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Theme 4 Part 1 - The French in North America

Theme 4 Part 1 - The French in North America

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  • 1. Theme 4 part 1 American Colonies The French in North America By Melissa Skarnas
  • 2.
    • French man Samuel de Champlain recognized that success in Canada depended upon building an alliance with a network of native Indians
    • 1608 A small, fortified trading post was built in Quebec
    • Colonists relied on French supply ships for most of their food and depended on goodwill of the Indians for survival
    American Colonies 5: Canada and Iroquoia
  • 3. American Colonies 5: Canada and Iroquoia
    • Canadian French depended on the fur trade and therefore needed good relation with the native Indians – primarily Montagnais, Algonkin and Huron
    • Making friends with some Indians meant Europeans unfortunately made other Indian tribes their enemies – namely the Iroquois
    • June 1609 – Champlain & 9 other French soldiers joined an allied war party of the northern alliance which traveled south to attack the Iroquois
  • 4. American Colonies 5: Canada and Iroquoia
    • Montagnais and Algonkin Indians allowed their Huron allies access to the French traders in Quebec
    • The Huron's villages lay at the strategic portage between Lake Huron and the Ottawa River, so could broker the flow of copper and furs around Lake Superior and return the circulation of European trade goods
    • The Huron had the role of middlemen in the west-to-east trade of the North country
  • 5. American Colonies 5: Canada and Iroquoia
    • The 5 Nation Iroquoise were very formidable enemies and large in number
    • Held long distant and large scale raids against their enemies which also included the French Canadians
    • The introduction of firearms greatly affected Indian warfare as they came to realize how useless their wood armor was, and over time they managed to get hold of their own guns through trade with colonists
  • 6. American Colonies 16: French America
    • Until 1663, Canada belonged to the fur-trading Company of New France, not to the French crown
    • French later realized the rather thin population couldn't defend itself against the much bigger population of their English rivals who were quickly expanding their territories
    • French crown ordered the Company of New France to recruit more inhabitants to prevent losing the colony (Quebec) again
  • 7. American Colonies 16: French America
    • 17 th Century New France was not very appealing to potential emigrants with the long and cold winters and a not so profitable land
    • Short growing seasons meant Canadians couldn't grow the main staples in demand by Europeans (sugar and tobacco) but grew mostly grains, especially wheat
    • Lack of an export market for grain meant locals relied on the local market of fur traders and soldiers in order to sell their product
  • 8. American Colonies 16: French America
    • 1670-80's French traders and priests traveled southwestward from their normal posts and in 1682, Sieur de La Salle led a group of French and allied Indians to the Gulf of Mexico
    • Louisiana was names so to honor the French King Louis XIV
    • The French expanded trade as a priority with the Indians rather than that of religious conversions
  • 9. American Colonies 16: French America
    • New France lacked town and country governments, instead dividing up the St. Lawrences Valley into parishes. This combined civil, military and church functions
    • Each parish came under an appointed Captain to whom the priest and militia company responded to
    • Every male between ages of 16-60 were required to serve in the militia on the frequent occurrence of emergencies