UNED MURE Project Amman

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  • User InterfaceThe user interface is a virtual end-user workbench that handles all the lab administration process. It is a web site that runs on the user’s web browser and usually requires a server-side programming language to retrieve user’s data from database, along with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which is built by means of plugins and animation technology embedded in the HTML code to resemble the real lab workbench.Web ServerThe web server is a server-PC that hosts the web site and the database files. The web server sends the user requests to the lab server in the form of XML messages through TCP/IP model over HTTP layer. Lab ServerThe lab server is a server-PC that hosts the instrumentation control software (lab server software) and it is connected directly to the instruments and the controller. The lab server software sends commands to the controller regarding the received requests or the programmed code from the user. The lab server software could be built from scratch with a multi-purpose programming language such as C# and C/C++, or with graphical programming environment such as LabVIEW and MATLAB. Or else, it could be a proprietary software that comes with the controller. The instrumentation control software is connected to the controller and the instruments by standards such as USB, RS-232, Ethernet, General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB-IEEE-488.2), serial port, parallel port, etc. depending on the controller or the equipment platform. There are several modular types of instrumentation platforms such as PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation), LXI (LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation), GPIB, and VXI (VME eXtensions for Instrumentation).ControllerThe controller is a programmable device that directly controls the controlled objects and they are suited for all types of applications. In the literature, the controllers that have been typically used in remote laboratories are: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Programmable Logic Device (PLD); Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD), and Microcontroller. The controller connection with the instruments and the controlled objects may entail connectors, converters (e.g., A/D, D/A), I2C-based electronic boards, etc.
  • Library of Labs (LILA) is another prominent initiative: the experiments are provided in form of SCORM objects and can be downloaded as Sharable Content Objects (SCOs) to be reused in other SCORM-Complaint Learning Management System (LMS). LiLa provides access control and booking systems as an inherent part of SCO to have the same effect if the SCO is deployed out of LiLa portal (in a LMS).
  • Nowadays, a remote laboratory of a university is scarcely reused by other universities due to the lack of information about the laboratory. The Lab2go project was launched to fill this gap. It is a web portal that acts as a repository and provides a common framework for on-line laboratories providers all over the world. The laboratories with all their related information, running projects, status, language, scientific field, access url, difficulty property, etc. are added with metadata by using semantic web technologies, to facilitate their allocation and precise the searching criteria rather than the traditional available searching tools that are oriented to the keyword. This allows individuals and researchers to find information about certain types and architectures of laboratories in a specific field all over the world with an intelligent way. Terminologies are adopted from metadata such as Dublin Core and Learning object metadata (LOM). Lab2go, however, is metadata architecture and it is not structured to provide access to the on-line laboratories.
  • Shared access to laboratories is one of the most often raised justifications for the use of remote labs. RLMSs are generic educational systems that provide a common portal through which managed remote laboratories can be accessed, along with other administrative and educational services such as booking, assessment, tracking, and communication tools.RLMSs should be agnostic with regard to the remote laboratory design in order to support the widest range possible of remote laboratories. It is claimed that this can lead to improved utilization levels, shared costs, and access to a much broader range of laboratory apparatus.
  • The photovoltaic training devices with virtual instrumentation include a data acquisition system and an application developed in LabView enabling monitoring of the photovoltaic system’s main variables via PC and different types of testing to be performed, and control of the installation from the PC.Available based on LabView virtual instrumentation that allows the PC to monitor key parameters characteristic of a photovoltaic system, perform various tests and control the installation from the computer.
  • the function and operating principle of solar cells are vividly demonstrated and made understandable.UniTrain-I Energy Engineering course uses numerous experiments and animations to provide insight into currentissues affecting electrical power engineering. The various courses cover the generation of electric power fromregenerative energies as well as the processes involved in distribution networks. Typical generation anddistribution processes requiring special treatment are dealt with and explored in experiments using safe extralowvoltages. http://www.lucas-nuelle.com/
  • Small wind power plants up to approx. 5 kW power are being deployed today for decentralised power supplies. These systems are used for the supply of objects that do not avail over central power supplies, for example, remotely located mobile radio converters or vacation homes. These plants generate DC voltage. The energy can be stored in accumulators using charge controllers. AC voltages are generated via inverters for operation of loads connected to a grid. The effects of wind power and the mechanical design of wind power stations can be emulated down to the last detail using the servo machine test stand and the software WindSim. The corresponding Interactive Lab Assistant Multimedia course imparts knowledge, provides interactive experiment setup support and allows for PC-assisted evaluation of the measurement data.
  • RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY FOR LIGHTING SYSTEMSDUMITRU Cristian, “PetruMaior” University of Tg.MureşGLIGOR Adrian, “PetruMaior” University of Tg.MureşInternational Conference ILUMINAT 20091
  • Remote Laboratory in PhotovoltaicsP.A. Cotfas, D.T. Cotfas, D. Ursutiu and C. SamoilaTransylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romaniahttp://www.i-joe.org
  • Remote Triggered Photovoltaic Solar Cell Lab:Effective Implementation Strategies for Virtual LabsJoshua Freeman1, Member, IEEE, Akshay Nagarajan2, Mithula Parangan3, Dhanush Kumar4, Shyam Diwakar5,Krishnashree Achuthan6Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham UniversityAmritapuri, Kerala, India
  • UNED MURE Project Amman

    1. 1. Remote Laboratories: Trends & ChallengesMohamed Tawfik, Salvador Ros, Felix Garcia-Loro, Elio Sancristobal, Sergio Martin, Charo Gil, Juan Peire, Antonio Colmenar and Manuel Castro Electrical & Computer Engineering Department (DIEEC) Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    2. 2. The implementation of practical sessions in engineering education:• Paves the way for students to be familiar with the instruments and thus, with the industrial real-world• Augment the learning outcomes by strengthening the understanding of scientific concepts and theories Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    3. 3. Unfortunately, there exist a wide gap between the engineeringeducational curricula and the industrial real-world owing to: • The lack of experimentation availability • The high cost of equipment and administration burdens Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    4. 4. • Online Laboratories address these needs providing on-line ubiquitous workbenches unconstrained by neither temporal nor geographical considerations• Recently, hundreds of online laboratories have been developed at many universities Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    5. 5. Online LaboratoriesVirtual Laboratories Remote Laboratories Software application for Real physical laboratories web browsers (online) or controlled online for desktopPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    6. 6. A survey over the impact of the most promising technologies on engineering education was carriedout during the “IEEE Engineering Education Conference 2010” (EDUCON 2010) on 98 experts inengineering education. The survey was available in the conference blog during several weeks beforethe event Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    7. 7. e.g. JKarnaugh v4.1 Virtual LaboratoryA virtual laboratory at DIEEC-UNED for solving logic functions byKarnaugh Map method Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    8. 8. e.g. Digital Electronics Virtual LaboratoryA virtual laboratory at DIEEC-UNED for simulating logic circuits Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    9. 9. Remote laboratories are those laboratories that can be controlled andadministrated online. They differ from the virtual simulatedlaboratories as they are interacting with physical instruments Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    10. 10. e.g. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR)VISIR is a remote laboratory for wiring and measurement of real electroniccircuits Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    11. 11. e.g. Embedded Systems Remote LabA remote laboratory at DIEEC-UNED for programming and monitoringembedded devices such as FPGA, Microcontrollers, and CPLD Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    12. 12. e.g. Hydraulic Plant Remote LaboratoryA remote laboratory at DIEEC-UNED for teaching principles of systemcontrol and automatic regulation Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    13. 13. Research on Technologies for Engineering Education http://ohm.ieec.uned.es/For more information about remote laboratories, we invite you to access to theweb page of the Electrical & Computer Engineering department of the UNED Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    14. 14. Design & DevelopmentPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    15. 15. The common generic architecture design of today’s remote laboratoryfor industrial electronics applications Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    16. 16. There exist three major challenges in building remote laboratories:• Selecting the lab server software• Selecting the client-server communication technology• Integrating the remote laboratories with the Learning Management System Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    17. 17. The common outstanding technologies applied for remote laboratorieslab server software development are LabVIEW and MATLAB Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    18. 18. Both possess rich and powerful features:• Data exchange with other GUI applications such as COM, ActiveX, CGI, Java and .Net applications, and web services• Support for standard Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) such as IVI, VISA, PXI, GPIB, VXI, USB, LXI, and others• Connection with ODBC or OLEDB compliance database; compilation as DLL files to be called from the Lab server software as a driver to execute the experiments on the hardware• Support for OPC Servers to enable HMI and SCADA Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    19. 19. • LabVIEW is the most popular remote laboratory environment and it is the most outstanding representative of graphical programming language visualization and parameter tuning for remote operation• MATLAB is the most powerful computing language for control algorithm development and simulation• Full using of their advantages can achieve high efficiency programming. In numerous remote laboratories applications, a hybrid method was adopted; the signal acquisition and the GUI were developed with LabVIEW, while numerical calculation and signal processing were developed with MATLAB Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    20. 20. LabVIEW can support several ways of hybrid programming with MATLAB by means of: • ActiveX automation technology • DLL technology • COM technology • MathScript RT ModuleMathscript module allowsembedding .m file scripts in LabVIEWapplications by connecting the text-based I/O variables with the inputsand outputs of LabVIEW Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    21. 21. The client-server layer is responsible for the communication betweenuser interface and the lab server Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    22. 22. • The client-server layer is responsible for the communication between user interface and the lab server Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    23. 23. There exist a wide variety of technologies for the communication between client-server:  Desktop Sharing security problems • Virtual Network Computing (VNC) very slow • Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) limited to a single connection  Common Gateway Interface (CGI) performance problems  ActiveX and Java Applets plugins required  Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) plugins required  LabVIEW Web server only with LabVIEW applications  Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) the actual trendEach of these solutions have its relative advantages and disadvantages. However, thetrend is more shifted towards web standards such as AJAX and Web services.On the mean time for LabVIEW applications LabVIEW web interface is thecommon choice Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    24. 24. Integration & ImplementationPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    25. 25. Recently, remote laboratories have been developed at multipleuniversities and adopted in engineering education. Furthermore, someof these laboratories are replicated at many universities such as theelectronic circuit’s remote labs: NetLab, VISIR, and labs based on NIELVIS II Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    26. 26. This was the commence of a new mainstream which advocates a betterremodeling of those laboratories to allow their allocation, sharing amonguniversities, and their communication with other heterogeneous systems,e.g., Learning Management Systems (LMS) Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    27. 27. The integration of remote laboratories with educational platformcould be classified as follows:  Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)  Integration with Metadata Repository  Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs) Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    28. 28. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)LMS is a software application for the realizing classrooms and courses online Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    29. 29. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)LMSs have been widely used in distance education for the past two decades. It provides manytools and features such as: Administration Tools: user registration, account roles, user profile, assign tutors, students and groups, billings, design course contents, scheduling, etc. Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Tools: chat, forums, video conference, webinars, events, news, emails, calendars, blogs etc. Multimedia sharing Tools: Upload and download videos, audios, photos, files, etc. Evaluation and Tracking Tool:. Surveys, exams, assignments, user tracking, etc. Standard Compatibility: LMS organizes the content in a hierarchical structure with regarding to a specific standard in order to allow swapping contents between different LMS without re-writing it again. From the most common used standards are:  Shareable Courseware Object Reference Model (SCORM) & IMS for content packing  IMS QTI (Question and Test Interoperability) for tests and evaluations,  Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and Dublin Core for describing and reusing learning objects. Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    30. 30. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)LMS can be open source such as: Moodle , dotLRN, Sakai, Claroline, etc. which could be easilydeveloped and redesigned, thus all our researches are realized focusing on these types of LMS.While Proprietary types such as Blackboard, JoomlaLMS, SharePointLMS, etc. could only bemodified by their developers. Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    31. 31. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)Even though, most of the features provided by LMS are of crucial importance to practical sessions. LMS,however, is confined to theoretical resources and doesn’t support their practical counterparts
    32. 32. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs)The goal is to make use of all the services provided by open source LMSs and apply them in theremote practical lab sessions. As well, to make use of standards such Sharable Content ObjectReference Model (SCORM), and deliver remote experiments in form of SCORM to be launched atany compatible LMS. …. LMS Lab1 Lab2 …. …. Students Provided Services: Administrative tools Scheduling Synchronous and asynchronous communication tools Assessment and tracking tools Multimedia sharing tools Standard compatibility Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    33. 33. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs) Web services-based Middleware Architecture developed at DIEEC-UNED for integrating remote laboratories into open source LMSs such as Moodle. Software Lab ? Internet ? Controller Instruments M I D Student D Software Lab Internet L Internet Internet E W LMS A Broker R ServerStudent ? E ? Controller Instruments Data Base Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    34. 34. I. Integration with Learning Management Systems (LMSs) http://www.lila-project.org/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    35. 35. II. Integration with Metadata Repository http://www.lab2go.net/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    36. 36. II. Integration with Metadata Repository Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    37. 37. III. Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs) …... …... RLMS USERS Common Access Portal Equipments Management Lab Servers Administrative Tools Communication Tools .. Diferent Remote Lab Systems Other Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    38. 38. III. Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs)The most remarkable RLMSs that have spread among severaluniversities are:  iLab Shared Archuitecture (ISA) – Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)  Sahara (Labshare) – University of Technology, Sydney (UTS)  WebLab Deusto – University of Deusto Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    39. 39. III. Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs) iLab Shared Architecture (ISA) www.ilab.mit.edu/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    40. 40. III. Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs) Sahara (Labshare) Web Server Scheduling Server rig provider Master Server scheduling server adminUsers Database virtual machines Rigs http://www.labshare.edu.au/ rigs of same type Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    41. 41. III. Integration with Remote Laboratory Management Systems (RLMSs) WebLab Deusto http://www.weblab.deusto.es/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    42. 42. iLab (ISA) Labshare (Sahara) WebLab DeustoDeveloper Massachusetts Institute of University of Technology of University of Deusto Technology (MIT) SydneyWeb Technologies Microsoft (ASP.NET, MS SQL, PHP, Java, PostgreSQL, and Python, Java, MySQL, and and IIS). Apache. Apache.Compatibility Only runs on Microsoft Windows Cross-platform. Cross-platform. Server.Authentication Simple database authentication Simple database authentication Simple database and ticketing. and interface to an institution’s authentication, OpenID, local such as Lightweight trusted IP address, Directory Access Protocol Facebook, and LDAP. (LDAP).Client-server Http-based protocols. Http-based protocols, AJAX, Http-based protocols, AJAXcommunication and virtual machines. and virtual machines.Provided Services user accounts and user accounts and user accounts and administrative tools administrative tools administrative tools scheduling scheduling scheduling interactive experiments interactive experiments interactive experiments user tracking queuing queuing batched experiments arbitration of access to user tracking strong support to distributed multiple identical experiment mobile access and federated user account workbench management owing to its genius distributive architecture and the functionality of SB, LSS, USS, and ESSMultiuser Not supported Not supported Not supportedcollaboration andcommunicationAdding Complex, owing to the web Simple, due to its simple Simple, it provides librariesexperiments services API design for the protocol and configuration and for Java Applets, Adobe communication with service it is based on virtual machine Flash, Java, .NET, broker, LSS, USS, and ESS. which provides direct access to LabVIEW, CC++, and However, it integrates LabVIEW the local lab server. Python, to ease integration GUI in a standard and easy way. of new experiments based on different technologies.No. of universities 3 (Africa), 3 (Australia), 2 (Asia), 4 (Australia) [62] 2 (Spain) 3 (Europe), 2 (North America)No. of laboratories 21 13 6added
    43. 43. GOLC: Global Online Laboratory Consortium• The GOLC consortium is focused on promoting the development and sharing of, and research into remotely accessible laboratories for educational use• The GOLC partners include most of the pioneers in remote laboratories development and deployment http://online-lab.org/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    44. 44. GOLC: Global Online Laboratory Consortium• The trend in researching within GOLC is to create standard APIs that allows communication with different remote laboratory systems that adhere to this standard• For instance, users of Sahara could access experiments integrated in iLab and vice versa Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    45. 45. Computer Controlled Commercial Kits for Renewable Energy ApplicationsPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    46. 46. Alecop: Solar Photovoltaic Training Device http://www.alecop.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    47. 47. Lucas-Nülle: UniTrain-I Photovoltaic course http://www.lucas-nuelle.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    48. 48. Lucas-Nülle: Small wind power planthttp://www.lucas-nuelle.com/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    49. 49. Lucas-Nülle: Fuel cell technology http://www.lucas-nuelle.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    50. 50. Edibon: Photovoltaic Solar Energy Modular Trainers http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    51. 51. Edibon: Computer Controlled Wind Energy Basic Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    52. 52. Edibon: Computer Controlled Thermal Solar Energy Basic Unit http://www.edibon.com/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    53. 53. Edibon: Computer Controlled PEM Fuel Cell Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    54. 54. Edibon: Computer Controlled Bioethanol Process Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    55. 55. Edibon: Computer Controlled Biogas Process Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    56. 56. Edibon: Computer Controlled Biodiesel Process Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    57. 57. Edibon: Computer Controlled Waves Energy Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    58. 58. Edibon: Computer Controlled Tidal Energy Unit http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    59. 59. Edibon: Computer Controlled Submarine Currents Energy Unit http://www.edibon.com/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    60. 60. Edibon: Computer Controlled Geothermal (low enthalpy) Energy Unit http://www.edibon.com/ Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    61. 61. Edibon: Computer Controlled Generating Stations Control and Regulation Simulator http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    62. 62. Edibon: Computer Controlled Stirling Motor http://www.edibon.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    63. 63. ELEKTRON: Solar Energy Trainer-100 http://www.tiendaelektron.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    64. 64. ELEKTRON: Solar Energy SolarTec-70 http://www.tiendaelektron.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    65. 65. ELEKTRON: Wind Generator http://www.tiendaelektron.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    66. 66. ELEKTRON: Solar Thermal Kit http://www.tiendaelektron.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    67. 67. ELEKTRON: Solar Thermal Trainer http://www.tiendaelektron.com/Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    68. 68. Remote Lab Applications for Renewable EnergyPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    69. 69. “Petru Maior” University of Tg.Mureş: Data acquisition system for monitoring of the solar energy parametersPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    70. 70. Transylvania University of Brasov: NI ELVIS Photovoltaic ExperimentPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    71. 71. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University: Remote Triggered Photovoltaic Solar Cell LabPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    72. 72. References• Castro, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Gil, R., Tawfik, M., Pesquera, A., Albert, M. J., Diaz, G., & Peire, J. (2012). One Step Ahead in the Future of Labs: Widgets, Ubiquity and Mobility. In Remote Eng. & Virtual Instrum. (REV) 2012. Bilbao• Sancristobal, E., Martín, S., Gil, R., Orduña, P., Tawfik, M., Pesquera, A., Diaz, G., Colmenar, A., García-Zubia, J., & Castro, M. (2012). State of art, Initiatives and New challenges for Virtual and Remote Labs. In 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT). Rome, Italy• Sancristobal, E., Pesquera, A., Martin, S., Gil, R., Tawfik, M., Castro, M., Ruiz, E., Diaz, G., Colmenar, A., & Carpio, J. (2012). Challenges of applying online learning tools in distance learning courses. In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2012 IEEE (pp. 1-7)• Tawfik, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Diaz, G., & Castro, M. (2012). State-of-the-art remote laboratories for industrial electronics applications. In Technologies Applied to Electronics Teaching (TAEE), 2012 (pp. 359-364)• Tawfik, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Gil, R., Diaz, G., Peire, J., & Castro, M. (2012). On the Design of Remote Laboratories. In Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), IEEE (pp. 1-6). Marrakesh Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    73. 73. References• Tawfik, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Gil, R., Pesquera, A., Tovar, E., Llamas-Nistal, M., Diaz, G., Peire, J., & Castro, M. (2012). Common Multidisciplinary Prototypes of Remote Laboratories in the Educational Curricula of Electrical & Computer Engineering. In ASEE Annual Conference (pp. AC 2012-3227). San Antonio, Texas• Tawfik, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Gil, C., Pesquera, A., Losada, P., Diaz, G., Peire, J., Castro, M., Garcia-Zubia, J., Hernandez, U., Orduna, P., Angulo, I., Costa Lobo, M. C., Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., & Alves, G. R. (2011). VISIR deployment in undergraduate engineering practices. In Global Online Laboratory Consortium Remote Laboratories Workshop (GOLC), 2011 First (pp. 1-7)• Martin, S., Diaz, G., Plaza, I., Ruiz, E., Castro, M., & Peire, J. (2011). State of the art of frameworks and middleware for facilitating mobile and ubiquitous learning development. Journal of Systems and Software, 84, 1883-1891• Sergio Martin, Gabriel Diaz, Elio Sancristobal, Rosario Gil, Manuel Castro and Juan Peire, “New technology trends in education: Seven years of forecasts and convergence”, Computers & Education, Vol 57, N 3, P. 1893- 1906, 2011• Tawfik, M., Sancristobal, E., Martin, S., Gil, R., Diaz, G., Peire, J., Castro, M., Nilsson, K., Zackrisson, J., Ha, x00Ba, kansson, L., & Gustavsson, I. (2012). Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard. Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on, PP, 1-1 Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
    74. 74. Remote Laboratories: Trends & Challenges Thanks for your Attention! Salvador Ros Electrical & Computer Engineering Department (DIEEC) Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, 14-15 November 2012
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