Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
MUC110  LEC 9. Radio
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

MUC110 LEC 9. Radio


Published on

Introduction to Radio

Introduction to Radio

Published in: Entertainment & Humor
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Radio © 2007
  • 2. Radio Overview 3 Major Provider Types: • Terrestrial Radio- traditional radio model • Internet Radio- online model • Celestial Radio- satellite model • Various Business Models: • Terrestrial Radio- Advertising • Internet Radio- Ad/Sponsorship • Celestial Radio- Subscription © 2007
  • 3. Brief History of Radio •1860’s – First Radio Technology developed •1920’s – Airwaves are unregulated – Starts as a service medium for farm reports & weather – Becomes a major outlet for mass Entertainment – First advertisers- hire their own producers to make and control radio shows •1930’s – FCC is created by an act of congress – Programming is broad, appeals to national audiences, no “genres” © 2007
  • 4. Brief History of Radio •1940’s – First recorded music only show; very popular, birth of a new format – Growth period for Radio •1950’s – Radio now has the ability to “make” top hits and music stars – First “Payola” scandals emerge •1980’s-00’s – FCC changes rules restricting radio ownership; Massive consolidation of radio begins – Before 1996, no single radio corporation could hold more than 65 stations. © 2007
  • 5. Commercial Terrestrial Radio Classification: • AM vs. FM – AM= News, talk, sports – FM= Music • By “call letter” – Stations begin with “W” or “K” – W=east of the Mississippi – K= west of the Mississippi © 2007
  • 6. Commercial Terrestrial Radio FM today: • Over 13,000 stations in the U.S. • A handful of Major Conglomerates own the majority of radio stations: – Clear Channel- owns over 1200 stations – CBS – News Corp. – Walt Disney • 75-85% of broadcast time is dedicated to music • Local advertisers make up 70%-80% of radio's revenue © 2007
  • 7. Commercial Terrestrial Radio The Team: • General Manager- CEO • Program Director- manages the “sound” • Music Director- meets with independent music promoters; conducts research • Promotions Director-runs all events/live promos © 2007
  • 8. Commercial Terrestrial Radio The Team: • Sales & Marketing Director- sells airtime advertising • Development Director- meets w/ community, creates goodwill, manages volunteers • DJs- on air “personalities”- back announcing • Engineering team • The independent radio promoter- works for record labels; middleman for securing airplay © 2007
  • 9. Commercial Terrestrial Radio A word about Independent Radio Promoters: • An indie middleman exists to help avoid violating payola laws • independent promoter, or indie, is a contractor representing record labels to radio stations • Indie develops exclusive deal with a radio station • indie promoter gets paid every time a song he/she is “selling” gets an “add” on the radio. © 2007
  • 10. Commercial Terrestrial Radio A word about Independent Radio Promoters: • Average going rate paid to indie for an add is $1,000 in large markets, $800 in medium markets and $600 in small markets. • Record companies together spend in excess of $100 million each year on radio promotion. • adding four songs a week at $600 each= $120,000 in adds annually. • The indie, generally splits revenue with station-->$70,000 to the station owners-->$50,000 for him or herself. © 2007
  • 11. Commercial Terrestrial Radio How Commercial Programming works: • Organized around the weekly playlist • Music Director looks at variety of research data- BDS, Soundscan • The weekly music meeting • MD, PD- review new releases each week • DJs do not, generally select the music played • Only a small number (approx. 3-5) songs are added each week • New adds can be handed down from top management © 2007
  • 12. Commercial Terrestrial Radio Radio Terms and Structures: • Genres- developed for advertisers. Allowed for more targeted niche markets • Reverse Programming- don’t include songs that listeners don’t want to hear • Clustering- sets of non-stop music- 6 songs, then cluster of ads, then DJ talk time © 2007
  • 13. Radio Terms: • Day Parting- breaking the day into specific programming segments with different needs--e.g. “drive time”- • Note: Morning and Evening drive time day parts are the most valuable to a radio station • AQH: Average Quarter Hour share of the national audience • Cume: total number of unique listeners who tune into a specific daypart for 5+ minutes • Syndicated Radio- total, self-contained radio shows produced and packaged by national media conglomerates (Westwood One) © 2007
  • 14. Commercial Radio & Research: • Radio time is carefully researched and “scripted” • Research includes: – Audience research--Auditorium – Sales- Soundscan – Airplay- Bds • Important Industry resources: – Arbitron – Billboard Charts – Nielsen – Radio & Records – Big Champagne © 2007
  • 15. Alternatives to Commercial: • Public Radio- NPR – Non-Profit – Government Funded – Private donors – Alternative view points • College Radio • Small Webcasters © 2007