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  • 1. Contents: 35. Ovarium, corpus luteum01. Labium oris (lip) 36. Tuba uterina – ampulla02. Apex linguae (top of tongue) 37. Tuba uterina – isthmus03. Papilla circumvallata 38. Uterus – proliferative phase04. Tonsilla lingualis 39. Uterus – secretory phase05. Palatum molle 40. Vagina06. Tonsilla palatina 41. Labium minus07. Tooth 42. Hypophysis cerebri08. Glandula parotis 43. Epiphysis09. Glandula submandibularis 44. Glandula thyreoidea10. Glandula sublingualis 45. Glandula parathyreoidea11. Oesophagus 46. Corpus suprarenale12. Cardia 47. Thymus13. Fundus ventriculi 48. Artery and Vein14. Pylorus 49. Aorta15. Duodenum 50. Vena cava16. Intestinum tenue 51. Myocardium17. Intestinum crassum 52. Lymphonodus18. Appendix 53. Lien (spleen)19. Hepar (liver) 54. Skin from the top of finger20. Vesica fellea (gall bladder) 55. Skin from the axilla21. Pancreas 56. Skin with hairs22. Epiglottis 57. Nail23. Larynx 58. Mamma non lactans24. Trachea 59. Mamma lactans25. Pulmo (lung) 60. Cortex cerebri26. Ren (kidney) 61. Cerebellum27. Urethra 62. Medulla spinalis (spinal cord)28. Vesica urinalis (urinary 63. Ganglionbladder) 64. Peripheral nerve29. Testis 65. Anterior segment of the eye30. Epididymis 66. Posterior segment of the eye31. Funiculus spermaticus (spermatic 67. Palpebracord) 68. Auricle32. Glandula vesiculosa (seminal 69. Umbilical cordvesicle) 70. Placenta33. Prostata34. Penis
  • 2. 1. Labium orisMusculus Obicularis Oris is present (skeletal muscle)On the external surface is the skin with its adnexaOn the inner surface is the mucosa (stratified squamous epithelium +lamina propria) and submucosa with mixed glands “Labial glands“).2. Apex linguaUnderneath the papillae, there are mucous and serous glands, pockets ofadipose tissue, and a layer of skeletal muscle and connective tissue.The skeletal muscle is arranged in three different planes, which allows thetongue to perform a number of complex movements.
  • 3. 3. Papilla CircumvallataSurrounded by a deep furrow, where Ebners Glands open.Epithelia covering papilla (stratified squamous non-keratinizing).Taste buds are located on the lateral sides, in the epithelium.4. Tonsilla lingualisA lymphatic structure that contains abundant germinal centers whereimmune cells undergo differentiation.Surface is covered with stratified squamous epithelium.5. Soft palate:On the nasal side it is possible to see: – pseudostratified epithelium- lamina propria- submucosa with mixed glands “Nasal Glands“
  • 4. 5. Soft palate:On the oral side it is possible to see: – lining mucosa of the mouth cavity- submucosa with mucous glands “Palatine Glands“5. Hard palate:Covered by masticatory mucosa (stratified squamous epithelium)Note bone at the top, mucosa at the bottom and a large amount of salivarytissue between.A short distance from the lamina propria there is a large duct.6. Tonsilla palatinaThe tonsils share some histological features with lymph nodes:1. Cells in the tonsils are supported by a fine network of reticular fibres2. High-endothelial (postcapillary ~) venules function in the "homing" ofcirculating lymphocytes - this is actually a shared feature of all lymphoidtissues and organs.The palatine tonsils are surrounded by a thick hemicapsule of connectivetissue, which delimits them from the pharyngeal muscle and facilitates theirremoval in tonsillitis.
  • 5. 7. Tooth Pulp – jelly-like connective tissue with blood capillaries and fine nerve fibers. Odontoblasts are located on the external surface. Dentin –shows fine striation, caused by dentin tubules (contain the cytoplasmic processes of odontoblasts); dentin is stained in red or red- violet color, except thin layer near the odontoblasts – predentin (is not calcified) and peripheral layer below cementum and enamel (is irregularly calcified), dentin is pale in this layers. Enamel – is not present in decalcified tooth (it dissolves during decalcification). Cementum – covers the root(s) of the tooth; the thickest layer is on the root apex(es); it is not possible to distinguish primary (acellular) and secondary (cellular; with cementocytes) cementum in the light microscope. Periodontium – bundles of collagenous fibers, which hold the dental root in bone alveolus (rarely present in slides).8. Parotid GlandA, Serous acini; B, Striated ducts; C, Ecretory ductParotid gland – only serous (alveolar = acinar) glandOnly serousintercalated – striated – interlobular – mainThe gland is internally divided into lobules. Blood vessels and nerves enterthe glands at the hilum and gradually branch out into the lobules.Consists of paired glands surrounded with a connective tissue capsule; septarunning from the capsule separate the glandular parenchyma into lobes andlobules. Blood vessels, nerves and interlobular ducts are found in theconnective tissue of septa. Parenchyma is composed of intralobular ductsand secretory portions of glands.They consists of connective tissue = capsule + septa and parenchyma of lobules = ducts + secretory portions9.Submandibular GlandA, Mucous acini; B, Serous acinimixed (80 % serous)serous acini mucouse tubuliintercalated – striated – interlobular – main
  • 6. 10. Sublingual glandA, Mucous acini of sublingual glandmixed (80 % mucous)mucous tubuli + lunuly of Ginuzzionly: interlobular – main11. OesophagusThe esophagus consists of three layers: mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis.The mucosa consists of epithelial lining containing nonkeratinizing, stratifiedsquamous epithelium with a layer of basal and parabasal cells. This layer isnaturally required to proliferate more often than other layers of theoesophagus in accordance to necessary cell loss.The sublayer, lamina propria, contains vessels, connective tissue, lymphatics,inflammatory cells and esophageal cardiac glands which are mucus secretingglands. The submucosa contains dense connective tissue with both lymphand blood vessels. Further esophageal mucus secreting glands are containedin the submucosa. The outer layer, the muscularis, consists of two musclelayers. The inner muscle layer fibers are arranged circumferentially and theouter layer, longitudinally.12. CardiaOn histological examination, the junction can be identified by the followingtransition.  nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the esophagus  simple columnar epithelium in the stomachThe cardiac glands can be seen in this region.They can be distinguished from other stomach glands (fundic glands andpyloric glands) because the glands are shallow and simple tubular.
  • 7. 13.Fundus ventriculi(vertical section to the surface of mucosa, HE)A. Tunica mucosa – see areae gastricae and foveolae gastrice 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – tall, simple columnar epithelium with secretory granules in the cell apexes, 2. lamina propria mucosae – areolar connective tissue with tubular glands - gll. gastricae propriae. In each gland, basis (near lamina muscularis mucosae), body and neck is distinguished; the gland is opened into the gastric pit throughout the neck. The cells of gll. gastricae: – chief cells - (pepsinogenous) - located predominantly at the basis, they have prismatic shape and basophilic cytoplasm, – parietal cells - (HCl cells) - in the body and below the neck, the cells are round triangular, their cytoplasm is strongly eosinophilic, – the cell of neck - light and columnar in the neck (their product is mucus), – endocrine cells - cannot be identified in slides stained with HE, 3. lamina muscularis mucosae – 2 layers of smooth muscle cells (inner - circular, outer - longitudinal).B. Tela submucosa - areolar connective tissue with vessels and nerves.C. Tunica muscularis (externa) – 3 layers of smooth muscle cells: oblique, circular and longitudinal layer.D. Tunica serosa: 1. simple squamous epithelium - mesotel, 2. lamina propria serosae – thin layer of collagenous connective tissue.14. Pylorusdeeper gastric pits, reticular conn. tissue, pyloric glands15. Duodenum(longitudinal section through the wall, HE) A. Tunica mucosa – typical organization: villi intestinales; crypts of Lieberkühn 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae –simple columnar epithelium composed of absorptive cells and secretory cells (see descrition of the intestinum tenue) 2. lamina propria mucosae - reticular connective tissue with lymphatic nodules (formes underlying tissue of intestinal villi and surrounds the crypts of Lieberkühn), 3. lamina muscularis mucosae – smooth muscle tissue.B. Tela submucosa – loose connective tissue whith mucous glands – Brunner´s glands (an important signe of this part of small intestine!).C. Tunica muscularis (externa) - 2 layers of smooth muscle cells: inner circular and outer longitudinal.D. Tunica serosa – see description of the stomach.
  • 8. 16. Intestinum tenue - jejunum(longitudinal section through the wall, HE)Prior to study in microscope see plicae semicirculares Kerckringi, which areformed by mucosa and submucosa.A. Tunica mucosa – typical organization of the surface: villi intestinales - intestinal villi (their axis is made up of reticular connective tissue of lamina propria mucosae) with central lymphatic vessel (lacteal vessel) in each villus; crypts of Lieberkühn - tubular invagination among villi, their bases reach lamina muscularis mucosae: 1. Lamina epithelialis mucosae – tall, simple columnar epithelium composed of absorptive cells - enterocytes and secretory cells: – goblet cells - thei have cup-like shape, flattened nucleus and very pale cytoplasm containing mucus, goblet cells are diffused in the epithelium and their number increased in aboral direction, – cells of Paneth - round triangular or pyramidal shape, spherical nucleus, eosinophilic granules in cytoplazm, the cells are located only in basis of crypts of Lieberkühn (these cells are unstained in older slides because the granules are discolored), – endocrine cells - cannot be identified in slides stained with HE, 2. lamina propria mucosae - reticular connective tissue with lymphatic nodules (formes underlying tissue of intestinal villi and surrounds the crypts of Lieberkühn), 3. lamina muscularis mucosae – smooth muscle tissue.B. Tela submucosa – loose connective tissue, whish also forms the axis of folds of Kerckring (plicae semicirculares Kerckringi).C. Tunica muscularis (externa) - 2 layers of smooth muscle cells: inner circular and outer longitudinal.D. Tunica serosa – see description of the stomach.
  • 9. 17. Intestinum crassum(longitudinal section through the wall, HE)Plicae semicirculares Kerckringi and intestinal villi are NOT present – luminalsurface is smooth.A. Tunica mucosa: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – tall columnar epithelium consists of absorptive cells – enterocytes, 2. lamina propria mucosae – reticular connective tissue with lymphatic nodules; crypts of Lieberkühn are deep and numerous, they are lined with the same epithelium (ad 1.); except enterocytes, numerous goblet cells and some enteroendocrine cells (are not visible in LM) are present in the epithelium, 3. lamina muscularis mucosae – smooth muscle tissue.B. Tela submucosa – loose connective tissue with blood vessels and nerves (plexus submucosus Meissneri).C. Tunica muscularis (externa) – two layers of smooth muscle cells bundles – inner circular and outer longitudinal (nerve – plexus myentericus Auerbachi in connective tissue between them).D. Tunica serosa (see practice nr. 2).18. Processus vermiformis, appendix(cross section, HE)A. Tunica mucosa – intestinal villi are missing, crypts of Lieberkühn are shallow and irregular: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – simple collumnar epithelium composed of enterocytes, goblet cells and enteroendocrine cells, 2. lamina propria mucosae – reticular connective tissue with numerous active lymphatic nodules, 3. lamina muscularis mucosae – usually is missing or irregular.B. Tela submucosa – loose connective tissue with vesssels and nerves.C. Tunica muscularis (externa) – thin layers of smooth muscle tissue (circular and longitudinal layer).D. Tunica serosa - mesothelium and thin layer of collagenous connective tissue.
  • 10. 19. Hepar(Hematoxylin-eosin or Azan)A. Liver connective tissue (c.t.): 1. capsula fibrosa hepatis – dense collagenous c.t. (it is present only in some slides), 2. c.t. in portal areas – loose c.t.; portal area has triangular shape and is surrounded by 3 – 4 morphological units = liver lobules of central vein; c.t. of portal area carries interlobular brunches of a.hepatica, v.portae and interlobular bile duct, 3. interlobular c.t. – separates liver lobules in the rest of their surface (outside the portal areas), only minimum of this c.t. is in human liver.B. Liver parenchyma – consists of morphological units = lobules of central vein (liver lobules) and intrahepatic bile ducts: 1. lobules of central vein – five to six–sided polyhedral prisms in the sections, composed of plates (cords in the sections) of hepatocytes; plates (cords) are organized radialy around v. centralis: – hepatic plates – consist of 1 - 2 lines of hepatocytes, which surround bile canaliculi (are not visible in the sections), – liver sinusoids – are situated between plates, have an irregular width of the lumen, and are lined with endothelium; Kupffer cells are present in the regions where the sinusids are branched, – vena centralis – thinwalled vein in the center of the lobule (endothelium and thin layer of loose c.t.),Functional unit:portal lobule (lobule of portal vein) – parts of parenchyma of 3morphological units surrounding common portal area (triangular region withportal area in the center – join central veins of 3 nighbour liver lobules)smaller unit is liver acinus – parencyma of 2 liver lobules arround commoncircumlobular side. 2. intrahepatic bile ducts: – canals of Herring – continue bile canaliculi and are lined with simple cuboid epithelium (canals are located at the periphery of the lobules). – interlobular bile ducts – simple cuboid to columnar epithelium – in portal areas. – lobar bile ducts – are two; their wall consists of tall columnar epithelium, lamina basalis and a layer of c.t. (are not found in the slides).
  • 11. 20. Vesica fellea(Hematoxylin - eosin)Tunica mucosa: numerous mucosal folds 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – tall columnar epithelium (produce mucus), 2. lamina propria mucosae – reticular connective tissue with lymphatic nodules; crypts of Lieberkühn are deep and numerous, they are lined with the same epithelium (ad 1.); except enterocytes, numerous goblet cells and some enteroendocrine cells (are not visible in LM) are present in the epithelium, A. lamina muscularis mucosae – is NOT present.B. Tela submucosa – is NOT present.C. Tunica muscularis (externa) –smooth muscle tissue (longitudinal and oblique orientation).D. Tunica serosa – covers free surface of gall bladder and has very thick layer of subserosal c.t.; the surface turned to the liver tissue is covered with adventitia.21. Pancreas(Hematoxylin - eosin)A. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. dense collagenous c.t. of capsule and septa, which carry blood vessels and interlobular ducts, septa separate gland into the lobules, 2. loose c.t. inside of lobules (intralobular c.t.).B. Parenchyma – lobules; each of them contains elongated serous acini (exocrine part of gland), intralobular ducts and one or more islet(s) of Langerhans (endocrine part of gland without ducts): 1. serous acini: – serous cells – triangular or pyramid shape, nucleus at the basis of the cell, secretory granules in supranuklear zone of cytoplasm (granules stain intensely), – centroacinar cells – polygonal shape, pale cytoplasm; cells are situated only in the center of acinus, 2. ducts – intercalated and interlobular: – intercalated – simple squamous epithelium, narrow lumen (identification is dificult), – intralobular ducts – arrise by fusion of intercalated ducts, simple cuboid epithelium (epithelial cells without basal straition – they have not basal labyrinth), 3. islets of Langerhans: – fine capsule (with fine collagen and reticular fibers) separates the islet from acini, – cord of glandular endocrine cells – cells are polyhedral and pale (the main identifying sign); blood sinusoids form a network around cords of the cells.Notice: endocrine celss is not possible to classify in HE slides.
  • 12. 22. EpiglottisEpiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea. Structure: -plate of elastic cartilage -lingual side: stratiffied squamous epithelium + lamina propria,- laryngeal side: pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia + mixedglands in lamina propria,
  • 13. 23. LarynxThis area of the larynx is typified by two items: (1) hyaline cartilage (lowerleft) and (2) sero-mucous glands (upper right). Epithelium is usuallypseudostratified columnar ciliated. the wall structure:- mucosa – epithelium of respiratory passages + lamina propria with elasticfibers and mixed glands - fibrocartilagenous layer withlarge hyaline and small elastic cartilages- external muscle coat = skeletal muscle tissueThe organ of fonation- laryngeal ventricle (vestibule)- plica vocalis (with stratified squamous epithelium, elastic ligament –ligamentum vocale and skeletal muscle – musculus vocalis)- plica ventricularis (the same structure as in the larynx wall24. TracheaHollow tubular organ – structure of its wall:- mucosa – epithelium of respiratory passages + lamina propria with elasticfibers and mixed glands - fibrocartilagenous layer with ring-shaped, dorsaly opened hyaline cartilages (16 – 20), dorsal part of the wall iscalled paries membranaceus – cartilage is substituted by tracheal muscle(smooth) - adventitia (connectivetissue with nerves and blood vessels)
  • 14. 25. Lung parenchymaLung lobule – part of parenchyme, which is ventilated by one terminalbronchiole. This bronchiole branches into respiratory bronchioli and these arebranched into alveolar ducts. The ends of ducts are dilated into sacs. The wallof ducts and sacs is very thin and alvoli bulge from it.Thin wall of alveoli (0.2 µm) = interalveolar septum: consists of fine reticularand elastic fibers surrounding blood capillaries and some alveolarmacrophages and is covered with respiratory epithelium on both sides(luminal surfaces of alveoli). Alveolar pores – in septa.Respiratory epithelium: simple epithelium with 2 types of cells - alveolar cells type I (membranous pneumocytes) – transport of gasses by pinocytosis - alveolar cells type II (granular pneumocytes) – produce surfactant (antiatelectatic substance)The lungs are large, lobed, paired organs in the chest (also known as thethoracic cavity). Thin sheets of epithelium (pleura) separate the inside of thechest cavity from the outer surface of the lungs. The bottom of the thoraciccavity is formed by the diaphragm
  • 15. 26. Ren (perpendicular section to the surface of kidney, HE or HES and Weigert-van Gieson) A. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. capsula fibrosa renis – dense colagenous c.t., 2. interstitial loose c.t. of renal parenchyma (more in renal medulla, less in renal cortex). B. Parenchyma of kidney – cortex and medulla: 1. cortex (substantia corticalis) – bellow capsula fibrosa renis and as columnae renales between pyramids of medulla. Cortex corticis (continuous layer of cortex bellow capsule), pars radiata corticis above the bases of medullary pyramids – with strips of cortex and medulla (striae medullares corticis).^cortex Substantia corticalis contains renal corpuscles and some parts of renal tubules: – renal corpuscle (corpusculum renis): glomerulum - small ball of blood capillaries surrounded by mesangial cells + Bowman´s capsule (capsula glomeruli), made up of parietal and visceral layer with thin space between them (urinary space), in which glomerular urin is collected; - parietal layer – simple squamous epithelium + basement membrane, - visceral layer – podocytes (flattened cells which closely adjoin basement membrane of capillaries). – urinary tubule (its parts): - proximal convoluted tubule – has irregular lumen and is lined with simple lower- collumnar epithelium with brush border on luminal surface, borders between cells are not distinct and nuclei are irregularly scattered around lumen, cell cytoplams is intensly eosinophilic; cells are situated on the basement membrane, - distal convoluted tubule – has regular lumen, lined with simple cuboidal epithelium without brush border, cell nuclei are regularly arranged around the lumen, cell cytoplasm stains lightly eosinophilic; basement membrane, - connecting segment (arched collecting tubules) – similar to distal tubule, Notice: it is dificult to find vascular or uriniferous pole of renal corpuscle or macula densa, because only small^medulla amount of corpuscles are sectioned throughout this
  • 16. poles. 2. medulla of kidney (substantia medullaris) forms pyramids and striae medullares corticis; medulla contains: – pars recta of proximal tubule – the same morphological signs as in pars convoluta (see above), – Henle´s loop (ansa nephroni): - thin segment – simple squamous epithelium + basement membrane, - thick segment – simple cuboidal epithelium + basement membrane, – collecting tubules – lumen is wider than in renal tubules; simple cuboidal to lower- columnar epithelium (cell cytoplasm is very pale and apical parts of the cells form konvex protrusions) + basement membrane, – ductus papillares (Bellini) – occure near the top of pyramid; they have the widest lumen lined with pale and tall columnar cells on the basement membrane.The wall of urinary passages – generally:A.Tunica mucosa: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – transitional epithelium (except urethra), 2. lamina propria mucosae – areolar collagenous c.t. with elastic fibers. 3. lamina muscularis mucosaeB. Tela submucosaC. Tunica muscularis – smooth muscle tissue.D. Tunica adventitia.27. Vesica urinalis(perpendicular section to the surface of urinary bladder,HE)A. Tunica mucosa – forms irregular folds: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – transitional epithelium, 2. lamina propria mucosae – areolar collagenous c.t. with elastic fibers.B. Tunica muscularis – smooth muscle tissue, forms 3 not distinc layers: inner – plexiform, middle – circular, outer - longitudinal.C. Tunica adventitia or tunica serosa (according to place from which the sample was taken).
  • 17. 28. Ureter(cross section, HE)A. Tunica mucosa – forms longitudinal folds (lumen of the ureter is star-shaped): 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – transitional epithelium, 2. lamina propria mucosae – areolar collagenous c.t. with elastic fibers.B. Tunica muscularis – smooth muscle tissue: 2 (3) layers: inner - longitudinal, middle - circular , outer (only in lower 1/3) - longitudinal.C. Tunica adventitia – loose c.t. with vessels and nrves.29. Testis(Hematoxyline-eosin /HE/ or - safron /HES/)A. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. tunica albuginea testis – dense c.t. membrane on the surface of testicles – is fused with epiorchium and thickened into mediastinum testis on dorsal side; it contains anastomosing clefts – rete testis (lined with aimple squamous or cuboidal epithelium), 2. septula testis – taper from mediastinum and divide testis incompletely into the lobules, 3. interstitial c.t. – loose collagenous c.t. among seminiferous tubules; this c.t. contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves and Leydig cells; Leydig cells are oval to polygonal, they have eosinophilic cytoplasm and occure single or in groups near the blood capillaries.B. Tubuli seminiferi contorti – in cross and oblique sections. Their wall is composed of seminiferous epithelium, which contains spermatogenic cells in different stage of development and the cells of Sertoliho, 1. spermatogenic cells: – spermiogonia – middle-sized spherical cells with finelly dispersed chromatin in the nucleus; they are localized in one layer near tunica propria of seminiferous tubule, – spermiocytes – the largest cells in epithelium, spherical or polyhedral, with visible chromosomes in the nucleus; they are localized in several layers above spermiogonia, – prespermatids – spherical cells, smaller than spermiocytes, their nucleus is in interphase; the cells are near the lumen of tubule, – spermatids – the smallest cells with roubnd or ovoid nucleus with densely condensed chromatin; developing flagellum on luminal side of some cells is obviuos,
  • 18. 2. Sertoli (supporting) cells – are usually covered by spermatogenic cells (only nuclei of Sertoli cells can be identified in the slides – these are oval, pale, with distinct nucleoli; nuclei are found in basal third of spermiogenic epithelium), 3. tunica propria – c.t. (basement membrane, loose network of elastic and collagenous fibers and fibrocytes).30. Epididymis(Hematoxyline-eosin /HE/ or - safron /HES/)A. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. dense collagenous c.t. forms capsule, 2. loose collagenous c.t. with numerous vessels among spirally convoluted canaliculi.B. Canal of epididymis: 1. ductuli efferentes - in caput epididymidis; they have irregular-shaped lumen and their wall consists of: – lamina epithelialis – low cuboid and tall columnar cells occurre in epithelium and some of them are ciliated, – membrana propria – loose collagenous c.t. with circularly oriented smooth muscle cells, 2. ductus epididymidis - forms corpus et cauda epididymidis; cross and oblique sections of duct with spermatozooa in the lumen are usually found in the slide. The wall of duct is composed of: – lamina epithelialis – pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia, – membrana propria – see above – the same layer in the wall of ductuli efferentes.
  • 19. 31. Funiculus spermaticus (Cross section, HE)Spermatic cord contains loose c.t. and bundle of: 1. ductus deferens (the largest structure with thick wall: mucosa, tunica muscularis, adventitia) 2. veins of plexus pampiniformis 3. arteries 4. nervesThe cord is covered with c.t. capsule and irregularly m.cremaster (skeletal muscle)32. Glandula vesiculosa(Cross section, HE)A. Tunica mucosa – numerous anastomosing primary, secondary and terciary folds and crypts, 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – simple cuboid to pseudostratified columnar epithelium with glandular cells, 2. lamina propria mucosae – loose collagenous c.t.B. Tunica muscularis – smooth muscle tissue arranged into 2 layers: inner - circular, outer - longitudinal.C. Tunica adventitia – loose collagenous c.t.33. Prostata(Hematoxyline-eosin or Azan)A. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. capsule – dense c.t. with smooth muscle cells , 2. fibromuscular stroma - elastic and collagenous fibers and bundles of smooth muscle cells.B. Glands of prostate - tubular with irregular lumen; epithelium projects into the lumen like folds; calcified bodies occurre in the lumen of some glands - prostatic sand. Glandular wall consists of epithelium and basement membrane: 1. epithelium – simple cuboid to pseudostratified columnar with irregular layer of low basal cells (cell height depends on secretory phase), 2. basement membrane – is not distinct in the slides.
  • 20. 34. Penis(Cross section, HE)A. Skin – very thin, contains sweet and sebaceous glands, loose subcutaneous c.t. without fat cells.B. Corpora cavernosa: 1. Corpus cavernosum penis (paired): – tunica albuginea on the surface – dense collagenous c.t., – erectile tissue – venous lacunae lined with epithelium, their wall contain collagenous c.t., bundles of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers, 2. Corpus spongiosum urethrae (unpaired): Similar structure as corpus cavernosum penis; it contains pars spongiosa urethrae, which mucosa form longitudinal folds (star-shaped lumen): – mucosa: stratified columnar epihteiuml with endoepithelial mucous glands (lacunae urethrales Morgagni); lamina propria – loose collagenous c.t. with numerous venous plexuses and tubular mucous glands (gll. paraurethrales Littrei), – muscle layer – reduced into the irregular bundles, – adventitia – loose c.t. which continues into the c.t. of corpus spongiosum.
  • 21. 35. Ovarium(perpendicular section to the surface of ovary, HE or HES)First note that the ovary has a cortex-medullaryorganization and is surrounded by a thick connective tissuecapsule, the tunica albuginea. The surface of the tunicaalbuginea is covered with a cuboidal, germinal epithelium.This slide illustrates all the phases of folliculardevelopment.A. Cortex of the ovary (zona corticalis) – highly cellular connective tissue (c.t.) is composed of fibrocyte and small amount of c.t. fibers. C.t. is condensed into tunica albuginea ovarii bellow simple cuboid epithelium, which coveres the ovarian surface.B. Cortex contains ovarian follicles (primary, secondary and terciary), „yellow“ and „white“ bodies – corpora lutea and corpora albicantia: 1. primordial follicles – beneath tunica albuginea ovarii; they consists of: – oocyte – cell, which has 40 to 50 µm in diameter (), eosinophilic cytoplasm and pale nucleus with basophilic nucleolus, – one layer of flattened folicullar cells (surround oocyte), 2. growing follicles - 0,1 to 3 mm ; they are localized in deeper parts of cortex; their structure depend on the stage of development (primary unilaminar follicle, primary multilaminar follicle and secondary follicle with small cavities fusing together ): – oocyte – about 100 µm  with eosinophilic cytoplasm, surrounded by zona pellucida, – follicular cells – are arranged into several layers around the oocyte, cells have polyhedral shape except the cells in basal layer attached to basement membrane – these cells are cuboid or low columnar, – theca folliculi – c.t. coat with oval fibroblast circularly arranged, 3. mature Graafian follicles - they have cavity (antrum folliculi), 4 mm to 1,5 cm : – oocyte – 150 µm , eosinophilic cytoplasm, excentrically situated nucleus, zona pellucida, – follicular cells – in several layer form membrana granulosa, which lines antrum folliculi, bump- like projection of membrana granulosa contains oocyte and is called cumulus oophorus, – theca folliculi – by membrane of Slavjanski is separated from membrana granulosa and divides into: theca folliculi interna and theca folliculi externa, 4. corpus luteum (sg.) – see description of the
  • 22. following slide, 5. corpora albicantia (pl.) – they have different shape and size and are made up of hyalinized c.t.C. Medulla of the ovary (zona vasculosa) – dense c.t. with spiral blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.Corpus luteum (CL)(Hematoxyline - eosin)A. C.t. of CL – capsule and fine septa, penetrating into the parenchyma of CL; c.t. fills the center of CL (original antrum folliculi).B. Parenchyma of CL: 1. lutein cells – the main cell type, cells are large, pale, polyhedral and organized into frilling strip; there are numerous blood sinusoids among the cells, 2. thecal cells - 2 - 3 times smaller than lutein cells, they are present at the periphery of CL and sporadically penetrate the folds with lutein cells; blood sinusoids are also present among the cells.36. Tuba uterina (2 x) - pars ampullarisand pars isthmica(cross section, HE or HES)A. Tunica mucosa: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – simple columnar epithelium, composed of ciliated cells (CC) and secretory cells (SC), 2. lamina propria mucosae – loose c.t.B. Tunica muscularis – smooth muscle cells (circular and longitudinal layer).C. Tunica serosa – simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) + thin layer of loose c.t.; subserous c.t. with ovarian and uterine vessels is between serosa and tunica muscularis.AMPULLA Epithelium - primary, secondary and terciary folds, which fill the lumen,abundant ciliated cells [CC > SC] External Muscle coat / layer - thin irregular
  • 23. ^Pars Ampullaris 37. Isthmus Epithelium - sporadic simple longitudinal folds, -abundant secretory cells [SC > CC]^Pars Isthmica 38. Uterus - prolipherative phase (perpendicular section to the surface of mucosa, HE) A. Endometrium (tunica mucosa) – thickeness 2 - 3 mm, divides into zona functionalis (with bodies and openings of uterine glands) and zona basalis (close to the myometrium – contains bases of glands). Consists of: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – simple columnar epithelium, 2. lamina propria mucosae – is composed of star shaped or polygonal fibrocytes and minimum of c.t. fibers; it is highly vascularized and contains simple tubular glands - glandulae uterinae, lined with simple columnar epithelium. B. Myometrium (tunica muscularis) – thick layer of bundles of smooth muscle cells spiraly organized.
  • 24. C. Parametrium – loose c.t. with blood vessels and nerves between myometrium and perimetrium.D. Perimetrium (tunica serosa) – simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) + thin layer of loose c.t. .39. Uterus – secretory phase(perpendicular section to the surface of mucosa, HE)A. Endometrium (tunica mucosa) – thickness 6 – 7 mm; zona functionalis is divided into pars compacta (surface layer with glandular ducts and high amount of c.t.) and pars spongiosa (contains dilated bodies of glands and only small amount of c.t.), zona basalis – does not change during mestrual cycle. Structure of the endometrium: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – simple columnar epithelium, 2. lamina propria mucosae – fibrocyte are enlarged, round, without cytoplasmic processes, dense network of blood capillaries; bodies of glandulae uterinae are dilated and have an typical appearance. (B., C. a D. – see Uterus - prolipherative phase)
  • 25. 40. Vagina(Hematoxylin-eosin or Best´s carmine)A. Tunica mucosa – forms transversal folds - rugae: 1. lamina epithelialis mucosae – stratified squamous epithelium, its surface cells contain glycogen (they are pale in HE slides – because glycogen granules are dissolved), 2. lamina propria mucosae – loose collagenous c.t. with elastic fibers and venous plexuses, lamina propria forms papillae.B. Tunica muscularis – bundles of smooth muscle tissue runing in circular, longitudinal and oblique direction.C. Tunica adventitia – dense c.t. of cavum pelvis subperitoneale.41. Labium minus(cross section, HE)Labium is skin fold; 1. epidermis – stratified squamous epithelium with signs of keratinization, 2. dermis – connective tissue axis with nerve fibers and Meissner bodies in subepithelial papillae, a sebaceous glands, which duct are opened on the epidermal surface of labium; c.t. does not contain any fat cells.
  • 26. 42. Hypophysis CerebriA. Connective tissue (c.t.): 1. thin c.t. capsule and septa with blood vessels and nerves, 2. network of reticular fibers (they separate glandular cells and blood sinusoids).B. Parenchyma of hypophysis: 1. anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) – divides into pars distalis, pars tuberalis and pars intermedia: – pars distalis and tuberalis consist of cords and groups of glandular cells, which are divided according amount of granules and staining: chromophobe cells – light cytoplasm, small amount of granules, acidophil cells – numerous granules stains in red color, basophil cells – numerous granules stains in violet color, – pars intermedia – contains follicles (usually with colloid), basophilic and chromophobe cells predominate in cords, 2. posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) – is connected by infundibulum with hypothalamus (infundibulum is not usually present in the slides); structure of posterior lobe: – pituicytes – irregular-shaped cells with numerous processes, – unmyelinized nerve fibers (tractus hypothalamohypophyseus).
  • 27. 43. Epiphysis CerebriA. Connective tissue: 1. thin c.t. capsule (pia mater) and fine septa s with blood vessels, 2. loose interstitial c.t. with blood sinusoids.B. Parenchyma of epiphysis: 1. cords and groups of 2 types of cells – pinealocytes and neuroglial cells, 2. unmyelinized nerve fibers, 3. acervulus cerebri – intensly stained calcified corpuscles (brain sand) of irregular shape.
  • 28. 44. Glandula ThyroideaA. Connective tissue: 1. capsule from dense collagenous c.t. with blood and lymph vesels and nerves, 2. c.t. septa – are distinct and separate gland into the lobules, 3. interstitial c.t. – loose c.t. with net of capillaris, around follicles.B. Lobules – consist of follicles lined with epithelium and containing colloid: 1. epithelium in follicle – simple, its high depends on functional stage and size of follicle; it is composed of follicular and parafollicular cells (parafollicular cells can be idetified only with using of special staining methods), 2. colloid – fills cavity of each follicle, it has homogenous appearance and is usually stained with acid dyes.45. Glandula ParathyroideaA. Connective tissue: 1. thin c.t. capsule and septa with blood vessels and nerves, 2. net of reticular fibers (separate glandular cells and blood capillaries).B. Parenchyma – cords and groups of glandular cells: 1. chief cells – predominate, with light basophilic cytoplasm, 2. oxyphil cells – with intensly eosinophilic cytoplasm (they are lined in older slides, its result of discoloration) – they occure after 10th year of age.
  • 29. 46. Glandula SuprarenalisA. Connective tissue: 1. dense c.t. capsule and thin radial septa with blood vessels, 2. net of reticular fibers around cords of glandular cells and blood sinusoids.B. Parenchyma - 9/10 form cortex, the rest represents medulla: 1. cortex: – zona glomerulosa – bellow c.t. capsule, cell cords are coiled like glomerule, cell cytoplasm is basophilic, – zona fasciculata – middle, the most voluminous layer with paralelly oriented cell cords (perpendicularly to the capsule); cells are large, vakuolized (spongiocytes), – zona reticularis – cell cords anastomose and form network (reticulum); cells are small, eosinophilic and contain granules of lipofuscin, 2. medulla: – cords and groups of chromaffine cells with finely granular, basophilic cytoplasm, – nerve fibers and solitary ganglionic cells.
  • 30. 47. ThymusThe thymus is a highly lobulated organinvested by a loose collagenous capsule, C,from which short interlobular septa, S, containingblood vessels radiate into thesubstance of the organ.The thymic tissue is divided into two distinctzones, a deeply basophilic outer cortex,Cx, and an inner eosinophilic medulla,M; distinction between the two zones is mostmarked in earlychildhood as is represented in this specimen. - is usually most active in teenagers and shrinks in adulthood. The process of thymus transformation during aging is called involution. - Cortex (outer regions) and medulla (inner regions) are distinguished in parenchym. - Parenchym is composed of cytoreticulum (stelate epithelial cells forming network) and T-lymphocytes. Cytoreticulum originates from endoderm of pharyngeal pouches and cytokeratin (protein typical for epithelial cells) can be detected in the cytoplasm of its cells. - Thymus is composed of 2 lobes covered with capsule (dense irregular connective tissue), septa running from capsule into parenchym separate it into lobules. Lobules contains only cortex.Cortex: cytoreticulum ( ) + lymphocytes (95%), blood capillaries with thick wall covered withcytoplasmic processes of cytoreticulum cells =„thymus-blood barrier“Medulla: cytoreticulum + small amount oflymphocytes (5 %), Hassal´s corpuscles ( )–arrise by aggregation of cytoreticulum cells, whichdegenerate in the center of body ( ).Young thymus:The cortex, Cx, is packed with lymphocytes,accounting for its basophilia, whereas the medulla,M, contains fewer lymphocytes. In the center ofthe medulla are eosinophilic, lamellated structuresknown as Hassall’s corpuscles, H, representingdegenerate epithelial reticular cells. welldistinguished cortex and medulla.
  • 31. 48. Arteries and veinsThe wall of arteries and veins of large or mediumcaliber have three tunics: tunica intima (interna),tunica media, and tunica adventitia (externa). General structure of tunics - tunica intima – the endothelial lining with its basal lamina and subendothelial layer with longitudinally oriented elastic fibers - tunica media – in artery more then in veins: spiraly and circularly oriented connective tissue fibers organized into elastic fenestrated membranes and smooth muscle cells, the ratio of smooth muscle cells and elastic membranes depends on the type of blood artery - tunica adventitia – contains collagen and elastic fibers, scattered fibroblasts. – in vein more then in arteries: longitudinally oriented bundles of smooth muscle cells, serrounded with connective tissueThe tunica adventitia contains small blood vessels(vasa vasorum), which supply nutrients to tissuesin the outer one-half of the wall of the bloodvessel. Small nerves (nervi vasorum), representingfibers of the autonomic nervous system, are alsopresent in the tunica adventitia and they innervatethe smooth muscle of the vessel. Elastic laminae –inner and outer – separate tunics in the vesselwall. These laminae (membrana elastica interna etexterna) are made up of elastic fibers. Innermembrane separates intima from media and outerone separate media from adentitia. Outermembrane is not usually distinct in all veins andsmall arteries.
  • 32. 49. AortaLarge arteries = Elastic arteries (examples: aortaand and pulmonary arteries, the immediatebranches of these arteries are also considered tobe elastic arteries – brachiocephalic, commoncarotids, etc.). have sheets of elastic tissue in theirwalls and are the largest diameter arteries. Theyare subjected to high systolic pressures. Theselarge vessels are also adapted to smooth out thesurges in blood flow since blood only flowsthrough them during systole. The elastic tissue intheir tunic media provides the resilience to smoothout this pressure wave.The tunica intima is relatively thick and consists ofan endothelial layer with its basal lamina, asubendothelial layer of connective tissue and aninternal elastic membrane. The internal elasticmembrane is not as conspicuous because it is oneof the many elastic membranes in the wall of thearteries. It is usually only identified because it isthe innermost of the elastic layers of the arterialwall.The tunica media is the thickest of the threelayers. The numerous, thick, fenestrated elasticmembranes are the predominant substance of themedia. They are interconnected by fine elasticfibers and also by smooth muscle cells, whichspirals at a slight angle to the transverse axis of thevessel. The smooth muscle cells is surrounded byreticular fibers and a few collagenous fibers. In elastic arteries, the tunica adventitia isrelatively thin – half the thickness of the media –and contains collagen fibers, elastic fibers andconnective tissue cells (fibroblasts andmacrophages). The tunica adventitia containsblood vessels (vasa vasorum) and nerves (nervivasorum) that supply the blood vessel wall.
  • 33. 50. Large veins(examples: vena cava, subclavian veins)In large veins, the tunica media is relatively thinand consists of an endothelial lining with its basallamina, a small amount of subendothelial tissueand some smooth muscle cells. Thin tunica mediacontains sparse, circularly arranged smoothmuscle. Also present are collagen fibers and somefibroblasts. The most obvious feature is thethickness of the tunica adventitia. In large veins,large bundles of longitudinal disposed smoothmuscle cells are found with the usual collagen andelastic fibers.Vena cava (HE) tunicainterna is not distinct in this small magnificationSM = smooth muscle bundles of adventitiaTA = tunica adventitiaTM = tunica mediavv = vasa vasorum52. Lymph Node - capsula fibrosa + septa = irregular dense connective tissue; several afferent lymphatic vessels (opened into lymphatic sinus below the capsule = sinus subcapsularis) and 1-2 efferent vessels (from hillus of node) - parenchym = consists of peripheral cortex and central medulla, and paracortical zone (between cortex and medulla) Cortex: reticular connctive tissue + B- lymphocytes organized into lymphatic nodule (follicles), some of them are active with light germinative center. Paracortical zone: reticular connctive tissue + T-lymphocytes and macrophages Medulla: reticular connctive tissue + B- lymphocytes organized int cords - lymphatic sinuses – sinus subcapsularis  sinus corticalis (perifollicularis)  sinus medullarisThe wall of sinuses is lined with reticular cells(called litoral cells) and macrophages, reticularfibers network substitutes missing basal lamina1. The subcapsular sinus of lymph node: (E) –reticular cells lining on both the capsule (Caps) sideand nodule (CN) side of the sinus (SCS). Presentwithin the sinus are lymphocytes (Ly); dendritic,antigen-presenting cells (DRC) and macrophages
  • 34. (Mph). 2. Macrophages in the wall of sinus phagocyting colored material. Lymph Node Capsule Details: As the lymph slowly flows through the maze of cells antigens are processed and lymphocytes become activat Subcapsular Sinus Cells: Dendritic cells and macrophages act as antigen presenters. Specific Lymphocytes are activated by a presented antigen for a specific invader. . 53. Lien (spleen) Structure: 1. connective tissue capsule (capsula fibrosa) consists of dense irregular c.t. and is covered with simple squamous epithelium. Septa entering splenic parenchym are calle trabecules and are derivatives if capsule. 2. parenchym = pulp: - white pulp: is a typical lymphatic tissue with lymphocytes in reticular c.t.,capsule lymphocytes are located around central arteris forming so called periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS), this sheaths is sometimes extended into lymphatic nodules (follicle) = bodies of Malpighi. PALS contains T-lymphocytes, in nodules and on the periphery of PALS B- lymphocytes and macrophages and dendritic cells are present. Periphery of PALS and nodules is called marginal zone and contains also many blood sinuses. - red pulp: is composed of reticular c.t. with different cell types around sinuses. Free cells are macrophages, lymphocytes,Red pulp granulocytes and mainly erythrocytes. Reticular c.t. with cells form cords of Billroth and these cords surrounds venous sinuses. 3. Blood circulation: A. lienalis entres the splenic hilus  its branches pass through the trabecules as aa. trabeculares  when they leave the trabecules, they are called aa. centrales and are followed by lymphatic tissue (PALS + boides of Malpighi)  these arteries are branched at the end into arteriolae penicilatae: eache arteriole has 3 parts: 1. arteriole of pulp (medullary arteriole),White pulp 2. encapsulated arteriole (surrounded by
  • 35. phagocyting reticular cells – capsule) and 3. precapillary which opens into  venous sinuses in red pulp  near the trabecules, blood from sinuses is collected into vv. trabeculares which fuse into v. lienalis.54. Skin from top of fingerKeratinization is in layersNo glandsNailsNo hairMerkel´s cells600-800 µm for the thick skin/55. Skin from axillavaries between 75 and150 µm for the thin skinLittle keratinazationAdipose tissueGlandsHair
  • 36. 56. Skin with hairKeratinzedHair folliclesHair57. Nail
  • 37. 58. Nonlactating mammaryglandsglandular tissue is reduced on only duct system, e.g.lactiferous ducts,terminal interlobular ducts and intralobular ductsan area of one interlobular duct is a lobulethe lobules are separated by a denser, less cellular interlobularconnective tissuespaces within lobules are filled with loose intralobular tissueabundant in cells.59. Lactating mammary glandsglandular tissue is fully differentiatedby thin connective tissue septa, the glandular parenchyma isdivided into the lobuleslobules contains spherical to elongated acini (alveoli)differ in sizethe wall of acini consist of- the basement membrane- cuboidal or columnar secretory cells and- myoepithelial cells located between the basement membraneand bases ofsecretory cells/ductsa) intralobular ducts lined by a simple cuboidal to columnarepitheliumb) lactiferous ducts lined by two layers of columnar cells which,in the lactiferous sinus, changes into stratified squamousepithelium • the first secretion appearing after birth is called the colostrum • it contains less fat and more protein than regular milk and is rich in antibodies
  • 38. 60. Cortex cerebri(perpendicular section to the surface of brain, HE orimpregnation)A. Pia mater cerebri – thin c.t. membrane with numerous blood vessels.B. Brain cortex (neocortex) = gray matter – consists of 6 layers (not distinctly separated), which are distinguished according to prevailing type of neurons: 1. lamina molecularis (lamina zonalis): – small multipolar neurons with horizontaly oriented processes (cells of Cajal) – in deeper parts of this layer, – nuclei of plasmatic astrocytes – in upper part of the layer – their cytoplasmic processes form together membrana limitans gliae superficialis, 2. lamina granularis externa – small polyhedral and pyramidal neurons, 3. lamina pyramidalis (lamina pyramidalis externa) – middle-sized pyramidal neurons (the apexes of pyramids are oriented to the surface of gyrus) + cells of Martinotti, 4. lamina granularis interna – the same structure as the second layer, 5. lamina ganglionaris (lamina pyramidalis interna) - large pyramidal cells; their cytoplasmic processes are better visualized in impregnated slides, 6. lamina multiformis – spindle-shaped neurons and numerous cells of Martinotti.C. White matter – bellow the 6th layer of cortex, is composed of radially arranged nerve fibers.61. Cerebellum(Hematoxyline-eosin, Nissl or impregnation)A. Pia mater cerebelli – c.t. membrane with numerous blood vessels.B. Cortex cerebelli: 1. stratum cinereum (stratum moleculare) - due to small amount of neurons this layer is pale in HE and Nissl slides, impregnated slide shows richly branched dendrites of Purkinje cells and neurites of basket cells (they are oriented paralelly with surface of gyrus and send collaterals to the bodies of Purkinje cells), 2. stratum gangliosum (vrstva Purkyňových buněk): pear- shaped bodies of Purkinje cells with light nucleus and distinct nucleolus, Nissl substance is present in the cytoplasm of bodies and dendrites (see slides stained according to Nissl) + nuclei of macroglia – modified plasmaticé astrocytes, 3. stratum granulosum: – small (4 - 6 µm) and middle-sized multipolar neurons and their processes, – glomeruli cerebellares – small eosinophilic corpuscles (correspond to synapses between mossy fibers and dendrites of neurons in granular layer).
  • 39. C. White matter of small brain – forms axis of cerebellar gyri and is made up of myelinized fibers.62. Medulla spinalis(cross section, HE)A. Pia mater – thin c.t. membrane with numerous blood vessels, which trench fissura mediana anterior.B. Gray matter – has H shape in cross section, central canal lined with ependyma is in the middle of cross commisure. Gray matter divides into: 1. ventral horns (columns) – at the side of fissura mediana anterior, they are wide and rounded and do not reach the surface of spinal cord; ventral horns contain 3 types of neurons: – large motor neurons (anterior horn cells) – star-shaped or polyhedral cells, sized about 150 µm, cells are localized in groups (motor nuclei), – small neurons of horn – diffused in horns, – interneurony, 2. lateral horns (columns) – only in thoracic part of spinal cord, contain 2 types of neurons: small and middle-sized multipolar neurons and interneurons, 3. dorsal horns (columns) – at the side of septum medianum dorsale, horns are slim and reach practically the surface of spinal cord; they contains neurons of 2 types: – neurons of funiculi (cellulae funiculares) – middle-sized multipolar neurons, – interneurons.C. White matter of spinal cord: is divided into 3 funiculi on both sides - anterior, lateral and posterior, they are composed of myelinized nerve fibers and oligodendroglia.63. Ganglion spinale(parallel section with long axis of ganglion, HE or impregnation)A. Connective tissue: 1. dense c.t. capsule, 2. septa with blood vessels 3. loose c.t. around ganglionic cells.B. Ganglionic cells – are in groups, usually bellow c.t. capsule: 1. ganglionic cells – round or oval pseudounipolar neurons with light vesicular nucleus and granules of lipofuscin in cytoplazm, 2. satelite cells (amficytes) – spindle-shaped cells with dark nuclei, cells form continouous coat around each ganlionic cellC. Bundles of nerve fibers with myelin sheath run throughout middle zone of ganglion.
  • 40. 64. Peripheral nerve(Cross or longitudinal section, HE, luxol blue - myelin,impregnation)Peripheral nerve – cross sectionA. Nerve c.t. coats: 1. epineurium – surface nerve coat consists of loose c.t., 2. perineurium – surounds each secondary nerve bundle and is made up one to several layers of special flattened cells and collagenous fibers, 3. endoneurium – loose c.t. on the surface of each primary nerve bundle and around each nerve fiber.B. Nerve fibers: most of them are surounded by myelin and Schwann sheaths; in cross section they appear as small circles with dark centres (axons); nuclei of Schwann cells are usually distinct.Peripheral nerve – longitudinal sectionA. Nerve c.t. coats: see aboveB. Nerve fibers: fibers are wavy and nuclei of Schwann cells can be identified on their surface; nodes of Ranvier can be found on slides stained with luxol blue.
  • 41. 65. Anterior segment of theeyeA. Cornea: 1. anterior epithelium – stratified squamous epithelium, 2. Bowman´s membrane – 6-9 µm thick membrane of homogenous appearance, 3. substantia propria – is composed of collagenous lamelae oriented in paralel way with the surface, amorpheous substance and flattened fibrocytes, 4. Descemet´s membrane – basal lamina of posterior epithelium of corneae, 5. posterior epithelium (endothelium) – simple squamous epithelium of mesenchymal origin.B. Sclerocorneal junction - contains sinus venosus (canal of Schlemm).C. Corpus ciliare – is triangular in section, processus ciliares are prominent on its free surface: 1. connective tissue stroma – highly vascularized, around musculus ciliaris, which is composed of bundles of smooth muscle cells oriented in meridional, radial and circular direction, 2. pars ciliaris retinae – 2 layers of epithelial cells: – outer layer with pigment cells – continuation of stratum pigmenti retinae, – inner layer with columnar cells without pigment – is atteched to the membrana limitans interna.D. Iiris - thin c.t. plate with pupilla in the center, situated between anterior and posterior chamber of the eye. Laeyers of iris: 1. anterior epithelium – endothelium (is dificult to identify it in the slide), 2. anterior limiting (stromal) sheath – condensed c.t. and pigment cells, 3. stroma iridis – yelly-like c.t. with melanocytes and blood vessels, smooth muscle is near pupilla (musculus sphincter pupillae), 4. posterior limiting sheath – is very thin, composed of myoepithelial cells, forming musculus dilatator pupillae, 5. posterior epithelium = pars iridica retinae – layer of columnar highly pigmented cells – continuation of pars ciliaris retinaeE. Lens (lens cristallina) – (can be missing in some slides): 1. capsula lentis – homogenous membrane on lens surface, 2. anterior epithelium – cuboid epithelium between capsule ventral side of lens, 3. lens fibers – the most important part of lens.
  • 42. 66. Posterior segment ofthe eye(Meridional section, HE)A. Sclera: contains thick bundles of collagenous fibers, oriented paralelly with surface of eyeball, network of elastic fibers and elongated fibroblasts.B. Chorioidea: 1. lamina suprachorioidea – thin, avascular layer with lamellar structure, numerous melanocytes 2. lamina vasculosa – loose c.t. with blood arteries and veins; pigmented cells, 3. lamina choriocapillaris – one layer of capillary network, without melanocytes, 4. lamina vitrea (Bruch´s membrane) – not distinc layer, separates choroid and retina.C. Photoreceptive part of retina (pars optica retinae): 1. pigment epithelium (stratum pigmenti retinae) – layer of cuboid cells with pigment melanin , 2. layer of rods and cones – outer segments of photoreceptors, 3. membrana limitans externa – not distinct, 4. outer nuclear layer – nuclei of rods and cons, 5. outer plexiform layer – synapses between 1st and 2nd neuron, 6. inner nuclear layer – bipolar, amacrine and horizontal cells and nuclei of supporting neuroglial cells of Müller, 7. inner plexiform layer – synapses between 2nd and 3rd neuron) + branching of amacrine cell processes, 8. ganglion cells layer – multipolar neurons, 9. layer of nerve fibers – neurits of multipolar cells, blood vessels supplying retina, 10. membrana limitans interna.67. Palpebra(cross section, HE or HES)A. Ventral side: skin covered with thin epidermis, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands in dermis.B. M. orbicularis oculi – skeletal muscle.C. Tarsal plate: dense c.t. with branched sebaceous glands (gll. tarseae Meibomi).D. Dorsal side: conjunctive (stratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells + lamina propria mucosae – loose c.t. with lymph nodules).Notice: free margin of palpebra contains hair follicles ofeyelashes (cilia) with sebaceous glands of Zeiss andapocrine sweat glands of Moll.
  • 43. 68. AuricleEc = elastic cartilage* = typical thick skin with hair follicles and sebaceousglands69. Funiculus umbilicalis(cross section, HE or Azan)A. Amnionic ectoderm – simple squamous or cuboid epithelium on the surface of umbilical cord.B. Wharton´s yelly (yelly-like c.t. tissue) – is composed of amorpheous substance, fibrocytes and fine collagenous fibers.C. Umbilical vessels (vasa umbilicalia): 1. arteriae umbilicales – are 2; narrow lumen, circular, longitudinal and spiral smooth muscle cells in the wall, inner and outer elastic membranes are not present, 2. vena umbilicalis – is 1; greater lumen, thiner wall, distinct 3 layers.D. The rest of ductus allantoideus (allantois) – non- constant epithelial islet in the center of triangular region of c.t. among umbilical vessels.70. Placenta –the end of pregnancy(cross section, HE)A. Pars fetalis placentae: 1. chorionic plate (membrane) - yelly-like c.t. tissue: – amnionic side of plate – smooth, covered with amnionic ectoderm (simple squamous or cuboid epithelium), – hypochorial side of plate - forms chorionic villi, 2. chorionic villi (villi choriales) and intervilous space. Structure of the villus: – syncytiotrophoblast, thin cytoplasmic layer
  • 44. with many nuclei and without cell borders, – stroma of villus – yelly-like c.t. tissue with branches of umbilical vessels.B. Pars materna placentae (basal plate) = zona functionalis of initial decidua basalis: 1. decidual cells – ovoid to polyhedral cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, 2. cells of cytotrophoblast – surface layer of basal plate.C. Fibrinoid – homogenous or finely granular eosinophilic material on the surface of basal plate, chorionic villi or hypochorial side of chorionic plate.
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