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01 microbiology and_medicine

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  • 1. Institute for Microbiology, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and St. Anna Faculty Hospital in Brno Miroslav Votava, Vladana Woznicová MICROBIOLOGY AND MEDICINE February 1 6 , 200 9
  • 2. What is the Medical Microbiology?
    • Medical microbiology = complex of sciences about microorganisms ( microbes ) that are of significance in medicine
    • Therefore, medical microbiology deals with:
    • microbes called pathogenic which cause diseases of man or animals
    • microbes which form so called normal microflora of human beings and animals
    • mutual relationships between microbes and their host
    • relations between the microbes and the environment
  • 3. Different kinds of microbiology
    • Actually, there are two kinds of medical microbiology: human and veterinary one
    • But most often medical microbiology is considered as a science about microbes important for human medicine only
    • A part of medical microbiology which deals with the etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics of diseases caused by microbes is called clinical microbiology
    • Besides medical microbiology, there are:
    • Sanitary microbiology
    • Environmental microbiology (of soil, water, plants etc.)
    • Food microbiology
    • Other kinds of industrial microbiology
  • 4. Division of microbiology
    • bacteria bacteriology
    • mi c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) mycology
    • (algae) ( algology)
    • parasites parasitology
      • protozoa protozoology
      • helminths helminthology
      • arthropods entomology
    • viruses virology
    • general microbiology × special microbiology
  • 5. B acteria Bacillus subtilis, photo: B. Skalka
  • 6. M i c romycetes (moulds & yeasts) Aspergillus niger (left), Candida Albicans (right)
  • 7. P arasites Enterobius vermicularis, photo: M.Dvořáčková
  • 8. V iruses The chicken embryo (right), photo: M.Dvořáčková
  • 9. What should we know about the microbe X ? – I
    • 1. Classification, morphology, structure
    • Is it a bacterium, a yeast, or a protozoon?
    • Bacterium: is it G+, G-, or does it stain differently?
    • Is it a coccus, rod, filament, spiral?
    • How are they arranged? In pairs, chains, clumps, palisades?
    • Do they produce spores, capsules, granules?
    • 2. Physiology, biochemistry, genetics, tenacity
    • Is it an anaerobe?
    • Has it got any important biochemical property?
    • Is it interesting from the point of genetics?
    • Is it tenacious, or delicate?
  • 10. What should we know about the microbe X ? – II
    • 3. Antigenic structure
    • Does the microbe exist in one or several antigenic types?
    • 4. Pathogenicity
    • Which disease or syndromes does it cause?
    • What are their Latin names?
    • 5. Pathogenesis
    • What is the port of entry, dissemination through the body, excretion from it?
    • How do the symptoms develop?
    • What are the main factors of pathogenicity?
    • 6. Immunity
    • Does it form at all?
    • Transient, or lifelong? Humoral, or cellular one?
  • 11. What should we know about the microbe X ? – III
    • 7. Epidemiology
    • Source of infection: man, animal, environment?
    • Way of transmission?
    • 8. Prevention or prophylaxis
    • Do we vaccinate, or do we immunize passively?
    • Type of vaccine: attenuated, inactivated, toxoid?
    • 9. Therapy
    • What is the drug of choice?
    • If an antibiotic, which one?
  • 12. What should we know about the microbe X ? – IV
    • 10. Laboratory diagnostics
    • Detection of the microbe – direct or indirect one?
    • If the direct one, what sample is taken from
    • the patient?
    • How is it examined?
    • If by culture, is a special medium needed?
    • How is the isolated strain identified?
    • If the indirect one, is a special serologic reaction
    • needed?
    • What is considered to be the positive result?
  • 13. Anniversaries 2009 – I
    • 335 1674 Protozoa first seen by van Leeuwenhoek
    • 260 1749 * Edward Jenner , founder of vaccination
    • against smallpox
    • 145 1864 Pasteur discovered that wine is spoiled by
    • microbes
    • 130 1879 Neisser discovered gonococci
    • 125 1884 Löffler & Klebs: agent of diphtheria
    • Eberth & Gaffky: agent of typhoid fever
    • Metchnikoff described phagocytosis
    • Gram described „Gram staining“
    • 115 1894 Kitasato & Yersin: agent of plague
  • 14. Anniversaries 2009 – II
    • 90 1919 Bordet : Nobel prize for discovery of
    • BWR, complement, agent of pertussis
    • 70 1939 Domagk: effect of sulphonamides on
    • gonococci
    • 65 1944 Waksman discovered streptomycin
    • 55 1954 Salk: inactivated vaccine against polio
    • Enders et al. grew poliovirus on cell culture
    • 20 1989 Bishop & Varmus: Nobel prize for discovery
    • of cell origin of retroviral oncogenes
  • 15. Recommended teaching material
    • 1) Basic textbook
    • Greenwood et al.: Medical Microbiology, 17th Ed., 2007
    • Alternatives :
    • Murray et al.: Medical Microbiology
    • Mims et al.: Medical Microbiology
    • 2) Lecture notes
    • 3) List of questions
    • 4) Protocols from practical exercises
    • + www.medmicro.info
  • 16.
    • Thank you for your attention