Institute  for  Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University  and St. Anna Faculty Hospital  in Brno Miroslav Votav...
Shape of bacteria – I  <ul><li>Spherical shape:  cocci </li></ul><ul><li>regular sphere:  staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>...
Shape of bacteria  – II  <ul><li>(rods, continued) </li></ul><ul><li>with split ends:  bifidobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>br...
Shape of bacteria  – III  <ul><li>Spiral  bacteria (spirochetes) : </li></ul><ul><li>uneven:  Borrelia </li></ul><ul><li>d...
Size of bacteria <ul><li>Pathogenic bacteria: mainly  around 1 – 5  μm  (1 μm  = 10 -3  mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococc...
Arrangement and shape of cocci <ul><li>in  clumps:   Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><li>in  chains:   Streptococcus p...
Arrangement and shape of rods  – I  <ul><li>absolute  majority  of rods: e.g.  Eschericha coli </li></ul><ul><li>delicate ...
Arrangement and shape of rods  – II  <ul><li>f)  club-like in  palisades :  Corynebacterium diphtheriae </li></ul><ul><li>...
Curved and spiral rods   <ul><li>a)  curved  rods, crescent-shaped:  Vibrio cholerae </li></ul><ul><li>b)  thick  spirals:...
Outline of bacterial cell capsule cytoplasmic membrane   bacterial cell wall   fimbriae nucleoid ribosomes plasmids granul...
Bacterial cell wall <ul><li>G+   G–   </li></ul><ul><li>lipoteichoic acid   O-antigen   lipopoly- </li></ul><ul><li>inner ...
Gram staining <ul><li>G+  G–   </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation by flame  3–5  times </li></ul><ul><li>Gram stain  20 s </li></u...
Basis of Gram-positiveness <ul><li>Rather a  puzzle  – but it is connected with the  structure of cell wall </li></ul><ul>...
Examples of G+ and G– microbes   <ul><li>Gram-positives </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus <...
Sensitivity to antibiotics   <ul><li>Effect  mostly  </li></ul><ul><li>on Gram-positives : </li></ul><ul><li>beta-lactams ...
Recommended reading material   <ul><li>Paul de Kruif: Microbe Hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Paul de Kruif: Men against Death <...
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02 morphology and_structure_2009

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02 morphology and_structure_2009

  1. 1. Institute for Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and St. Anna Faculty Hospital in Brno Miroslav Votava Ondřej Zahradníček MORPHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF BACTERIAL CELL Lecture for 2nd-year students February 2 3 , 200 9
  2. 2. Shape of bacteria – I <ul><li>Spherical shape: cocci </li></ul><ul><li>regular sphere: staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>flattened: gonococci, meningococci </li></ul><ul><li>pointed (lancet-like): pneumococci </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated shape: rods </li></ul><ul><li>straight: majority (e.g. Escherichia coli ) </li></ul><ul><li>short (coccobacilli): acinetobacters </li></ul><ul><li>long (fibers): mainly old cultures </li></ul><ul><li>slender: Mycobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>robust: lactobacilli, Clostridium </li></ul><ul><li>perfringens , Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>(to be continued) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shape of bacteria – II <ul><li>(rods, continued) </li></ul><ul><li>with split ends: bifidobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>branching: nocardiae, actinomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>curved: vibria, campylobacters </li></ul><ul><li>with flat ends: Bacillus anthracis </li></ul><ul><li>spindle-shaped: fusobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>club-shaped: corynebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>pleomorphic: haemophili </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spiral: H elicobacter , Spirillum ( they are not spirochets ) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Shape of bacteria – III <ul><li>Spiral bacteria (spirochetes) : </li></ul><ul><li>uneven: Borrelia </li></ul><ul><li>delicate, regular: Treponema </li></ul><ul><li>slender with bent ends: Leptospira </li></ul>
  5. 5. Size of bacteria <ul><li>Pathogenic bacteria: mainly around 1 – 5 μm (1 μm = 10 -3 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus: the diameter circa 1 μm </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively large : genera Bacillus and Clostridium (robust rods around 1 × 10 μm) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively long: old cultures of most rods </li></ul><ul><li>(fibers up to 50 μm long) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively small: genus Haemophilus (in the sputum approximately 0.3 × 0.6 μm) </li></ul><ul><li>Even smaller: rickettsiae (circa 0.5 μm) chlamydiae (elementary bodies circa 0.3 μm) mycoplasmas (circa 0.2 – 0.25 μm ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Arrangement and shape of cocci <ul><li>in clumps: Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><li>in chains: Streptococcus pyogenes </li></ul><ul><li>lancet-like diplococci: Streptococcus pneumoniae </li></ul><ul><li>flattened diplococci: Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul><ul><li>cocci in tetrads: Micrococcus luteus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Arrangement and shape of rods – I <ul><li>absolute majority of rods: e.g. Eschericha coli </li></ul><ul><li>delicate streptobacilli : Haemophilus ducreyi </li></ul><ul><li>coccobacilli in pairs or diplobacilli : Moraxella lacunata </li></ul><ul><li>robust rods, rounded ends : Clostridium perfringens </li></ul><ul><li>robust rods, flat up to concave ends , bamboo cane-like chains: Bacillus anthracis </li></ul>
  8. 8. Arrangement and shape of rods – II <ul><li>f) club-like in palisades : Corynebacterium diphtheriae </li></ul><ul><li>g) slender, hinted palisades : Mycobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>h) branched , fragmented: Nocardia asteroides </li></ul><ul><li>i) spindle-like : Fusobacterium fusiforme </li></ul><ul><li>j) minute, pleomorphic : Haemophilus influenzae </li></ul>
  9. 9. Curved and spiral rods <ul><li>a) curved rods, crescent-shaped: Vibrio cholerae </li></ul><ul><li>b) thick spirals: Spirillum minus </li></ul><ul><li>c) uneven spirals: Borrelia recurrentis </li></ul><ul><li>d) delicate, regular spirals : Treponema pallidum </li></ul><ul><li>e) very fine spirals with bent ends : Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae </li></ul>
  10. 10. Outline of bacterial cell capsule cytoplasmic membrane bacterial cell wall fimbriae nucleoid ribosomes plasmids granula vacuole flagellum
  11. 11. Bacterial cell wall <ul><li>G+ G– </li></ul><ul><li>lipoteichoic acid O-antigen lipopoly- </li></ul><ul><li>inner polysaccharide saccharide </li></ul><ul><li>lipid A (endotoxin) </li></ul><ul><li>murein </li></ul><ul><li>porin </li></ul><ul><li>outer </li></ul><ul><li>membrane </li></ul><ul><li>lipoprotein </li></ul><ul><li>periplasmatic </li></ul><ul><li>space </li></ul><ul><li>innner membrane </li></ul><ul><li>cytoplasmic membrane (G+) (G–) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gram staining <ul><li>G+ G– </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation by flame 3–5 times </li></ul><ul><li>Gram stain 20 s </li></ul><ul><li>Lugol solution 20 s </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol max. 20 s </li></ul><ul><li>Tap water rinse </li></ul><ul><li>Safranin 1 min </li></ul><ul><li>Tap water rinse </li></ul><ul><li>Drying , immersion microscopy (1000 ×) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Basis of Gram-positiveness <ul><li>Rather a puzzle – but it is connected with the structure of cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>1st theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Thick peptidoglycane (murein) layer contracts after the alcohol and slows down the washing of crystal violet and iodine complex out of G-positive cells </li></ul><ul><li>2nd theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria contains more lipids, therefore the alcohol forms pores in the wall and the colored complex can be washed out easier </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of G+ and G– microbes <ul><li>Gram-positives </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>Lactobacillus </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium </li></ul><ul><li>Listeria </li></ul><ul><li>Corynebacterium </li></ul><ul><li>Yeasts and moulds </li></ul><ul><li>Gram-negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas </li></ul><ul><li>All spirals </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma </li></ul><ul><li>Rickettsiae & chlamydiae </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sensitivity to antibiotics <ul><li>Effect mostly </li></ul><ul><li>on Gram-positives : </li></ul><ul><li>beta-lactams ( penicillin , </li></ul><ul><li>oxacillin = methicillin) </li></ul><ul><li>macrolides (erytromycin) </li></ul><ul><li>lincosamides (lincomycin) </li></ul><ul><li>glycopeptides (vancomycin) </li></ul><ul><li>Effect mostly </li></ul><ul><li>on Gram-negatives : </li></ul><ul><li>polypeptides (colistin) </li></ul><ul><li>aminoglycosides (gentamicin) ; but G+ staphylococci too </li></ul><ul><li>monobactams ( aztreonam ) + </li></ul><ul><li>3rd gen. cephalosporins </li></ul><ul><li>(cephtriaxon) – rather broad spectre antibiotics, but for G- more than G+ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Recommended reading material <ul><li>Paul de Kruif: Microbe Hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Paul de Kruif: Men against Death </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>

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