Food and Nutrition Security in Africa, Agricultural research for food and nutrition security, Sirkka Immonen


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Food and Nutrition Security in Africa seminar in Helsinki 16 June 2014, Agricultural research for food and nutrition security, Sirkka Immonen, CGIAR

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Food and Nutrition Security in Africa, Agricultural research for food and nutrition security, Sirkka Immonen

  1. 1. Agricultural research for food and nutrition security Helsinki 16 June, 2014 Sirkka Immonen
  2. 2. Presentation outline • Challenges to food and nutrition security • Dimensions of food security and CGIAR research context • Impact pathways to food security and nutrition security • Monitoring progress from research towards impact • Conclusions
  3. 3. Challenges to food security • Need for increased food production • Diminishing availability of and competition for natural resources • Climate change; variability and unpredictability • Access to land and tenure • Competing demands for food crops • Food price fluctuations • Loss and waste • Malnutrition • Changes in demographics )
  4. 4. Food security dimensions Reference: FAO, IFAD and WFP. 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. ACCESS AVAILABILITY UTILIZATIONSTABILITY
  5. 5. Food Security CGIAR high level impact goals Poverty reduction Improved nutrition Environmental sustainability Examples of linkages: •Calorie security is necessary for nutrition •Income may enhance nutritional quality of diets •Cognitive ability is needed for capitalizing on empowerment Examples of trade-offs: •Differential effect of food prices on incomes of producers and consumers •Productivity in the short term may negatively affect resource sustainability in the long‐term Reference: CGIAR ISPC 2012: Strengthening Strategy and Results Framework through prioritization
  6. 6. Targeting food security CGIAR Center NARS Seed sector, Extension Adopters Environmental externalities Yield Incomes New Germplasm Dissemination ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS Total production increase Impact on price market Consumer price effects ECONOMIC IMPACTS SOCIAL IMPACTS Producer effects Consumer effects Genetic resources Capacity building Training Mangt practices Policies Knowledge on policy or social science Adapted from Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, 2006 International research National res.
  7. 7. Targeting food security Addressing seasonal hunger Diversification of food sources Addressing poverty Addressing policies Photo: WFP/Wagdi Othman Photo: Michael Goodin
  8. 8. Environmental change: pathways for food security outcomes Linkages to food systems activities Environmental functions & services affected Impacts on food security outcomes Changes in agroecologies Biodiversity loss/genetic erosion Water shortage, fertility loss Heat, pest, disease stress Land use change PRODUCTIVITY Stability Post-harvest losses Prices Income Trade Availability: •Production Access: •Affordability Reference: Wood et al. 2012: Chapter 7 In Food security and global environmental change (Eds. Ingram et al.)
  9. 9. Pathways to improved nutrition Women’s control over resources Women’s own nutrition and health Source of income Women’s time and caring practices Source of food Food prices Non-food spending Participation in program Technology adoption Household income Diet Food expenditure Caloric, protein micro- nutrient intake Nutritional status Source: Patrick Webb, think piece to ISPC, 2012 (Masset et al. and IFPRI)
  10. 10. Targeting nutritional security Agricultural production Nutrition and health outcomes Food consumption Processing Source: Alan Dangour, LSHTM (ISPC 5th meeting 2012) Climate change & carbon emissions Breeding & varietal development Water availability Land use Husbandry techniques Seeds, veterinary & agrochemical inputs Labour Soils Bio-fortification Advertising & promotion Post-harvest processing Industrial scale & concentration Transportation Product fortification Investment & speculation Labour Sanitary & phytosanitary standards Trade & regulation Education Price Access Income Cooking processes Diet composition Waste Consumer preferences Hygiene Culture Stunting Development potential Obesity Cardiovascular disease Nutritional deficiencies Infections Diabetes Wasting Cancer
  11. 11. Strategies for improve nutrition • Biofortification Source: Wolfgang Pfeiffer, HarvestPlus, 2014
  12. 12. Strategies for improve nutrition • Diet diversity Source: Robert Mwadime, USAID (ISPC 7th meeting, 2013)
  13. 13. Fundamental complexities in theories of change
  14. 14. Measuring research progress and effectiveness • Monitoring for progress vs. for accountability • Evaluation provides analytical information on performance and likely effectiveness Indicators for research results (within target domains) •Adoption of technologies •Genetic gain, yield •Water, fertilizer productivity •Change in pesticide use, post-harvest •Women’s empowerment •Farmer income •Consumption Indicators for development •Hunger index •Poverty indicators •Anthropometric indicators •National consumption indicators •Share of food waste of food production •Change in forested area •Rural development indicators
  15. 15. Conclusions • Impacts require involvement of multiple actors and institutions; research is just a small part • Impacts require complementary investments • Impacts require coordinated action
  16. 16. Conclusions • Research is inherently risky and has a protracted and non-linear impact pathway • Research needs impact pathways towards defined objectives • Impact pathways must be updated and adjusted • Judging research performance requires evaluation, in addition to monitoring through realistic metrics/indicators