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01 microbiology and_medicine
 

01 microbiology and_medicine

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    01 microbiology and_medicine 01 microbiology and_medicine Presentation Transcript

    • Institute for Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and St. Anna Faculty Hospital in Brno Miroslav Votava, Vladana Woznicová MICROBIOLOGY AND MEDICINE February 1 6 , 200 9
    • What is the Medical Microbiology?
      • Medical microbiology = complex of sciences about microorganisms ( microbes ) that are of significance in medicine
      • Therefore, medical microbiology deals with:
      • microbes called pathogenic which cause diseases of man or animals
      • microbes which form so called normal microflora of human beings and animals
      • mutual relationships between microbes and their host
      • relations between the microbes and the environment
    • Different kinds of microbiology
      • Actually, there are two kinds of medical microbiology: human and veterinary one
      • But most often medical microbiology is considered as a science about microbes important for human medicine only
      • A part of medical microbiology which deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics of diseases caused by microbes is called clinical microbiology
      • Besides medical microbiology, there are:
      • Sanitary microbiology
      • Environmental microbiology (of soil, water, plants etc.)
      • Food microbiology
      • Other kinds of industrial microbiology
    • Division of microbiology
      • bacteria bacteriology
      • mi c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) mycology
      • (algae) ( algology)
      • parasites parasitology
        • protozoa protozoology
        • helminths helminthology
        • arthropods entomology
      • viruses virology
      • general microbiology × special microbiology
    • B acteria Bacillus subtilis, photo: B. Skalka
    • M i c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) Aspergillus niger (left), Candida Albicans (right)
    • P arasites Enterobius vermicularis, photo: M.Dvořáčková
    • V iruses The chicken embryo (right), photo: M.Dvořáčková
    • What should we know about the microbe X ? – I
      • 1. Classification, morphology, structure
      • Is it a bacterium, a yeast, or a protozoon?
      • Bacterium: is it G+, G-, or does it stain differently?
      • Is it a coccus, rod, filament, spiral?
      • How are they arranged? In pairs, chains, clumps, palisades?
      • Do they produce spores, capsules, granules?
      • 2. Physiology, biochemistry, genetics, tenacity
      • Is it an anaerobe?
      • Has it got any important biochemical property?
      • Is it interesting from the point of genetics?
      • Is it tenacious, or delicate?
    • What should we know about the microbe X ? – II
      • 3. Antigenic structure
      • Does the microbe exist in one or several antigenic types?
      • 4. Pathogenicity
      • Which disease or syndromes does it cause?
      • What are their Latin names?
      • 5. Pathogenesis
      • What is the port of entry, dissemination through the body, excretion from it?
      • How do the symptoms develop?
      • What are the main factors of pathogenicity?
      • 6. Immunity
      • Does it form at all?
      • Transient, or lifelong? Humoral, or cellular one?
    • What should we know about the microbe X ? – III
      • 7. Epidemiology
      • Source of infection: man, animal, environment?
      • Way of transmission?
      • 8. Prevention or prophylaxis
      • Do we vaccinate, or do we immunize passively?
      • Type of vaccine: attenuated, inactivated, toxoid?
      • 9. Therapy
      • What is the drug of choice?
      • If an antibiotic, which one?
    • What should we know about the microbe X ? – IV
      • 10. Laboratory diagnostics
      • Detection of the microbe – direct or indirect one?
      • If the direct one, what sample is taken from
      • the patient?
      • How is it examined?
      • If by culture, is a special medium needed?
      • How is the isolated strain identified?
      • If the indirect one, is a special serologic reaction
      • needed?
      • What is considered to be the positive result?
    • Anniversaries 2009 – I
      • 335 1674 Protozoa first seen by van Leeuwenhoek
      • 260 1749 * Edward Jenner , founder of vaccination
      • against smallpox
      • 145 1864 Pasteur discovered that wine is spoiled by
      • microbes
      • 130 1879 Neisser discovered gonococci
      • 125 1884 Löffler & Klebs: agent of diphtheria
      • Eberth & Gaffky: agent of typhoid fever
      • Metchnikoff described phagocytosis
      • Gram described „Gram staining“
      • 115 1894 Kitasato & Yersin: agent of plague
    • Anniversaries 2009 – II
      • 90 1919 Bordet : Nobel prize for discovery of
      • BWR, complement, agent of pertussis
      • 70 1939 Domagk: effect of sulphonamides on
      • gonococci
      • 65 1944 Waksman discovered streptomycin
      • 55 1954 Salk: inactivated vaccine against polio
      • Enders et al. grew poliovirus on cell culture
      • 20 1989 Bishop & Varmus: Nobel prize for discovery
      • of cell origin of retroviral oncogenes
    • Recommended teaching material
      • 1) Basic textbook
      • Greenwood et al.: Medical Microbiology, 17th Ed., 2007
      • Alternatives :
      • Murray et al.: Medical Microbiology
      • Mims et al.: Medical Microbiology
      • 2) Lecture notes
      • 3) List of questions
      • 4) Protocols from practical exercises
      • + www.medmicro.info
      • Thank you for your attention