−8% now. On the other hand, both countries will bring greater uncertainty to the market as their politicians will continue to fiddle with domestic and trade policies to support farmers and achieve greater domestic price stability, and in the process bring volatility to the international market. India’s export ban in 2007 on non basmati rice and its repercussions on the global market is a good example of how these countries can adversely influence the market. Similarly, Thailand has held the global market hostage through its rice pledging scheme, for which nobody knows how and when the mortgage stocks will rock the market. In addition, the disparity in the estimates of Chinese supply and use data by two major sources (USDA and FAO) is likely to create problems in the functioning of the market if China remains in the global rice market as a dominant player for the long haul. For example, FAO projects Chinese rice stocks to be more than50% greater than those of USDA in 2012-13 (94.2 million tons vs 46.2million tons). In the past 3 years, the FAO estimates indicate more than a 20-million-ton rise in Chinese stocks compared with only 6 million tons in the case of USDA. The difference in domestic consumption between USDA and FAO estimates for China is more than 10 million tons. All these disparities in supply and use data did not really matters long as China was mostly self sufficient and didn’t trade much. But, accuracy and timely availability of this information will be essential for proper functioning of the market once China becomes a dominant player in the global rice market. 14
  • 15. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Rice, Health, and Toxic Metals Sarah Beebout* A rsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead are four ubiquitous trace elements known to have a harmful effect on human health. These elements are naturally present at very low concentrations in the environment, and human bodies are able to detoxify them in limited amounts. Most of what we know about toxicity of these elements comes from case studies of people who were exposed to the toxins through unrecognized pollution sources. In these cases, the people were exposed to the toxin through many ways such as air, water, and food simultaneously. So far, no evidence shows clearly that rice consumption, by itself, has had toxic effects on humans. But, since the effects of long term chronic exposure are not well known, people are concerned that rice consumption might expose them to these elements and endanger their health.. remains the biggest concern. Arsenic can move from the soil into rice grain, and rice produced in high-arsenics oil has higher arsenic than average. The arsenic in soil or irrigation water is sometimes high enough to inhibit plant growth, resulting in low yield. Scientists have already identified rice varieties that grow well in high-arsenic conditions and can minimize arsenic accumulation in the grain. So, plant breeding programs can potentially develop even safer varieties. Also, rice plants in more flooded soil (anaerobic conditions) take up more arsenic. So, an effective way to lessen arsenic uptake is to use moderately dryer growing methods through irrigation management. The relative toxicity of different chemical forms of arsenic is still debated. The science for differentiating among these forms is progressing rapidly. I hope that we will soon know which forms of arsenic are safer and which forms accumulate in rice grains under different conditions. Arsenic, Cadmium, is second as a Mercury, content of rice Lead, on the other hand, public concern about toxins in rice. Rice plants can take up cadmium from polluted soil and produce grains with elevated cadmium concentration. However, very few reports have shown cadmium concentrations higher than the “allowable limit” for rice grains, even when they are grown in moderately polluted soil. But, not everyone agrees on what this allowable limit should be. Cadmium is known to be more likely taken up by rice plants when the soil is aerobic (the opposite of arsenic). So, one way to minimize cadmium uptake would be continuous flooding. Studies to understand and identify the genes that control the movement of cadmium from rice roots into the grains are in progress including the identification of genes that essentially prevent cadmium from reaching rice grains. These genes can be helpful in plant breeding programs to ensure that all new rice varieties have a very low cadmium risk. has not received much public attention because of other more important food sources of mercury (most notably, fish). Mercury in rice is reportedly lower than “allowable limits”—with the same caveat that these “limits” are still under discussion. A potential problem is that, although mercury in rice is lower than in fish, a large amount of rice consumed from some contaminated areas may be enough to raise the overall consumption of mercury to a worrisome level. Since moderate mercury contamination is widespread from coal-burning exhaust, some scientists have been investigating how mercury contamination affects rice. One of the more toxic forms, methyl mercury, is formed in flooded or intermittently flooded soils and is sometimes present in rice grains. Some rice varieties are better than others at excluding mercury from the grains, but we don’t know yet how they do this so we cannot recommend which varieties are the safest. received the least public interest until last month, when an unpublished study indicating high lead in rice was presented at a scientific meeting, causing a publicity stir. However, these anomalously “high concentrations” have not been published scientifically, and the preponderance of published evidence so far indicates that very little lead accumulates in rice grains, even in areas with moderately polluted soil. Conclusion Consumers need not change their rice-eating habits based on any known risks from toxic elements. Scientists can now detect very low amounts of these elements in rice grains. Some studies are being done on how these elements move within soil and rice plants. We hope that these will enable us to develop even safer rice varieties and rice production techniques. * Dr. Sarah Beebout is a soil chemist at IRRI. 15
  • 16. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Rice Production in Pakistan vs India Muhammad Asif Rana* G overnment of Pakistan always sets the Rice Production targets in the start of season keeping in view the area subjected for growth of various crops. Target set by Government of Pakistan in Year 2012-13 was 6.8 million tons but production remain under the target and total volume produced to be reported as 6.0 million tons. Total exports reported for the year 2012-13 are 3.50 million tons and rest 2.50 million tons consumed locally. These exports also includes Basmati segment not exceeding 0.630 million tons which is 45% less than Basmati exports in same period in 2011-12. Prices of Basmati varieties are at higher end because area for Basmati growing is decreasing at one side whereas local consumption is standing at the same level. Government has also set target of 6.20 million tons of Rice in Pakistan but owing to floods expected figure has declined to 5.5 million Tons. This significantly low export of Basmati is directly linked with its production area. In 2008-09 Total Production area under Basmati Banner was 2.89 million acres which has been reduced to 1.89 million acre in year 2012-13. It is statistically reported that every years farmers leave to grow Basmati on area of 200,000 acres which show their less interest towards basmati because of low commercial viability when compare to 1121 and PK-386 Long Grain Rices. Current floods have also severely impacted on growing area of the Rice where most of the damage has been reported on leading Basmati growing areas. According to Agriculture Department of Pakistan, Total area affected by the Floods is 340,084 acres. Total area under production of paddy in year 2013-14 was designated to around 04 million acres and hence around 09% of the total area damaged by the Floods. There are various gossips about the loss of Basmati where some school of thoughts says that Floods has caused around 25% loss to Basmati but other don’t agree and says its loss will not exceed 10% where as Government has only released total loss in terms of Acreage. Further to floods, Rice crop particularly PK-386, Super Fine, 1121 and Super Basmati Rice is also attacked by Rice Grasshopper, Rice Blast and smuts which are causing to reduce per acre yield very significantly. Keeping in view the flood losses and also reduced basmati production with passage of time will support the prices to remain at higher side. Meanwhile currency of Pakistan also depreciated around 08 % since January 2013 which is natural where Indian has depreciated to 30% already. Pakistan has started receiving its long grain crop (KS-282 and IRRI-06) where the prices are yet higher than International competitors. KS-282 Long Grain and IRRI-06 Long grain are opened between USD-429 to 438 PMT FOB Karachi with 05% broken but its acceptance is little slow now where Thailand is standing at USD-445 and Vietnam at USD-390 PMT FOB. India once again is coming to world with good competition. India has exported 10 million tons last year and stood first in worldwide export ranking. After waving off ban from Long Grain Rice, India is giving hard time to all its competitors in export both in Basmati in non-basmati segment. Where the crop size is miserably affected in Pakistan, the same time these rains are proven blessed for Indians and enhanced their production from expected 103 million tons to 105 million tons and will enable them to serve the world with sufficient quantity of Rice available surplus to their domestic demand. Secondly swift depreciation of Indian Rupee has brought Indian to offer very competitive prices. In last six months, Indian currency depreciated around 25% which ultimately means that prices become competitive 25% just because of currency depreciation. Pressure of carryover stocks is also relaxed at India because it exported huge quantities of rice leaving very less carryover stocks to enter next season. Indian is expecting the depreciation of their currency further to Rs.70 against dollars in the next quarter but Government is claiming to keep it fixed at current level. Till now Indian Government proven fail to keep their currency stable. India is highly speculative market and every coming day bring with it a new gossip about the market. Sometimes news about the strengthening of countries are heard where expert opined about the highly stable condition of Indian economy where reserves are yet surplus available for next three years but the other hand reports of weakening of currency are received. Indian Government has increased 10% minimum support price but currency depreciated around 30% in one year which means that new prices of India should open at least 10% competitive than last year (if currency remains at the same deprecated level) and PRICES OF VARIOUS RICE VARIETIES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES inflation rates stands around 10% Prices (USD) on FOB Basis Variety Same situation of Pakistan India Vietnam Thailand growing area in India too where 1121 Parboiled Rice (Crop 2012-13) 1500 1350 NA NA farmers has left sowing Pusa and Jasmine Hom Mali Rice (Crop 2012-13) NA NA 1150 650 Traditional rice and tilted to 1121 Extra Long Grain Rice and Super Basmati White Rice (Crop 2012-13) 1320 1400 NA NA now 85% of area in Punjab and Indian Tradtional Crop (2012-13) Haryana of India is growing Super Basmati Brown Rice (Crop 2012-13) 1130 1230 NA NA 1121 Rice. 1121 Extra Long Indian Traditional Brown Rice (2012-13) 437 415 445 385 Grain parboiled Rice was sold at Long Grain White Rice (05% Broken) such a lowest price level in 2009 -10 that its introduction has been reached to almost all the corners of the world where the world’s longest rice was sold at price level of 750 to 850 dollars per ton, therefore no need of introducing this variety where it has become the eating *Author is from Atlas Foods Pakistan. 16
  • 17. September 2013, Volume 5 - Issue 88 Up gradation of Basmati DNA Testing R AN INITIATIVE IN PAKISTAION BY NIBGE, PAKISTAN ice is third major cash crop of Pakistan, grown over 10% of the total cropping area with 6.7% value addition in agriculture and 1.6% in GDP. Super Basmati is well known premium rice and accounts for 2% of total export. It is renowned for unique fragrance, distinctive shape, long grain and top quality, both in raw and cooked state. Consumer’s preference generates higher returns for customary Basmati varieties. Food adulteration is a major problem with serious concerns worldwide. Admixtures of inexpensive normal long grain rice in fine grain “Super Basmati” might be caused by According to a report titled, Export of rice to the USA “Pakistani Basmati rice is inhomogeneous seed material, seed mixing during cultivation, cross contacts during transportation, handling or processing as matchless in quality, known internationally well as on purpose. These incriminations have disturbed for aroma and exotic taste”. This highlights consumer trust and hence export volumes. According to a report the great opportunity of Basmati rice export of Food Standard Agency, UK, 17% out of 363 tested Basmati to EU and other countries. samples had non-Basmati mixing. It is inevitable to develop a technique to protect the interests of consumers and rice-trading community. Authenticity of Basmati rice samples is crucial to certify it for customers, international rice trade, and to qualify for zero import duty. Moreover, a number of Basmati importing countries insist for mandatory purity certificate based on a DNA test. Benefits of DNA Authenticity Test for Seed Companies     To meet the requirements of EU Commission Regulation (EC) No 972/2006 for zero import duty Exploring potential of seed purity Testing of F1 seed purity importing to Pakistan Dr. Muhammad Arif , Principal Scientist of NIBGE is testing authenticity of Super Basmati rice since 2004. Currently Dr Arif and his team has upgraded its facility with assimilation of a CEQ-8000 Beckman Coulter Genetic Analyzer, for the identification of admixture level in premium Basmati rice with other long grain rice in given sample. Thus even small percentage of other varieties can be identified easily with this facility. NIBGE is the first institute in Pakistan that now offers DNA Genetic Analyzer facility for certification of Basmati rice. For more details; National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering www.nibge.org 17