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  • 1. Institute for Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and St. Anna Faculty Hospital in Brno Agents of digestive system infections – I
  • 2. Digestive system
    • „ a fruitful microbial garden “
    • Its both ends are the „buggiest“ parts of the body
    • in the colon: approx. 10 12 bacteria/g
    • Normal colonic flora : 99 % anaerobes (Bacteroides, Fusobacterium , Clostridium , Peptostreptococcus ), only 1 % enteric bacteria (mostly E. coli ) & enterococci
  • 3. Mouth cavity – I
    • Normal flora:
    • viridans (= α-haemolytic) streptococci (e.g. Streptococcus salivarius )
    • oral neisseriae (e.g. Neisseria subflava )
    • haemophili of very low pathogenity (e.g. Haemophilus parainfluenzae )
    • D ental plaque: adherent microbial layer at the tooth surface made up from living and dead bacteria and their products together with components from the saliva
    • In essence, dental plaque is a biofilm
    • It cannot be washed off, only mechanically removed
  • 4. Lactobacillus
  • 5.  
  • 6. B i ofilm
    • Bacteria can regulatethe quantity of their population by regulative compounds
    • Process – quorum sensing
    • More resistant to
      • desinfectants
      • antibiotics
      • immune rection
    • A product of normal flora (which is positive) and pathogens as well
    Foto: Veronika Holá
  • 7.  
  • 8. Mouth cavity – II
    • Dental caries: chronic infections caused by normal oral flora -> localized destruction of tooth tissue
    • Etiology: mouth microbes (mostly Strept. mutans ) making acids from sucrose in food
    • Thrush (in Latin soor): Candida albicans It occurs mostly in newborns
    • Herpetic stomatitis: primary infection with HSV 1
    • Ludwig´s angina: polymicrobial anaerobic infection of sublingual and submandibular spaces ( Porphyromonas , Prevotella etc.)
  • 9. Herpetic stomatitis http://imaging.cmpmedica.com
  • 10. Thrush http://www.mydochub.com/images/oral_thrush.jpg http://www.clarian.org/ADAM/doc/graphics/images/en/17284.jpg
  • 11. C.albicans www.medmicro.info
  • 12. Oesophagus
    • Infections never in previously healthy individuals
    • Only in severely immunocompromised persons (AIDS):
    • Candida albicans
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • 13. Stomach
    • Stomach = a sterilization chamber killing by means of HCl most of swallowed microbes
    • Exception: Helicobacter pylori
    • It produces a potent urease and b y splitting tissue urea it i n creases pH around itself (1 molecule of urea -> 1 C O 2 + 2 NH 3 )
    • H. pylori causes
    • chronic gastritis
    • peptic ulcers (Nobel price in 2005)
  • 14. Helicobacter pylori http://vietsciences.free.fr/nobel/medecine/images/helicobacter%2520pylori.JPG
  • 15. www.univie.ac.at/hygiene-aktuell/helicobacter.jpg
  • 16. Biliary tree & the liver – I
    • Acute cholecystitis (colic, jaundice, fever): obstruction due to gallstones
    • Etiology: intestinal bacteria ( E. coli etc.)
    • Complication: ascending cholangitis
    • Chronic cholecystitis: the most important is Salmonella Typhi (carriers of typhoid fever)
    • Granulomatous hepatitis: Q fever, tbc, brucellosis
  • 17. Biliary tree & the liver – II
    • Parasitic infections of the liver:
    • Amoebiasis ( Entamoeba histolytica : liver abscess)
    • Malaria (the very first, clinically silent part of the life cycle of malaric plasmodia)
    • Leishmaniasis ( Leishmania donovani : kala-azar, L. infantum )
    • Schistosomiasis (eggs of Schistosoma japonicum , less often S. mansoni )
  • 18. Systemic infections which start in the digestive tract
    • Enteric fever (typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever): Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C
    • Listeriosis : Listeria monocytogenes
    • Peritonitis : colonic flora ( Bacteroides fragilis + other anaerobes + mixture of facultative anaerobes)
    • Viral hepatitis : HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV
  • 19. Small and large intestine
    • Bacterial overgrowth syndrome:
    • After surgery, depressed peristalsis, or gastric achlorhydria bacteria may overgrowth in the small intestine -> steatorrhea, deficiency of vitamin B 12 , diarrhea , malabsorption of vitamins A and D
    • Diarrhea : increase in daily amount of stool water – common intestinal response to many agents
    • Dysentery : acute inflammation of the colon -> abdominal pain & small-volume stools with blood, pus and mucus
  • 20. Diarrheal disease
    • Infectious:
    • Bacterial (most frequent)
    • Viral
    • Parasitic
    • Mycotic
    • Non-infectious:
    • Food poisoning
  • 21. „ Homework 1 “ What is the name of the picture and of its author?

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