Immunology of transplantation
Types of transplantation <ul><li>Autotransplantation – within  one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Allotranspla n tation-  betw...
 
Success rate of transplantation in humans
Polymorphism of human MHC antigens
Co-dominant expression of HLA genes
Effect of HLA-identity on kidney graft survival
Types of graft rejection <ul><li>Hyperacute  - minutes to few hours after transplantation. Caused by pre-formed antibodies...
The most frequent types of organ transplatation <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><...
Heamatopoietic stem cells  transplantation <ul><li>Indications: malignancies, bone marrow failure, primary immunodeficienc...
Graft-versus host reaction <ul><li>Immunological reaction of transplanted T-cells against recipients (HLA) antigens. </li>...
Systemic Immunosuppression <ul><li>High-dose steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Purine antagonists: Azathioprin </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Immunology xiv transplantaion

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Immunology xiv transplantaion

  1. 1. Immunology of transplantation
  2. 2. Types of transplantation <ul><li>Autotransplantation – within one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Allotranspla n tation- between one species </li></ul><ul><li>Xenotransplatation- betwen two different species </li></ul>
  3. 4. Success rate of transplantation in humans
  4. 5. Polymorphism of human MHC antigens
  5. 6. Co-dominant expression of HLA genes
  6. 7. Effect of HLA-identity on kidney graft survival
  7. 8. Types of graft rejection <ul><li>Hyperacute - minutes to few hours after transplantation. Caused by pre-formed antibodies against HLA antigens of the donor. Irreversible. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute -several days to months after transplantation. Namely T-cell mediated. Usually reversible by aggressive immunosuppression. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic - years after transplantation. Continuous decrease in graft function. Irreversible. Mechanism unknown. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The most frequent types of organ transplatation <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Cornea </li></ul>
  9. 10. Heamatopoietic stem cells transplantation <ul><li>Indications: malignancies, bone marrow failure, primary immunodeficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whole“ bone marrow or separated CD34+ cells can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>The most significant complication: graft-versus host reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal HLA-matched donor is required. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Graft-versus host reaction <ul><li>Immunological reaction of transplanted T-cells against recipients (HLA) antigens. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin, liver, intestine predominantly affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Milder forms can be treated by immunosuppression, severe forms may be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be induced by transfusion of non-irradiated blood to immunodeficient patients (primary immunodeficiencies, leukemia…). </li></ul>
  11. 12. Systemic Immunosuppression <ul><li>High-dose steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Purine antagonists: Azathioprin </li></ul><ul><li>Alkylating agents: Cyclophosphamide </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-pholates: Methotrexate </li></ul><ul><li>Calcineurin antagonists: Cyclosporine A, Rapamycin, Tacrolymus </li></ul><ul><li>Block of purins synthesis: Mycophenolate </li></ul><ul><li>Antilymphocytic serum </li></ul><ul><li>Monoclonal antobodies: anti CD3, anti CD25... </li></ul>

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