Rice plus magazine,v5 issue 9 , december 2013
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Rice plus magazine,v5 issue 9 , december 2013



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Rice plus magazine,v5 issue 9 , december 2013 Rice plus magazine,v5 issue 9 , december 2013 Document Transcript

  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 www.ricepluss.com
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine Editorial Board Chief Editor Hamlik Managing Editor Rahmat Ullah Rozeen Shaukat English Editor Maryam Naseer Business Development Manager Mujahid Ali Graphic Designer Mohammad Zakriya Marketing Executive (s) Sarfraz Ahmed Khalid Shabbir (UAE) Shamsahd Ahmad (Saudi Arabia) Legal Advisor Advocate Zaheer Minhas Editorial Advisory Board        Admiral (R) Hamid Khalid Javaid Islam Agha Ch. Hamid Malhi Dr. Akhtar Husain Dr. Fayyaz Ahmed Siddique Dr. Abdul Rashid (UAF) Islam Akhtar Khan Contents Genome Based Breeding Strategies for Rice Improvement The Battle for Pakistan’s Agriculture (News in Brief) Green Manuring for Rice Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Strategy in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Branded Rice–Still a Nascent Industry (News in Brief) Zinc Acquisition, its Role and Deficiency Concerns in Rice Nutrition Indonesia Hopes……. (News in Brief) Global Rice Trade Forecast to Decline in 2012-13 and 2013-14 Seeds for Needs Initiative Innovation Summit 2014 Pg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 For Print Subscription and Advertisement Mujahid Ali Cell: +92-321-369 2874 Email: mujahid.riceplus@gmail.com US$ 5/ PKR 400- per copy inclusive of postage US$ 18/ PKR 1400-annually (four issues) inclusive of postage YOUR IDEA has a great worth---JUST share it through RICE PLUS MAZAZINE  Share Developments in Rice and Allied Sectors  Promote the Concept of Knowledge Economy Share your feedback or Send your write up to: riceplus@irp.edu.pk Disclaimer: Rice plus Magazine is owned, managed and published by Induss Pak Corporation Lahore, represented by Hamid Malik, which has been outsourced to Institute of Research Promotion (IRP). All the rights of ownership, reprinting, editing and copyrighting are reserved with Induss Pak Corporation. No responsibility is assumed by Induss Pak Corporation for any kind of contribution/published material by authors. Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine IRP, Suite # 11, Floor # 7, Central Plaza, Barkat Market, New Garden Town, Lahore, Pakistan. Tel: +92-42-35846988, +92-42-35845551, Fax: +92-42-5853157 2
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Genome Based Breeding Strategies for Rice Improvement P Dr. Javed Iqbal Wattoo*, Zuhair Husnain** and Dr. Muhammad Arif*** lant breeding is a dynamic field of applied science. It depends on genetic variation and uses selection to improve plants for traits and characteristics that are of interest for the grower and the consumer. The progress in conventional breeding is slow owing to several barriers, such as the time-consuming selection process and difficulties in appropriate genotype selection. Due to the quantitative nature of most agronomic traits, it has prompted breeders to apply molecular technologies to rice breeding, also known as molecular breeding. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis are the most useful tools for rice molecular breeding. It is being used to identify new germplasm and to develop new rice cultivars. Since the beginning of recombinant DNA technology, it has been suggested that plant molecular biology has the potential to initiate a new green revolution for sustainable agriculture to meet the demands of a fast-growing human population worldwide. An impressive number of advances have greatly enhanced our understanding of structural and functional aspects of plant genomes. The complete genome sequences of many crops have revolutionized the world of plant genomics. Genetic engineering has already shown its potential for crop improvement. Because of their ecological and evolutionary novelty, transgenic crops have raised a number of questions and public awareness. Molecular markers facilitated plant breeding and have a great potential for crop breeding. Through the modern genome based techniques, the genetic basis for genes of interest can be unraveled and the targeted genes can be tagged and used for breeding programme. Functional genomic studies for stress tolerance are underway in different rice species to study gene expression and protein interactions for identifying gene networks responsible for trait phenotypes variation in the elite breeding populations. Molecular markers are tools that can be used in different ways to assist plant breeding. Marker Assisted Breeding (MAB) is time saving, cost effective and more precise. Some practical applications include: 1. Germplasm improvement and cultivar development. 2. Gene pyramiding for accumulating multiple genes for resistance to specific pathogens and pests within the same cultivar. 3. Examining allelic diversity in natural populations or Genome Based Breeding breeding material to select the desired genotypes. Molecular markers are used for linkage mapping of stress-tolerant genes/QTLs. Once the location of the QTL/gene is precisely recognized, it can be transferred to any variety. For transferring the QTLs of important traits from a wild species into a crop cultivar, breeders use advanced backcross QTL analysis (AB-QTL). In this approach, a wild species is backcrossed to a superior cultivar with selection for required traits. The segregating BC2F2 or BC2F3 population is then assessed for traits of interest and genotyped with polymorphic molecular markers. Gene pyramiding is often considered a viable approach to improve durability of resistance in rice cultivars. It accelerates the variety development process by offering the opportunity to select for all desirable genes simultaneously as well as eliminating the time consuming process of inoculation for different races or isolates at different time intervals. * Author belongs to Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), Lahore. ** Author belongs to Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University (BZU), Multan. ***Author belongs to National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad. 3
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers have gained much interest in the scientific and breeding community. A variety of approaches for large-scale SNPs identification are available. The pace with which SNPs can be identified in rice will enhance the involvement of the next-generation sequencing techniques. SNP discovery in many crop species is relatively straightforward because of their high level of intraspecific nucleotide diversity, and the availability of many gene and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. Association mapping based on Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) is another significant genome based approach. The primary objective of association mapping is to detect correlations between genotypes and phenotypes in a sample of individuals from a population. The use of unrelated genotypes or natural populations in association mapping can provide greater resolution for identifying genes responsible for variation in a quantitative trait. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genome) is a reverse genetic approach that combines the high density of point mutations provided by traditional chemical mutagenesis with fast mutational screening to discover induced lesions. TILLING is suitable for any organism that can be heavily mutagenized and it does not require advanced genetic tools. One possible limitation of this technique is that it would be ideally done on homozygous lines. If there is doubt, the assay should be carried out with just the DNA from each of the RILs and no SNPs should be detected. Genomic assisted breeding is poised to gain many direct and indirect benefits. However, high costs currently limit the execution of genomics-assisted crop improvement, particularly for inbreeding crops. Newly developed genome based tools will improve, but not replace, the conventional breeding and evaluation process. The final test of the value of a genotype is its performance in the target environment and acceptance by farmers. I The Battle for Pakistan’s Agriculture n recent decades, the sovereignty of many countries has been undermined by the bully- ing impositions of corporations backed by their own governments. This extends to forcing the adoption of so-called “level playing ground” rules that cannot apply to our socio -economic and environmental conditions: fictitious “equal standing” is simply not possible between unequals. Monoculture killed three-fourths of global biodiversity and soils: GM can only hasten extinction. There are 61 federal and provincial agricultural agencies (led originally by Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC) and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), which were devolved to the provinces in 2010. PARC is trying to get an extraordinary position for itself at the federal level as an umbrella organisation over all other agencies from where it will be easier to impose decisions onto the provinces. For the same reason, foreign interests such as USAID, therefore, prefer working with all-encompassing federal institutions. Between a billion and two billion rupees all taxpayer money - is spent annually on Pakistan’s agricultural agencies to do research and related work. And though they will offer a list of impressive projects, some in collaboration with “foreign” establishments, they do not include what smallholder peasants or farmers like Ijaz Rao really need or want, such as organic farming, something they could revive with Cuba’s help, today the global leader and teacher in advanced techniques. Source with thanks: http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-englishonline/columns/28-Aug-2013/the-battle-for-pakistan-s-agriculture Note: The full text of this article can be viewed by clicking link. 4
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Green Manuring for Rice G Shahzad Tahir* and Muhammad Irfan** reen manuring is an important part of our cropping system for centuries. Sustainable production of rice required introduction of green manuring in rice based cropping system. Green manuring increases the nitrogen supply and improve the soil health. It also enhance the organic matter contents as well as increases the fertilizer use efficiency. In Pakistan wheat is harvested from the end of March to early May. In Punjab it is started from the end of April to early June and finished at the end of March and Sindh usually harvest it in early April. Almost six to twelve weeks fellow period is left for raising of short period green manuring crop. This is the most suitable way to reduce the fertilizer requirements (urea) and improving the soil health. Green Manuring Crops: There are different types of green manuring crops, include both legumes and non-legumes. The legumes are more efficient than non-legumes. The short period most commonly used legume crops are dhaincha (Sesbania aculeate or Sesbaniarostrata), guara (Cyanopsistetraqonoloba), cowpea (Viqnasinensis) and sunhemp (Crotolariajuncea) which can be used in wheat-rice cropping system. These crops have the ability to increase the nitrogen availability for rice. Due to their rapid growth these can suppress the weeds as well as plentiful nodulation activity is also preferable. Among all dhaincha (Sesbania aculeate or Sesbaniarostrata) is more suitable. It gives more nitrogen and organic matter to the crop as compared to cowpea and sunhemp. It also performbetter in saline sodic and water logged soils, and used for the reclamation of saline and sodic soils. Sesbaniarostrata is more important in case of Dhaincha. Nitrogen fixation starts after nodule formation on roots and stem where Rhizobial bacteria are present, after fixation nitrogen is excreted partially into the soil. Crop Establishment/Stand: Green manuring crops are grown from March to April; While Sesbania can be grown up to August. In wheat rice cropping system 10-15 kg presoaked Dhaincha seeds can be broadcast in standing wheat during the last irrigation or after the harvesting of wheat in standing water.It can also be grown in fine seed bed at proper moisture level. Under adverse soil conditions, higher seed rate should be used. For the succeeding rice crop all the phosphorus fertilizer should be applied to green manure crop. Soil Incorporation: When green manure crop gain maximum vegetative growth (just before flowering) it should be incorporate in the soil. For this purpose flood irrigation, rotavator or chain mounted tractor can be utilized. After three to four days of this operation pudddling should be done for two days. Then rice seedlings can be transplanted after three to four days of incorporation. The availability of nitrogen from green manuring is reduced if transplanting of rice is delayed. Nitrogen Availability/Contribution: Maximum amount of nitrogen is available for 21 days after incorporation 50% nitrogen comes from green manuring and other 50 % should be given in two splits, first at 10thday after transplanting and other at penicle initiation stage. For early decomposition and nitrogen release from green manure C:N ratio of 1/10 is suitable. Higher C: N ratio may have adverse effect on the seedling of rice. Previous studies show that green manuring in rice enhances the yield from 34-96 % then untreated control. It also saves 20-35 kg nitrogen per acer. It is suitable for short statured coarse verities of rice (IR-6 and KS-282) than tall statured basmati varieties. Residual Effects: Almost 80 % nitrogen is mineralized during rice crop however, the residual nitrogen may not have positive effect on wheat crop grown after rice but it may possible that continuous green manuring for 3-4 year would have the significant effect on wheat crop. Sesbania should be grown for green manuring once in 3 years in the wheat rice cropping system. Effects on Soil Health: Green manuring increase the organic matter content of the soil. It also results in the soil structure improvement, porosity, bulk density and water holding capacity of soil by increasing the activity of microbes. It improves the availability of plant nutrients. The growing of green manures decreases the soil pH up to the range where microbial activity is maximum if the rice is grown in the alkaline soil. Green manure also enhances the cation exchange capacity. The practice of growing of green manure crops should be encouraged because it decreases the fertilizer requirement improve the soil health necessary for sustainable crop production and improvement of the ecosystem. * Authors belong to Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 5
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Strategy in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) P Dr. Muhammad Sarwar* and Amir Hamza** akistan is a leading rice exporter country in the world, dealing in long grain white rice, parboiled rice, broken rice, basmati rice and super basmati rice, which is primary source of protein for millions of peoples. The production of rice can be at a vital crossroad if the benefits of rice farmers, producers and consumers would be protected. One of the chief troubles among various problems of rice cultivation, is controlling of a range of insect pests which reduce crop yields. As a result, farmers, millers, traders and retailers around the globe are facing massive financial expenses. For curtailing the rice insect pests their correct identification, knowledge of their variable effects on yield and trustworthy information about their management practices are required. Insect Pests Attacking Rice and their Damage: Insect pests attacking during the seedling to tillering (vegetative growth) stages are: - Rice seed midge (hollowed-out seeds, chewed off roots and shoots damage). - Small yellow-brown beetle grape colaspis (seedling, root and shoot damage). - Chinch bugs (damage by weakened seedlings). - Rice water weevil (damage is longitudinal scars on leaf, root pruning). - Armyworms (foliar damage). - Maize billbugs (harm by seedlings lodge, white seed heads). Leafhoppers (yield and quality losses, sooty mold fungus on leafhopper exudates, bronze foliage appearance) Insect pests during the panicle initiation to harvest stages (reproductive growth) include rice stalk borers (damage by stem tunneling, blank seed heads or whiteheads), grasshoppers (cause damage due to holes in leaves, blank heads, mangled grains), blister beetles (defoliate the rice), whorl maggot (damaged leaves), leaf folder (damaged leaves) and rice stink bug (resulting pecky rice). These insects reduce yields substantially and estimated rice yield losses caused by such pests on a worldwide basis are 31.5, 15.0, 14.4, 3.5, 3.4, and 2.0%in Asia, China, Africa, South America, North and Central America, and Europe, respectively.The damage through feeding of stem borers on non-aromatic and aromatic rice genotypes in Pakistan has been estimated as 10.46 and 40.45%, respectively. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: The most favored approach for controlling rice insect pests is by developing and following an integrated pest management strategy. It is through the integration of a variety of pest control options to effectively maintain a pest insect population at densities below the economic threshold level. The effective integrated pest management tactics include cultural practices, application of insecticides, biological control and crop breeding for resistance. The possible components of cultural control are use of crop seed free from wild rice, soil puddling, planting time, transplanting planting method, age of seedlings at time of transplanting, fertilizer management, number of rice crops per year, synchronous planting over a given area, weeding, growth duration of the crop, crop rotation, hand weeding of initial infestations, and water management approach. Established infestations are needed to be addressed through the use of stale seedbeds or water seeding or transplanting. In chemical control, the applications of insecticides are one of components in a package of pest’s management technologies. Firstly the chlorinated hydrocarbons are used, then phosphates or carbamates, and recently the pyrethriodsare also being used. However, judicious use of selective insecticides in rice is necessary, while their routine and calendar-based applications are no longer recommended. Timely and regular scouting of fields can help to determine when economic pest infestations are present to justify insecticide applications. For biological control, the actions of indigenous predators, parasitoids and insect pathogens form * Author is Senior Scientist in Plant Protection Division, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Co-author is Senior Scientific Officer in PARC, Research and Training Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 6
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 the cornerstone for modern pest control, however, indigenous natural enemies have a strong impact on rice pest populations. Numerous parasitoids have been reported attacking the eggs, larvae and pupae of the rice leaffolder. Predators, including predacious insects and spiders, attack all stages of rice insects. Spiders are abundant in rice fields and wolf spider Lycosa pseudoannulata is the most important predator in rice fields, where nymphs and adults of leafhoppers and planthoppers are its major preys. The pathogens belonging to the groups of bacteria, virus and fungi by attacking rice insect pests can play an important role in the regulation in rice insect pest populations. Among the entomogenous fungi, green muscardine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, commonly attacks rice planthoppers, leafhoppers and rice black bugs. Host plant resistance because of its unique advantages is sought as a key tactic in the integrated control of rice insect pests. The cornerstone of an integral control strategy is the use of multiple pest resistant varieties in combination with natural biological control for profitability of rice production. The integral control module comprising alternate spraying with Neem-based formulation and newer safe insecticides coupled with release of egg parasitoids against leaf older, and monitoring of stem borer with sex pheromone traps can result in significant reduction of stem borer (dead heart, white ear), whorl maggot and leaf folder populations. The focal point to reduce massive use of chemicals is bing practiced on farms in Philippine, Vietnam and Iran. It increases the efficiency of fertilizers as well as increase yields and incomes. In some areas, the farmers have reduced pest related crop losses through the introduction of beneficial parasitoids such as Trichogramma wasps. In Myanmar, predatory ants are released in fields that feed on the eggs of problematic insect pests. In few other countries including China, the use of ducks and fish in rice fields have resulted decrease in pest populations and increased paddy yield. The use of ducks and fish also provide an additional source of income and protein. These pest control practices can have a significant impact on minimizing the adverse effects of insecticides and increase the profitability of rice production at mass scale. Branded Rice–Still A Nascent Industry S  adly,  traditional  and  outdated  post‐harvest  practices  have  resulted  in  substantial  losses in the output and quality of basmati – affecting the value of produce and farm‐ ers’  profit  margins.  A  majority  of  rice  millers  and  producers  are  export‐oriented,  as  they  obtain  far  better  margins  from  abroad.  Only  a  few  companies  have  brought  branded rice to the domestic market in a sustained manner. It is certainly a bitter fact to con‐ sider that branded rice holds a mere 2.1% share in total rice consumption in the country.     So, why the branded rice industry has not been able to create a space for itself, as the  branded tea and oil sector has. In this regard, a few things come to light. None of the compa‐ nies have actually built brands, to the extent that they enjoy distinct recognition and market  share in the domestic market, and for which consumers would be willing to pay a premium. In  this context, unbranded rice is sold at much cheaper rates in the local market, which knocks  out demand for branded rice even before it is put on the shelves .Furthermore, rice market‐ ers’ distribution network is still at an immature state, leading to irregular supply. Meanwhile,  companies compete on prices rather than building a name based on the quality of their prod‐ uct. This erodes margins and hurts customer loyalty towards brands that are already present  in the market. It remains to be seen if the situation will be remedied by an enterprising entre‐ preneur.  Source with thanks: http://tribune.com.pk/story/444748/branded‐ricestill‐a‐nascent‐industry/ 7
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Zinc Acquisition, its Role and Deficiency Concerns in Rice Nutrition R Farhan Khalid* , Naeem Fiaz** and Muhammad Aleem Sarwar** ice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main staple food grain crop of around half of the world’s population and it ranked 2nd after wheat in Pakistan. It has been observed that globally rice provides about 21 and 15% per capita of dietary energy and protein, respectively. According to the economic analysis of Pakistan, Ministry of Finance, significant growth in major crops is contributed by rice, cotton and sugarcane. However, rice accounts 4.9% of the value added in agriculture and 1% of GDP while its production was 6160 thousand tons and area sown was of 2571 thousand hectares during the year 2011-12. Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient required both for Improving Zn efficiency optimum crop growth and for human beings. Plants take up Zn in has recently become a major its divalent form. Up to now it’s still not clear whether the uptake plant breeding task in several of Zn is facilitated as diffusion through membranes specific countries. mechanism for Zn ion or mediated by specific transporter(s). In spite of Zn uptake by both of the mechanisms, almost 90% of the total requirement of the Zn by plants is mediated through diffusion. The lateral mechanism of Zn movement is extremely dependent upon the soil moisture status and it might be the major reason of Zn deficiency in the arid and semi-arid regions of Pakistan. Among the major crops, rice mainly show highly sensitive behavior regarding Zn deficiency especially when it is grown under anaerobic soil conditions. In many countries the deficiency of Zn is the key factor that determines rice production as it significantly limits the growth and yield of rice. Zn deficiency has been recorded worldwide; however, some reports have shown that around 30% soils in the world are Zn deficient to different extents. For effective growth of rice plants the critical index of Zn in soil is 1.5 mg kg-1. In case when there is inadequate supply of Zn, rice plants exhibit deficiency symptoms. However, a major amount of Zn is unavailable to meet the nutritional requirement of the plants as this amount is mainly present as structural constituent of the soil. Whereas, the available form of soil Zn is present in ionic or complex form in the soil solution and may be found on the exchange sites of clay minerals and organic matter. Other forms of Zn are present as adsorbed divalent cation, Zn hydroxide, or Zn chloride. There are several factors that hinder the supply of Zn to the plants among which the very important are; - pH of the soil - High levels of soil phosphorus and copper - Presence of calcium carbonate Flooding and submergence bring about a decline in available Zn due to pH changes and Zn solubility declines 100 times for each unit increase in pH. Zn availability to the plants is greatly dependent upon the soil pH as greater the soil pH lower will be the availability of Zn. Under the submerged conditions of rice cultivation, Zn is changed into amorphous sesquioxide precipitates or franklinite (ZnFe2O4). Presence of calcium carbonates affects the pH of the soil as higher amounts of calcium carbonates reduce Zn availability to the plants due to higher pH. Zn forms its carbonates in alkaline calcareous soils by reacting with calcium carbonate which reduces the availability of Zn to the plants. Similarly, greater amount of phosphorus in the soil also responsible to limit the availability of Zn. Calcium also affects Zn availability as both have the same mechanism of absorption. In contradiction application of magnesium enhances the availability of Zn and its uptake by the roots. * Author belongs to Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. ** Authors are belong to Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. 8
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Zn fertilizer application is carried out to correct Zn deficiency. Znin divalent form is the predominant form taken up by the plants. Zn is applied as broadcast, fertigation, seed socking/ priming, seed dressing, top dressing and foliar spray. The oxides and oxy-sulphates of Zn are slow releasing forms regarding build-up purposes. However, for row application, Zn sulphate and for immediate uptake of Zn, chleated Zn must be sprayed or applied to the soil. Chelated form of Zn as foliar spray is a quick and rapid way of eliminating Zn deficiency in plants. Whereas, Zn fertilizer application in combination with nitrate and sulphate can improve the efficacy of Zn fertilization, lessen the impact of single form of Zn fertilizer on quality attributes like crude protein contents and accumulation of starch in seeds, and fortify rice against disease, thereby improve quality and yield of rice. However, the role of Zn in rice nutrition should be well understood for yield improvement related issues and has been an attractive aspect for researches as well. In rice plants Zn plays a pivotal role in several biochemical processes such as; - Cytochrome (a pigment) and nucleotide synthesis. - Auxin (an essential growth hormone) metabolism. - Regulates starch formation and proper root development. - Formation of chlorophyll and carbohydrates. - Enzyme activation. - Membrane integrity. - Enable plants to withstand lower air temperatures. - Seed maturation. Zn plays an important role in regulating the activity of carbonic anhydrase (an enzyme) which is responsible to change carbon dioxide to reactive bicarbonate species that further fixed to carbohydrates in these plants. Zn is functional, structural and regulatory component of many enzymes which avert oxidative stress at cell level such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. It is also a component of several proteins. Plant breeding and agronomic approaches to improving the Zn acquisition and its transport have a greater significance and relevance. However, the lateral approach has more significant focus in improving the rhizospheric Zn levels by fertilizer application. However, in case of improving acquisition of Zn, the primary prerequisite is variability in the genetic makeup of different traits. Such genotypic variations can be exploited in breeding programs to produce genotypes with higher Zn efficiency. However, improving Zn efficiency has recently become a major plant breeding task in several countries. Zn deficiency being an important nutrient constraint, any approach to improve Zn uptake and its transport to grains has significant practical relevance. Indonesia Hopes 2014 Paddy Rice Production Will to Grow 6% to 76.57 Million Tons Indonesia  will  be  self‐sufficient  in  rice  next  year  as  paddy  rice  production  is  expected  to  increase  to  around 76.57 million tons (about 48 million tons, ba‐ sis milled), up about 6% from an estimated 72.06 mil‐ lion  tons  in  2013,  the  country’s  rice  purchasing  agency Bulog says. According to the Bulog chief, rice  consumption  in  the  country  stands  at  around  36‐37  million tons per year, and the government is targeting  a surplus of around 10 million tons in 2014 to ensure  food security. At present, there is a surplus of around  6 million tons, he says. The Bulog chief also says that  rice production in Indonesia has grown at an average  of 3.88% in the last five years, and a good crop is ex‐ pected in 2014 as weather conditions seem favorable.  Indonesia  is  the  world’s  third  largest  rice  producer,  but the country was also a top rice importer in 2012  with  rice  imports  of  around  1.9  million  tons  in  the  year.  However,  rice  imports  are  expected  to  reduce  significantly in 2013 and 2014 due to higher produc‐ tion.   Source with thanks:   http://oryza.com/news/indonesia-hopes-2014-paddy -rice-production-grow-6-7657-million-tons 9
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 G Global Rice Trade Forecast to Decline in 2012-13 and 2013-14 lobal rice trade is likely to decline in 2012-13 and 2013-14 due to lower purchases by leading importers and poor production prospects in India and China, according to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Rice trade in 2012-13 is expected to reach around 37.6 million tons, down about 2% from around 38.4 million tons in the previous year. In 2013-14, global rice trade is likely to decline further by aorund 0.5% to around 37.4 million tons, according to the FAO. Indonesia, Iran, South Korea and the Philippines are all expected to reduce their imports due to abundant supplies. Production is increasing in all these countries while rice consumption is on the decline in South Korea. Imports by African countries are also likely to decline. The FAO says that China’s rice imports are likely to remain high in 2012-13 and 2013-14, but may decline if global prices increase. Among exporters, India is expected to remain the world’s largest rice exporter in 2012-13 and in 2013-14, but exports are likely to slow down from 2011-12 due to higher stock utilization under the National Food Security Law. "India is expected to bear much of the brunt of the 2014 contraction in world trade, shipping 9 million tons of rice or 1.2 million tonnes less than estimated for 2013," FAO says. Exports by Pakistan, the U.S. and Vietnam are also likely to decline. However, Thailand’s rice exports may recover in 2012-13 and 2013-14 due to decline in export prices. The FAO also lowered its forecast for 2013-14 world rice production to around 494 million tons, still up about 1% from 2012-13 due to worsening of crop prospects in China and India. Global rice utilization in 2013-14 is forecast to reach 489 million tons, up about 2.6% or 12 million tons from the previous year. Note: The article is taken form the knowledge pool of http://oryza.com/. 10
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Seeds for Needs Initiative Hafeez ur Rehman* and Dr Shahzad M. A Basra ** ‘Seeds for Needs’ is simple concept and initiative that works with farmers to research to minimize the risks associated with climate change through agricultural biodiversity. C limate change, soil and genetic erosion, water and energy availability are challenges to country food security. Major drivers of this shift are unpredictable rainfall and temperature, rapid change in economic growth and limited crop diversity. Dependence on rice, wheat and maize to fulfill the protein and calories requirement are causing widespread malnutrition. Diminishing of natural and fresh water resourcesis depriving us from ecological blessings of soil microflora and fauna, plant and animal diversity. Biodiversity provides groundwork to halt these unexpected shocks lagging sustainable development and human growth. ‘Seeds for Needs’ is simple concept and initiative that works with farmers to research to minimize the risks associated with climate change through agricultural biodiversity. The concept involves growing range of crops on available farmland can help to withstand more likely with unpredictable weather. Due to least information, farmers are unaware of crops or varieties suitable under their conditions. Seeds for Needs initiative help farmers to use diversity to grow wisely and timely to satisfy their needs. This allows them to identify already pre-adapted varieties or expose them to more crops by increasing their knowledge about different traits and available option to strengthen their seed systems and always have access to planting materialsthat perform well in future climates. This not only reduces vulnerability to changing climate and also has least food insecurity. For example, wheat is susceptible to high temperature particularly during reproductive flowering stage. If farmers are advised to plant wheat varieties that flower and mature at different times, crop losses can be reduced by avoiding the effects of sudden heat stress. Likely for required diversity and traits for heat resistance, there is need to find wheat accessions available in national germplasm conservation center. Seeds for Needs also work to bridge the gap between farmers’ lack of access to seeds and the abundance of accessions in genebanks by providing locallyadapted seeds suitable - Due to water shortage conditions, we fall and changes in temfor unpredictable raincan shift our traditional flooded rice perature. Under water system to direct seeded (DSR) or alter- shortage conditions, we can shift our traditional flooded rice sysnate wetting and drying rice systems (DSR) or alternate wettem to direct seeded ting and drying rice (AWD) to economize water and drudg- systems (AWD) to economize water and ery. drudgery. Using crop diversification concept, we have to identify accessions or traits promising for high - There is a dire need to identify and ac- types; Bas 385, 515, yielding basmati 2000 and Super Bas cess to seeds of needs suitable for salt as donors to develop breeding lines with more closeness to Basaffected soils. mati rice.Since 2010, each year paddy rice thousands acres are damaged by floods and affects country rice production and market produce quality. We have to identify the varieties resistant to submerged condition for sustainable rice production. * Author is a lecturer in Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. ** Co-author is Professor in Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 11
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 In oilseeds, to reduce water and fertilizers inputs, - Strengthening of seed system for future needs, participatory breeding Camelina sativa and linola are viable options. These both program and efforts should be initi- oilseeds have greater adaptability under our local conditions. Due to high quality omega-3 fatty acids and high ated. biomass production for biofuel, camelina can be potential - There should be focus on group alternative. This will not only increase biodiversity but discussions and participatory variety also break the insects pests cycle with less inputs. Another potential utilization of increasing salt afselection, seed multiplication to exfected area in country is to grow the salt tolerant germploit genetic diversity, socioeconomic survey should be con- plasm of local adapted crop varieties and necessary genetic variability also exists for this. There is need to idenducted. tify and access to seeds of needs suitable for salt affected soils. - Varieties can be screened using GIS Farmers have to provide knowledge about alternatechnology. tives to local crops such as quinoa, a pseudo cereal from chenopodiaceae family have potential to reproduce even - Farmers’ varieties can be evaluated under sea water salinity. Access and adaptation to such and selection should be on on-farm alternatives will not reduce the salinity impact and introtrials and exchange the information duction of quinoa into our cropping system may reduce through field days about the per- diversity risk and its high nutritive value may help to alleformance of varieties. viate malnourishment. Under energy crisis, to increase sugar production with little water inputs, we can grow and involve farmers and sugar industry to research on sugarbeet and stevia plant, attractive alternative to sugarcane. We are promoting the concept of kitchen gardening in country which has raised concern for food security and growers may have shift from rice to vegetable cultivation due to more climate resilience of vegetables. For resilience agriculture, agro-ecological options such as conservation agriculture and system of intensification help us to manage soil-plant and nutrient relationship. Seeds for Needs was initiated by Bioversity International in Ethopia for wheat, barely in 2009 and now project have been launched successfully in India for rice, wheat, Papua New Guinea for taro, sweet potato, Honduras for beans, Kenya, Tanzania for sorghum, pigeon pea, cowpea and additional projects are expected to start in near future in Cambodia, Laos, Rwanda and Uganda. We can take example of this project as initiative for our seed systems to make strengthen for sustainable crop production. Although science and technology have made great contributions to increase food production but sustainable agriculture can benefit from system approaches and farmers’ participation. Farmers’ are adopting and improving the methods introduced in past and disseminating their indigenous knowledge and experience to other farmers using ‘from lab to land’ model. Involvement of farmers in research produces advances they want and need. For which we have to conduct field days and evaluate mother and baby trials using participatory approach to reduce vulnerability to changing climate. For strengthening of seed system for future needs, participatory breeding program and efforts should be initiated. There should be focus on group discussions and participatory variety selection, seed multiplication to exploit genetic diversity, socio-economic survey should be conducted. For desirable traits, varieties can be screened using GIS technology, farmers’ varieties can be evaluated and selection should be on on-farm trials and exchange the information through field days about the performance of varieties. 12
  • December, 2013 Volume 5-Issue 9 Innovation Summit 2014 Institute of Research Promotion invites industries and universities to share innovative ideas and technologies for Innovation Summit 2014 in Lahore . www.irp.edu.pk Institute of Research Promotion invites you to Display Innovations of Academia - Professors of universities and R&D organizations are known for innovative ideas, new technologies and research work. Display your ideas, technologies in labs and pilot scale development in the exhibition. This is right place to promote your innovation and link with potential donors, investors, supporters and users of your technologies Display Industry Technologies - Exhibit your innovative products developed and commercialized by your industry. Innovation Summit is a place to boost your image of innovation and progressive organization. Display your product, process and business model having proven track of technological innovation. Be Part of Innovation Summit - We invite industry, academia, public and social sector organizations to support the annual innovation summit. You can share expenses, extend sponsorship support, fund innovation awards, fund travel and stay of students /guests and offer other managerial and operational support. 13