Immunology i introduction

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  • 1. Immunology-introduction
  • 2. Immune system
    • One of the basic homeostatic mechanisms of the body.
    • Its function is the recognition of foreign/dangerous substance s.
    • Th e dangerous substances trigger complex reactions which result in elimination of those substances.
  • 3. Immune system
    • Recognizes foreign/dangerous substances from the environment ( mainly microbes)
    • Is involved in elimination of old and damaged cells of the body.
    • Attacks tumor and virus-infected cells.
  • 4. Functions of the immune system
    • Deffence
    • Autotolerance
    • Immune surveillance
  • 5. Antigen
    • Substance, that is recognised by the immune syst e m as a foreign and triggers immune reaction (immunogenicity) .
    • Products of the immune reaction (antibodies, T-lymphocytes) react with the antigen.
  • 6. Requirements of immunogenicity
    • Foreign (unknown) for the immune system
    • High molecular weight ( > 6 kDa)
    • Chemical complexity
  • 7. Antigen – basic components
    • Carrier part of the molecule
    • Antigenic determinant- epitope (cca 5-7 aminoacids)
  • 8. Antigen and epitope
  • 9. Chemical composition of antigents
    • Proteins – usually very good antigens.
    • Polysacharides - usually only as a part o f gly c oproteins.
    • Nucleic acids- poor antigenicity, limited to complexes with proteins
    • Lipi d s – only exceptionally, best known are sfingolipids.
  • 10. Hapten
    • Low-molec u lar weight substances that trigger immune r eaction after binding to various proteins of the body.
    • They react with products of the immune reaction.
    • Typical ex amples are metals (Cr, Ni) that trigger type IV immun opathological reactions. Drugs (antibiotics, local anestetics) cause type I immunopathological reaction.
  • 11. Immunogenicity of hapten
  • 12. Cross reactivity of antigens
    • Products o f the immune reaction may , in some conditions , react with substances that are very diff e rent from the initial immunogen.
    • Immunological cross-reactivity not necessary me a n similar chemical composition.
    • The degree of cross reactivity may be diff e rent.
    • Cross reactivity is important in pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases.
  • 13. Cross reactivity of antigens Benjamini E, Leskowitz S. 1988
  • 14. Adjuvants
    • Substances, that when mixed with antigen, non-specifically enhance immune reaction against the antigen.
    • Freud´s adjuvant: killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis + water-in-oil emulsion. Used in veterinary medicine .
    • Alum precipitate - AL(OH) 3 - used in human medicine
  • 15. Two branches of the immune response
    • Innate, nonspecific – very quickly recognizes most foreign substances and eliminates them. There is no memory.
    • Adaptive, specific – high degree of specificity in distinction between self and non-self. The reaction requires several days to be effectively triggered. There is immune memory.
  • 16. Cells of the immune system
    • Main cells of the immune system
      • Lymfocytes (T a B)
    • Accessory cells of the immune system
      • Granulocytes
      • Monocytes
      • Tissue macrophages
      • Mast cells
      • Dendritic cells
      • NK cells
      • Endotelial cells
      • Thrombocytes, erythrocytes, fibroblasts, epitelial cells
  • 17. Majority of immune system cell originate in bone marrow Roitt/Broskoff/Male: IMMUNOLOGy, 4th ed
  • 18. Lymphocyte – central cell of the immune system
  • 19. Auxiliary cells of the immune system
  • 20.  
  • 21. Antigen- presenting cells
  • 22. Organs of the immune system Roitt/Broskoff/Male: IMMUNOLOGy, 4th ed
  • 23. Lymph node Roitt/Broskoff/Male: IMMUNOLOGy, 4th ed
  • 24. The Spleen
  • 25. Histology of the Spleen Roitt/Broskoff/Male: IMMUNOLOGy, 4th ed
  • 26. Payer ´s Patches
  • 27. Circulation of lymph o cytes in the body
  • 28. Circulation of Lymphocytes in the body The role of High Endotelial Venules Roitt/Broskoff/Male: IMMUNOLOGy, 4th ed