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 Food and Nutrition Security in Africa, Reinforcing Business Approaches to Tertiary Agricultural Education in Africa, Aissétou Dramé Yayé
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Food and Nutrition Security in Africa, Reinforcing Business Approaches to Tertiary Agricultural Education in Africa, Aissétou Dramé Yayé

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Food and Nutrition Security in Africa seminar in Helsinki 16 June 2014, Reinforcing Business Approaches to Tertiary Agricultural Education in Africa, Aissétou Dramé Yayé, ANAFE

Food and Nutrition Security in Africa seminar in Helsinki 16 June 2014, Reinforcing Business Approaches to Tertiary Agricultural Education in Africa, Aissétou Dramé Yayé, ANAFE

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  • 1. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014 Reinforcing Business Approaches to Tertiary Agricultural Education (TAE) in Africa Aissetou Dramé Yayé, Sebastian Chakeredza, James Aucha and Alfred Ochola
  • 2. Outline • Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Need for a Paradigm Shift in African TAE • SASACID and UniBRAIN programmes • Needs for Reforms in TAE to strengthen Agribusiness Training and Research • Conclusion Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 3. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Agriculture continues to be Africa’s m ost important and dominant economic activity, accounting for 40% of GDP, 15% of exports and 60-80% of employment (NEPAD, 2012). Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 4. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Africa despite huge agricultural resources (50% of world arable lands), imports 25% of its food. • African farmers, the majority of whom are resource poor smallholders, do not produce enough food for 0.8 billion people but are expected by 2050 to produce enough for about 2 billion people Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 5. Africa's Shrinking land base 1950 1970 1990 2005 2050 Increased population increases pressures on the land and its resources. In a hypothetical situation whereby land is shared equally among its population, each individual’s share of land would decrease with the increase in population as time passes, putting more pressure on resources. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 6. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • To get ahead of the demographic curve agricultural production must rise by 6% per annum. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 7. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Increased production must come from the application of sustainable yield-enhancing technologies and improved efficiency across the value chains. • It must come from improvement of agricultural products conservation, transformation and marketing, that is enhanced agribusiness. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 8. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • The World Bank in its 2013 report entitled “Growing Africa: Unlocking the potential of Agribusiness” stressed that: • Agribusiness that is now worth USD 313 billion and employs 70 % of the most poor people of the African continent, • could bring 1000 billion (USD 1 Trillion) by 2030. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 9. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • The World Bank’s report identifies key factors that will assist Africa reach out to these USD 1000 Billion from the agribusiness sector. These enabling factors include: • 50% of the world unexploited fertile land representing about 450 million ha laying in Africa • Only 2% of the water resources used in Africa against the world average of 5% . • 60% of African population is between 15 to 30 year old. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 10. Huge unexploited domestic potentiality for Sub Saharan Africa’s Agriculture related Market Export East Africa Southern Africa West Africa Total % traditional exports to non African countries 10 13 15 13 %Non traditional export to non African countries 6 15 7 9 % Intra-Africa trade 2 6 1 3 Domestic market for staple food 80 63 74 73 Total market value (Billion USD° 22 19.1 27.2 68.2 Diao et al., 2007 Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 11. Some Results From SADC Tracer Study (Botswana, Lesotho, Zambia, 2010) Extend of Consultation of farmers on curriculum development Extend of Consultation with Employers (Private sector) in Curriculum development Always 13 % Sometimes 30 % Never 57 % Always 14 % Sometimes 57 % Never 29 % Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 12. Some Results From Experiential Learning study Source of Advice Farmer groups Response Ministry of Agriculture Extension Offices 93% Forest Department Extension Offices 40% NGOs 53% Environmental Affairs Offices 33% Universities 6 % Technical Colleges 26 - 35% National/International Research Organizations 40% Other Farmers 73% Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 13. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Agriculture is mainly concerned with increased productivity targeting disciplines linked to soil, water, inputs, policy, sociology and socio-economics, etc. • Agribusiness is broader than Agriculture and deals with productivity issues but also agro-processors, traders, exporters, retailers, bankers, etc. • In Africa, Traditional Training in Agriculture had neglected this broad concept of Agribusiness. • This opens up big areas of new skills that are needed for both graduates and professionals. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 14. Why is Training in Agribusiness so Important for Africa? • Agribusiness is mainly a topic or degree in Economics Departments of various business schools or Agricultural Faculties • Of the over 400 public Universities in Africa, less than 10 offer structured BSC, MSC degree programmes in Agribusiness, with a few of them now offering PhD Programmes • The Agribusiness programmes offered still have a strong Economics flavour and less Agribusiness. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 15. Need for a Paradigme Shift in TAE TAE Institutions needs to shift from: • Training mainly in on-farm technical skills (agronomy, extension, plant breeding, etc) to primarily off-farm skills (food technology, packaging, logistics, food safety, and nutrition) • Training for public sector clients to focus on training that is relevant and connected to the private business (NEPAD, 2012). Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 16. ANAFE SASACID Implementation Strategy 16 Pilot Institutions; RAFTs Partner institutions Curriculum Review Research Other institutions Learning Materials Dvpt Training in Soft Skills
  • 17. SASACID Project activities and expected outputs No Project Expected Output 1 Refocusing agricultural learning objectives and improved curricula Refocused agricultural education objectives and improved curricula 2 Establishing the capacity of agricultural scientists in learning material development High quality and locally contextualised agricultural learning resources 3 Building capacity for innovation systems approach Synergy and institutional links in agricultural policy, research, education, industry and practice 4 Strengthening capacity for agribusiness education and training Graduates with knowledge and skills in agricultural business enterprising 5 Managing risk and uncertainty Resilience: Increased capacity on managing risks and uncertainty in agriculture 6 Strengthening methods of teaching and learning Teaching and learning methods and tools and sharing of agricultural information enhanced
  • 18. Key Elements of UniBRAIN Business incubation Improving Agribusiness teaching and learning Exchanging experiences, resources and knowledge Access to experience in establishing agri- innovation camps More efficient and effective innovation in African Agriculture Access to incremental levels of high level human and institutional capacity Opportunities for hands-on experience in innovation Access to experience in changing curricula and improving teaching and learning resources Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 19. The UniBRAIN Agribusiness Consortia Consortia Commodity of interest Universities members Afri Banana Products (Uganda) Banana Kiambogo University Enhancing University Responsiveness to Agribusiness Development (Uganda) CURAD Coffee Makerere University Agribusiness Incubation Trust (Zambia) AGBit Horticulture and fruits University of Zambia and Mulungushi University Creating Competitive Livestock Entrepreneurs in Agribusiness (Ghana) - CCLEAR Livestock University of Ghana and University of Kumasi The Sorghum Value Chain Development Consortium (Kenya) SoVALChain Sorghum food, fuel and feedstock Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology West African Agribusiness Resource Incubator (Mali) WAARI Agroforestry products Institut Pratique de Development Agricole Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 20. The UniBRAIN Implementing Partners • FARA, Coordinating the Programme • The Sub Regional Organizations: CORAF/WECARD, ASARECA and CARDESSA in charge of research • ANAFE: In charge of Agribusiness Education • PanAAC: Pan African Agricultural Agribusiness Consortium for private sector inclusion • ICRISAT – Resource Institution for training consortia on various aspects of business • Programme funded by DANIDA for 2010 - 2015 Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 21. ANAFE Role Area ANAFE Role Pre-incubation phase Motivation of Innovation movers Source of potential entrepreneurs Sustaining awareness Organize for Internships with Industry Facilitating linkages with Industry Curriculum Review and Development DACUM experience; Supporting University curricula change Learning Materials Development Learning meterials in Agribusiness developed Management Hub for Incubators Sharing of best-practices; Exchange programmes. Fostering Linkages Advising partners on working with Universities Technical Backstopping Facilitating linkages and sharing best-practices; Quality Assurance Business Establishment Broker knowledge—power—process promotion through partnerships Consolidation; Mainstreaming and Scaling Up Engagement with Universities not participating; Mainstreaming innovation in Universities; M&E Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 22. Agribusiness Curricula for Certificate, Diploma, BSC, MSc ad PhD developed • Certificate: Agribusiness entrepreneur and practical adviser: primary producers + basic value addition expertise with basic intellectual, vocational and entrepreneurial skills. • Diploma : Advisers with advanced value chain expertise with more intellectual + managerial skills • BSc: Expert-Advisers +Agribusiness Corporate / Cooperative jobs creators + more intellectual and managerial skills and capacity to pursue post-graduate degrees in agribusiness. • MSc. jobs as Mid-Scientist and expert professional in Agribusiness with more intellectual and managerial skills (advancing Research-Development in Agribusiness) • PhD: jobs as Full-Scientist and Expert Professional Leader in Agribusiness with superior intellectual and managerial skills ( advancing Training & Education in agribusiness)Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 23. MSC Curriculum on Risks management developed and to be launched in Aug 2014 • The overall goal is to produce specialists on agricultural risk management. • In doing so, we have designed the curriculum with outcome orientation to ensure both academic achievement as well as development relevance. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 24. Agribusiness Internship guide to be published and launched in Aug 2014 • Spearheaded by ANAFE and Jointly developed with: • all the UniBRAIN consortia Managers • UniBRAIn key Universities including Makerere University (Uganda), Kiambogo University (Uganda), Jomo Kenyatta Universty of Agriculture and Technology (Kenya), Mulungushi University (Zambia) • The Pan African Agribusiness Consortium (PanAAC) Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 25. A book of Learning materials in Agribusiness to be published and launched in August 2014 • A Book with 19 Agribusiness Chapters including: – Setting up an agribusiness in Africa – initial considerations – Agribusiness – case studies of products and services – Post-harvest management and processing strategies – Agribusiness marketing – Cross-cutting and emerging issues in agribusiness Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 26. A Book on SASACID Learning materials in Management of Risks in Agriculture • 22 Chapters on Risks Management: – Management of risk in natural resources – Agricultural practices for managing risks – Food and environmental safety in agricultural risk management – Managing risk associated with climate change for increased resilience – Management of risks associated with the use of agricultural inputs – Post harvest management and risks – Policy formulation for managing risks in agriculture
  • 27. Needs for Reforms in TAE to strengthen Agribusiness Training and Research • Aligning tertiary Agricultural Education systems with market needs requires systems restructuring. • This restructuring includes accepting official participation of private sector in the management of institutions, in curriculum development and implementation, and in infrastructure upgrading and retooling of lecturers in Agribusiness training and research. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 28. Needs for Reforms in TAE to strengthen Agribusiness Training and Research • Universities and TAE institutions are often jealous of their liberty and “supremacy”. • Universities can be rigid and slow in responding to this societal needs for change. • Research in Agribusiness related areas is a new area that will require new skills that Universities may not have. • Before investing into TAE, Private sector may require some security guaranty. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 29. Needs for Reforms in TAE to strengthen Agribusiness Training and Research • The Bologna process adopted since 1999 in Europe is been seriously considered in Africa and has enhanced the following: • Quality assurance of offered programmes • Exchange of staff and examiners more and more applied • Student mobility has started but slowly and will need to be supported more. Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 30. CONCLUSION • Agribusiness training and research needs to be strengthened in TAE institutions • A lot remains to be done regarding TAE reforms • Many ANAFE member institutions have signed up to pilot the implementation of the Agribusiness curriculum at BSC and MSC levels • ANAFE and other African TAE organizations plans to have in the incoming future lots of Vice Chancellors, Principals and Deans’ Meetings to discuss the reform process Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 31. Benin Burkina Faso Cote D’Ivoire D. R. of Congo Gambia Ghana Guinea Conakry Liberia Mali Namibia Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Togo Botswana Egypt Ethiopia Burundi Cameroon Congo Kenya Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Rwanda Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe ANAFE Member Countries and Focal Institutions Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 32. ANAFE STRUCTURE (INGO) General Meeting of Members ANAFE Board Executive Secretariat ECA-RAFT SA-RAFT Sahel-RAFT AHT-RAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT NAFT Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 33. Enhancing Teaching Capacity Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 34. Information Sharing Food Africa Midterm Seminar, 16 June 2014
  • 35. http://www.anafeafrica.org