About SCUP


The Society for College and University Planning (SCUP) is a community that provides its
members with knowledg...
A Guide to Planning for Change    ........................
Table of Contents

                                 Introductio...
..................................
         New Directions in Planning Topics ...............................................
A Guide to Planning for Change   ........................




Society for College and University Planning
339 E. Liberty S...
..................................
Foreword
One wonders if it is really possible to lead a college or university through t...
A Guide to Planning for Change   ........................
Acknowledgements
A Guide to Planning for Change owes a debt of g...
..................................
Authors

Donald M. Norris
President, Strategic Initiatives, Inc.

www.strategicinitiati...
A Guide to Planning for Change   ........................
Underwriters

Microsoft, Inc.
www.microsoft.com/education/soluti...
..................................

Nuventive, Inc.
www.nuventive.com

Nuventive has been a trailblazer in the development...
A Guide to Planning for Change   ........................




..................................
Introduction to
A Guide to Planning for Change

This book is a guide to planning, executing strategy, and developing the o...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................




    Colleges and universities have traditionally worked to ex...
.......................                                                A Guide to Planning for Change



are changing the ...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................
    quantitative measurement and qualitative assessment tools, ap...
.......................                                             A Guide to Planning for Change




As retiring vice pr...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................
       are to select new benchmarking projects and consulting sup...
.......................                                                A Guide to Planning for Change



   For many years...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................
    organizational planning processes, strategies, and outcomes. ...
.......................                                                 A Guide to Planning for Change




The Importance ...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................




     A Guide to Planning for Change
     This book draws on a...
.......................                                                 A Guide to Planning for Change



Chapter 3: A Mod...
A Guide to Planning for Change   .......................




12     .................................
Competence 2.0- A Guide To Planning For Change Intro&Ch1
Competence 2.0- A Guide To Planning For Change Intro&Ch1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Competence 2.0- A Guide To Planning For Change Intro&Ch1

2,806

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,806
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
111
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Competence 2.0- A Guide To Planning For Change Intro&Ch1

  1. 1. About SCUP The Society for College and University Planning (SCUP) is a community that provides its members with knowledge and resources on best planning practices and emerging trends in higher education, with a particular focus on the integration of academic, facilities, infrastructural, financial, resource, and strategic planning. Founded in 1965, the society is headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan. For more information, visit www.scup.org.
  2. 2. A Guide to Planning for Change ........................ Table of Contents Introduction to A Guide to Planning for Change ...................... 1 Guiding Planners and Strategists Toward Success ......................... 3 Snapshots of Today’s Planners and Strategists ................................ 4 A Guide to Planning for Change ...................................................... 10 Integrated, Strategic, Aligned Planning ...................................... 13 The Characteristics of Successful Planners and Successful Planning ..................................................................... 14 Integrated Planning ............................................................................. 17 Strategic Planning ............................................................................... 17 Aligned Planning ................................................................................. 23 A Model for Strategic Planning and Executing Strategy ................................................................................ 33 Strategic Planning ................................................................................ 36 Execution of Strategy Within the Institutional Context ............... 38 Measure, Model, and Intervene ........................................................ 39 Assessing Planning Opportunities ............................................... 41 Developing a Strategy for Planning ................................................. 41 A Checklist for Analyzing Planning and Strategy-Setting Environments .................................................. 44 Crafting a Strategy for Planning ....................................................... 48 The Politics of Planning for Change ............................................. 49 Politics and Power in Higher Education ......................................... 49 Planning for Change ........................................................................... 51 Communicating Vision and Strategy ............................................... 62 Changing Perspectives and Tools in Planning ....................... 63 Eras in Planning and Decision Making ........................................... 64 The World View and Toolkit of Today’s Planners and Strategists .............................................. 72 ..................................
  3. 3. .................................. New Directions in Planning Topics ............................................... 75 Sustainability ........................................................................................ 75 Academic Planning, Innovation, and Leadership ......................... 77 New and Enhanced Learning Environments ................................. 77 Student Services and New Student Experiences ........................... 77 Strategic Enrollment Management ................................................... 78 Analytics and Measuring and Improving Performance ............... 78 Integrated Planning and Assessment .............................................. 79 Management of Space ......................................................................... 79 Campus Master Planning and Facilities Planning ......................... 79 Technology Infrastructure .................................................................. 79 Resource Planning, Allocation, and Budgeting ............................. 80 Human Resources Planning .............................................................. 80 Continuous Process Improvement in Higher Education ............. 81 Institutional Advancement and Capital Campaign Planning ......................................................................................... 81 The New Politics of Planning ............................................................ 81 Economic Development ...................................................................... 81 Going Global: Planning for International Contexts ...................... 82 Leading Planning and Change .......................................................... 82 Transforming Research, Knowledge Networks, and Scholarship ............................................................................ 83 Transformational Change That Matters .......................................... 84 Core Readings and Resources ....................................................... 85 The Influence of Other Fields on Higher Education Planning ........................................................ 85 A Critical Reading List for Planning in Higher Education .......... 90 Critical Resources Annotations ......................................................... 96 Online Repository of Resources....................................................... 118 Developing the Competencies of Planners and Strategists .................................................................. 119 Career Paths of Planners and Strategists........................................ 120 Developing the Competencies of Planners and Strategists ............................................................ 127 Summary of Resources for Planners and Strategists ...............................................................129 Summary of Online Resources ................................................ 129 Annotations of Critical Resources .......................................... 130 Text References in Addition to Critical Resources ............... 130 ..................................
  4. 4. A Guide to Planning for Change ........................ Society for College and University Planning 339 E. Liberty Street, Suite 300 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 Phone: 734.998.7832 Fax: 734.998.6532 Web: www.scup.org © 2008 by the Society for College and University Planning All rights reserved. ISBN 0-9820229-0-5 ..................................
  5. 5. .................................. Foreword One wonders if it is really possible to lead a college or university through the challenges created by globalism, technology, accountability, and other forces driving change. These leadership challenges are further complicated by academe’s historical internal contradictions—the tug of the status quo as the preservers of knowledge but also the drive to new ground as the centers of discovery; the pull toward the perennialism built into its DNA but also the push to pragmatism to address contemporary issues and opportunities. Some would describe a college or university as being like a helicopter: If you look at the odd assembly of parts and pieces objectively, you would have to conclude that it could never fly. Yet, by combining the forces of roaring winds blowing down and sideways with a schooled hand controlling speed and tilt, it not only flies, but does so with incredible maneuverability. Leaders who successfully guide these forces and take their institutions to a higher plane do so through a unique, almost magical, combination of art, science, politics, psychology, and, most would admit, good fortune. And whether it is formal, informal, or called something else in their minds, all are engaged, at some level, in strategic planning, the execution of strategy, and the development of organizational capacity and culture to make it all work. For the past quarter century, Don Norris and Nick Poulton’s book A Guide for New Planners has been a primary resource for both new and experienced planners—a primer for entrants into the field and a touchstone and tool for veterans who are establishing and attempting to draw their colleagues into an institutional planning process. For those of us who have been engaged in planning through many positions over our careers, it is one of the most highlighted, dog-eared, and borrowed books in our libraries. In this new book, A Guide to Planning for Change, Norris and Poulton combine the practical insights of their earlier work with the future vision and insight of Transforming Higher Education: A Vision for Learning in the 21st Century, another SCUP best seller. Their new book takes the reader back through the history of planning and strategy execution in higher education by outlining its many eras and stages of development; highlights the latest thinking and writing on the topic; summarizes the new and emerging challenges facing leaders of colleges and universities; and discusses new techniques and tools (most notably, analytics) to create an enhanced model for planning in higher education. This model recognizes the many internal, external, up, down, and sideways forces, challenges, and opportunities facing higher education and that, ultimately, it is the successful, expeditionary execution of strategy that will have a lasting impact on the institution. This book is complemented by a trove of online resources that will be refreshed to maintain the currency of its insights, providing practitioners with a dependable, comprehensive guide in their efforts to plan for change. Sal D. Rinella, 2008–2009 SCUP President Strategic Consultant, STRATUS, a Division of Heery International, Inc. ..................................
  6. 6. A Guide to Planning for Change ........................ Acknowledgements A Guide to Planning for Change owes a debt of gratitude to the legion of practitioners and authors who have contributed to the body of knowledge for planning, strategic management, and organizational development. These giants in our field are identified in the bibliographic references included in Figure 8.1 on pages 91–95. In particular, we are distinctly thankful for the work of the faculty and staff of the SCUP Planning Institute, especially Phyllis Grummon, whose work has been incorporated in this book. Their contribution is most prominent in Chapter 5, The Politics of Planning for Change and in Chapter 3, A Model for Strategic Planning and Executive Strategy. We appreciate the willingness of 10 friends and members of SCUP to share their personal sagas with us and to be featured in descriptions of the career paths of planners in Chapter 9. Thanks to Helen Giles-Gee, Scott V. Cole, Jake Julia, Arthur J. Lidsky, Jennifer Spielvogel, Simone Himbeault Taylor, Mary Sapp, Pamela J. Stewart, Joan Racki, and Nick Santilli for their efforts. We also thankfully acknowledge the contribution of the 26 authors who have contributed chapters to the online companion book, New Directions in Planning Topics. These expert practitioners have agreed to periodically update these chapters, providing a useful mechanism for keeping this work fresh. These authors are listed in Figure 7.1 on page 76. The underwriters of this initiative have made it possible for us to create a world-class printed publication and a trove of online resources that will be refreshed. These corporations are described in the following pages, and we wish to acknowledge our appreciation for their commitment to advancing the practice of planning, analytics, and capacity building in higher education. A Guide to Planning for Change has benefited from the editorial and substantive contribution of a small core of advisors. Phil Taylor has served as designer and graphics artist from the very start of the initiative. Carolyn Norris provided editorial and document management support. Joan Leonard has been instrumental in offering commentary and editorial support from the beginning of the initiative and has contributed to the forging of relationships with the underwriters. Critical feedback has been incorporated from Linda Baer, Sam Kirkpatrick, Martha Hesse, Paul Lefrere, and Ann Kenworthy. Susan Poulton has advised us on Web-based marketing, advertising, and relationship building to advance this initiative. Kimberly Maas provided copy-editing services. Finally, Terry Calhoun of SCUP has been a champion of this initiative from the start and has contributed substantially in innumerable ways. We also salute and appreciate the support of Jolene Knapp, Executive Director of SCUP, and the entire SCUP staff, both past and present, who have supported the creation of A Guide for New Planners and its evolution into A Guide to Planning for Change, a journey that has spanned over 25 years. ..................................
  7. 7. .................................. Authors Donald M. Norris President, Strategic Initiatives, Inc. www.strategicinitiatives.com dmn@strategicinitiatives.com 703.450.5255 Dr. Norris is well known as a planner, strategist, thought leader, researcher, and consultant. He and Nick Poulton co-authored A Guide for New Planners (1991), which aided a generation of planners in higher education. He has authored a number of publications on transformation for the Society for College and University Planning. His book, Transforming Higher Education: A Vision for Learning in the 21st Century (1995), was instrumental in providing a framework for advancing the concept of transformative e-learning in the late 1990s. Transforming e-Knowledge: A Revolution in the Sharing of Knowledge (2003) heralded the arrival of the transformative generation of Web services, social networking, and knowledge-sharing capabilities. Dr. Norris consults on planning, executing strategy, and developing organizational capacity with a wide range of colleges and universities, corporations, professional societies and associations, and other nonprofits. His recent work on action analytics is enabling colleges and universities to change decision-making behavior; build cultures of performance measurement and improvement; and align institutional strategies, actions, and metrics. Nick L. Poulton President Emeritus, Texas International Education Consortium (TIEC) poultontexas@aol.com 512.762.6129 Dr. Poulton’s career has spanned 40 years as a faculty member, researcher, planner, and consultant. He has served in administrative and planning posts in a variety of American and international institutions and as a consultant for institutions across the globe. As president of the Texas International Education Consortium (TIEC), he marshaled the intellectual resources of Texas public universities to provide consulting, language training, and professional development experiences for international colleges and universities. He and Don Norris co-authored A Guide for New Planners (1991) and their professional collaboration on a wide range of consulting and thought leadership projects spans 35 years. Dr. Poulton continues an active international consulting practice. ..................................
  8. 8. A Guide to Planning for Change ........................ Underwriters Microsoft, Inc. www.microsoft.com/education/solutions/bihighered.aspx Microsoft is the world leader in providing software plus services in the high-tech industry. Microsoft continues to demonstrate its commitment to working with educators, educational organizations and industry partners to expand the world of learning through affordable, user- friendly technology. Microsoft is leading the way in providing “business intelligence for the masses” using the Microsoft Business Intelligence (BI) for Higher Education solution. This provides an intuitive and cost-effective way to enable users at all levels of expertise to access and analyze information through familiar tools such as a Web browser, Microsoft Office Excel, and Microsoft Office SharePoint. It also provides access to sophisticated BI tools at costs that institutions can afford. By providing ready access to relevant data from virtually any source, Microsoft products and services enable, planners, strategists, and decision makers to inform decisions and actions by tracking and aligning progress against key performance indicators (KPIs), strategies, goals, and responsibilities. The Sextant Group www.TheSextantGroup.com The Sextant Group, Inc. is the premier provider of leading-edge planning and systems design for institutional, educational and corporate environments demanding a high level of technology. Dedicated to planning, strategy and capacity building, the company supports architects and institutions world-wide with demonstrated expertise in audiovisual and information technologies, physical security and acoustics, applicable to both facility renovation and new design. Mark Valenti, CTS, President of The Sextant Group, is an internationally-recognized authority and thought leader in the industry. His areas of expertise include audiovisual technologies, market trends, and the impact of the diffusion of learning and other academic functions beyond the traditional campus. Valenti and Don Norris have collaborated in an on- going seminar series for the academic community addressing planning issues for individual facilities and campus master planning in the face of mobility-enabling technology. The Sextant Group has consulted for hundreds of campuses around the globe, spanning North America from Harvard to Stanford, plus institutions from Asia to Europe. ..................................
  9. 9. .................................. Nuventive, Inc. www.nuventive.com Nuventive has been a trailblazer in the development of leading-edge assessment management, alignment, and portfolio tools in higher education. It has over 250 college and university customers and has users in the United States, Canada, Australasia, and Western Europe. In collaboration with its industry partners, Nuventive has worked with institutions to co-create solutions that manage paperless processes for strategic planning, administrative and facilities planning, sustainability, accreditation, assessment, and program review. These solutions can be used to assign, track, and monitor responsibilities at every stage of planning, accreditation, assessment, and other processes. They also enable practitioners to align all of these processes with institutional strategies, goals, actions, and measures. Nuventive’s products and services are a key element of the combination of alignment and analytics solutions needed to support integrated, strategic, aligned planning. iStrategy www.istrategysolutions.com iStrategy is the leading provider of higher education analytic reporting. Its HigherEd Analytics Suite™ integrates with leading ERP vendors, including Oracle/PeopleSoft, SunGard/Banner and Datatel, enabling colleges and universities to build robust dimensional data warehouses in weeks instead of years. Its application provides intuitive, secure, self-service reporting for student, financial, advancement and human resources information. These solutions deliver analytics to the desktop of both power users and non-technical functional users, providing “analytics for the masses.” iStrategy is a key player in the emerging analytics, alignment, and presentation environment needed to support planning, strategy, and capacity building in higher education. eThority www.ethority.com/higher_ed eThority Enterprise Edition combines powerful data analysis and presentation tools that fuse the user friendliness of desktop applications with the power of traditional enterprise business intelligence tools. eThority enables organizations to create a “single source of truth,” seamlessly linking data from ERP systems, data warehouses, departmental or specialty applications, and shadow systems. Through the “user-obvious” interface, administrators, faculty and staff are able to make sense of their operational data, see the “big picture” for performance improvement and strategic planning, and portray trends and complex relationships that are best understood through visualization. The eThority Enterprise Edition platform provides data modeling, analytics, advanced visualization and specialized higher education functions like commitment management—for the masses. ..................................
  10. 10. A Guide to Planning for Change ........................ ..................................
  11. 11. Introduction to A Guide to Planning for Change This book is a guide to planning, executing strategy, and developing the organizational capacity of colleges and universities. It is about making sense of changing conditions and achieving strategic intent in the face of competition, uncertainty, and politics. Planning is a core competency of successful organizations, leaders, and managers. It pervades all organizational units and processes. Higher education planning in all its forms engages a broad cross section of administrative leaders, staff, faculty, students, alumni, and other stakeholders. Planning is ongoing, on different time frames and schedules. Strategic thinking is reflected in the crafting and executing of strategy. Strategies express an organization’s intent for the future through clear vision, considered decisions, and purposeful initiatives. Strategies can be incorporated into plans and budgets that are updated annually and adjusted even more frequently. The ability to execute strategy in a flexible, expeditionary manner has become an essential competency for leaders at all levels. The capacity to successfully plan and execute strategy at all levels of the organization requires a new generation of user-friendly metrics and analytics. Performance metrics are appearing on the desktops of planners, strategists, and decision makers at all levels from executives to front-line staff and faculty. This emerging generation of affordable, intuitive metrics is enabling institutions to measure and communicate progress in executing strategies, build organizational capacity, and hold staff and faculty responsible for improving performance. Successful leaders use strategies to frame the need for change and to develop their organization’s capacity to prosper in a changing and competitive environment. Organizational capacity involves (1) leadership; (2) facility, technology, and equipment infrastructures; (3) program offerings and knowledge-discovery capacity; (4) values, skills, and competencies of administrators, faculty, researchers, staff, and students; (5) academic and administrative processes; and (6) organizational culture. In the process of planning and crafting strategy, the institution discovers how it must improve its organizational capacity in order to thrive. The interconnectedness of planning, strategy execution, and organizational capacity is illustrated in figure 1.1. ................................. 1
  12. 12. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... Colleges and universities have traditionally worked to expand the boundaries of knowledge and discover new ways of “knowing.” Concurrently, they have served a critical role in conserving traditional values and proven practices. Often these roles of disruption and conservation collide, sometimes dramatically. Today, such collisions are common throughout higher education, presenting challenges and opportunities for planners and strategists. In recent years, colleges and universities have used information and communications technology to transform how leading-edge scholarship is practiced in most disciplines. The patterns and cadences of the research, dissemination, and engagement of new knowledge have accelerated and changed profoundly. In teaching and learning, however, the increasing use of technology has generally had a less dramatic impact. Yet, the transformative power of technology is visible in those institutions creating dramatically different approaches to accelerated learning for adult learners and in those institutions and workforce training programs positioned to provide affordable education for the masses around the world. As Gibson (1984) observed in Neuromancer, “The future is already here; it is just not distributed very well.” Digitization, globalization, and democratization of the learning and knowledge industry are changing the very nature of how knowledge is created, shared, and experienced. In The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, Friedman (2006) described the pervasive impact of these forces on every institution, enterprise, and individual in the global economy. These forces 2 .................................
  13. 13. ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change are changing the nature of learning and the perspectives, skills, and competencies required to be successful throughout life. They are also reshaping the relationships and transitions between learning and work. As a result, the nature of the challenges facing planners and strategists and the tools and techniques of practice are profoundly changing as well. The very face of higher education is being transformed by new challenges and opportunities. Innovative partnerships in the knowledge industry have brought together new constellations of collaborators, competitors, and co-creators. Over time, these partnerships will create new, more affordable models and options for learning, competency building, and refreshment. While accountability pressures from outside higher education have focused attention on the need to demonstrate performance and improve affordability, new generations of open-architecture analytics are deploying Web 2.0 practices to help institutions measure and improve these areas. These trends likely will grow in importance over time. Taken together, these forces are compelling colleges, universities, and other learning enterprises around the world to revisit their values and their value propositions. Some are reaffirming and incrementally updating existing principles and practices. Others are considering truly dramatic changes to remain vibrant, competitive, and sustainable. In the midst of these efforts are the administrators, faculty, staff, and other stakeholders across the spectrum of higher education who are involved in planning, executing strategy, and building organizational capacity so their institutions will thrive in the face of competition, uncertainty, and change. This book is written for them. Guiding Planners and Strategists Toward Success This book’s purpose is to assist higher education planners and strategists in guiding their institutions toward success. This is not a “cookbook” on how to plan by the numbers. So-called “prescriptive planning models”—those that assume perfectly rational decision making and pay inadequate attention to environmental differences—suggest lockstep approaches to planning, strategy crafting, and implementation. Such approaches to formulaic strategic planning have been discredited in both the corporate world and other settings, as reflected in the title of Mintzberg’s (1994) book, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. But the rumors of the death of strategic planning were premature. Strategic planning has made a comeback by bringing flexibility, elegance, and simplicity back to the formulation of strategy. It has attained new respectability by focusing on strategies and decisions, not plans, and by emphasizing the expeditionary nature of strategy execution. This book is a road map guiding the planning and execution of strategy. It is intended to help higher education planners of all kinds and at all levels determine how their activities fit into the greater ecology of planning and strategy at their institutions or in other settings. Because successful planning is both art and science, this book is intended to help planners develop personal strategies for their own particular planning activities, supported by a new generation of ................................. 3
  14. 14. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... quantitative measurement and qualitative assessment tools, applications, and practices. In addition, we offer suggestions to guide planners in locating relevant resources and assistance when needed to formulate questions and answers about planning. More than 30 years ago, Enarson (1975) coined an apt metaphor for planning. He rejected the traditional “Cook’s Tour” model in favor of a “Lewis and Clark” model. The Cook’s Tour describes a precise schedule on a well-defined route; it moves in an orderly progression past known landmarks. Its aim is to avoid contingencies and the unknown and to structure planning in a scheduled, orderly, and routine manner. Conversely, the Lewis and Clark model incorporates a sense of adventure in the exploration of new planning frontiers. Lewis and Clark had a clear sense of context, direction, and ultimate destination, but their actual course was unknown. The Cook’s Tour model gives the false impression of stability, while the Lewis and Clark model suggests values, perspectives, and principles that enable the planner to deal with the uncertainty and unpredictability of planning. The Lewis and Clark model also conveys the expeditionary spirit of planning and strategy execution, which require the capacity to rethink and revise in the face of ever-changing conditions and to lead organizations in navigating the shoals of uncertainty and developing new adaptive capacities. Snapshots of Today’s Planners and Strategists The following scenarios are snapshots of the many roles, responsibilities, and perspectives of college and university planners in today’s higher education environment. The new president at your regional state university has elevated you from assistant to the president to director of planning with instructions to frame and support a strategic planning process. The former president had successfully led the growth of the university for over 20 years by seizing opportunities and “did not believe in strategic planning.” Your new president is recognized as an experienced leader and planner, and she has shared with you a variety of planning frameworks. However, she is counting on you to help evaluate the institution’s readiness for planning and to collaborate with her in framing a process that will aggressively develop organizational capacity to plan effectively over time. 4 .................................
  15. 15. ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change As retiring vice president for student affairs, you have been designated to chair your university’s upcoming regional accreditation process. The last process was an administrative nightmare, resulting in a number of corrective actions that proved difficult to execute and monitor. The president has directed you to work with the provost and chief information officer to develop a paperless accreditation process, accessible to every authorized participant. It is to be seamlessly connected to the university’s continuous improvement efforts, its first- generation executive dashboard, and its strategic and operational planning processes The president of your private university has just added his name to the list of signatories to the American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment. At the most recent meeting of the president’s cabinet, he announced his dissatisfaction with the scope and penetration of campus sustainability efforts and declared that next month’s cabinet retreat would focus on that issue. The goal of the retreat will be to craft a strategy for building sustainability into all institutional planning and operational processes. Further, the working session will result in draft sustainability performance measures for each cabinet executive officer that can be translated into performance expectations for their subordinates. As director of facilities planning, you are coordinating a program planning committee for a new building for biology, chemistry, psychology, and environmental studies. The provost and president have reviewed the initial program plan and have characterized it as an “elegant extrapolation of our existing departmental approaches to the sciences.” You have been instructed to work with the provost to reconfigure or relaunch the planning team process. You ................................. 5
  16. 16. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... are to select new benchmarking projects and consulting support, if necessary. Your goal is to develop a program plan for a flexible, multidisciplinary facility that will support collaborative research and learning over a 50-year life, accommodating 10 to 15 major technology changes during that time period. The statewide system of community colleges has made a commitment to improving the linkages among learning, workforce preparation, and jobs. As director of business and industry partnerships, you have been asked to participate in a cross-enterprise task force to share knowledge resources among pre-K–12 schools, community colleges and other postsecondary educational institutions, state workforce organizations, and employers. In addition, your chancellor has directed you, the provost, and the chief information officer to develop dashboards and supporting analytics on workforce readiness, transitions between learning and work, and competencies required by employers. As the newly elevated vice president for finance and operations, you have been dissatisfied with the execution of institutional strategies and initiatives. With each successive strategic planning cycle, you have seen sound strategies fail because they were poorly aligned with operational and budgetary planning. These strategies disappeared into “fairy dust” by the time they filtered down to individual college and departmental plans and priorities. In your first operational and budgetary planning cycle, you have the opportunity to clearly align institutional strategies with the strategies, goals, activities, and measurements at the operating unit level. Your state has experienced a severe budget crisis as a result of a recent economic downturn. Your public university has been instructed to prepare for an immediate reduction of three percent in this year’s operating budget, to be effective by mid-year, and a reduction of an additional five percent in next year’s budget. As the vice president for planning and budget, the president has charged you to partner with the provost to plan for both sets of reductions. In addition, in the second year you are expected to combine budgetary reductions with a serious scrutiny of administrative processes and academic services. Under your leadership as chief information officer, your metropolitan university has progressively deployed a campuswide wireless capability, which has tangibly changed the patterns of mobility, interactivity, and collaboration on campus. Over the past year, you have been working with a metropolitan task force to extend the wireless capability of your campus across your metropolitan region. Today, the president appointed you to a three-person strategic thinking group to develop ways to infuse new patterns of collaboration and interactivity into new facilities design (three new buildings currently in planning) and into the 10-year-old campus master plan now due for an update. The president has appointed you, the vice president of human resources, to play a primary role in supporting the implementation of the university’s just-completed strategic plan. Your role is to develop and execute a change management initiative focused on strengthening the capacity of individuals, teams, departments, and organizations to accept and navigate change. This will include leadership development at the grassroots level designed to prepare individuals across the university to embrace and actively participate in change. 6 .................................
  17. 17. ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change For many years, your university has been known for its commitment to study-abroad programs, international studies, and other global learning initiatives. Last week, the provost designated you as vice provost for international programs. Your initial priority assignment is to develop and execute a strategy and transparent methodology for evaluating prospective global opportunities and relationships. Your first test case will be evaluating three existing proposals/opportunities to establish campuses in Abu Dhabi, Chennai, and/or Shanghai. You have been hired as vice president of enrollment services at a large public university. Retention of at-risk students is a problem. Your charge is to introduce a formal program of strategic enrollment management supported by state-of-the-art analytics to enable your staff to dynamically identify and monitor at-risk students, generate alerts to appropriate staff and departments when students are in jeopardy, and intervene in real time. Your public university is located in a hypergrowth metropolitan region in the southwest. In addition to the original research-oriented campus, three branch campuses have been established over the past 15 years, which you coordinate in your role as vice president for regional campuses. A fourth branch campus setting is being considered. The provost has asked you to chair a “distributed university task force” to revisit the issue of the proper roles, structures, and relationships among the campuses. You are to visit other benchmark institutions, conduct a comparative analysis, and recommend a comprehensive strategy that will optimally leverage the university’s resources and maximize the university’s service to and competitive position within the state. Your community college is part of a multicampus system of comprehensive universities and technical/community colleges with formalized strategic planning and operational planning processes. As vice president of strategic operations, you are coordinating your campus strategic planning process to ensure that your goals, activities, and measures align with the strategic directions and measures of the system. In your most recent planning process, you are working with a multidimensional planning team to create strategy maps consisting of 14 goals and related measures that align with the four strategic directions and eight key performance indicators (KPIs) of the system plan. Underneath these snapshots of institutional planning and strategy-setting activities lives a pervasive constellation of academic planning and strategy-setting practices. Every day, deans, department chairs, faculty members, and researchers engage in continuous cycles of planning for curriculum, course offerings, research agendas, and knowledge-creation strategies. Individual academics, informal working groups, formal committees, teams, and departments plan for the future and execute these plans to strengthen the academic lifeblood of the institution. These efforts generate academic strategies, incentives for innovation, the capacity to take advantage of serendipitous opportunities, and the will to face unforeseen challenges and changing conditions. Robust academic planning, innovation, and capacity building are essential to successful institutional planning and strategy execution. In each of these scenarios, someone has been asked either to plan, or to play a role in support of a planning and strategy-setting process, or to align their work and planning activities with other ................................. 7
  18. 18. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... organizational planning processes, strategies, and outcomes. Planning in colleges and universities is a complex, pervasive ecology of interconnected activities. Planning is primarily a line function, a fundamental responsibility of academic and administrative managers at all levels. It is a mindset, an approach to confronting the future in a way that establishes and executes the institution’s strategic intent. Planning is also a staff function, performed by staff members with the word “planning” in their titles. But planning staff are really coordinators, facilitators, and enablers. The real heavy lifting in planning is performed by academic and administrative leaders and managers who use planning to frame decisions and execute strategies within their areas of responsibility. Scope and Concepts: Planning, Strategy Execution, and Change Over the years, planning practitioners have reshaped the definition and concepts of planning, strategy execution, and organizational development and change as summarized in figure 1.2. Principles for Success Figure 1.3 summarizes a set of principles that can serve as a compass to guide planners and strategists toward successfully positioning their institutions for change. These principles have been distilled from years of successful practice, and the mindsets, methodologies, frameworks, and resources cited throughout this book reflect these principles. 8 .................................
  19. 19. ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change The Importance of Institutional Context In considering the scenarios described in the snapshots of today’s planners and strategists, the importance of context cannot be overemphasized. Each institutional planning and strategy- setting activity is shaped by a distinctive set of challenges, conditions, and history. In understanding context, the following generic contextual factors are particularly important: Institutional complexity. The nature and complexity of an institution’s mission profoundly shape both its culture and its planning challenges. Research universities face planning challenges very different from those of community colleges. Size. Institutional size (as determined by enrollments, budgets, or other measures) influences the patterns and cadences of deliberation, decision making, and planning. Larger institutions tend to be more fragmented, complicating alignment around a unitary vision. Control. Public and private institutions display different degrees of autonomy and approaches to decision making. Collective bargaining environment. The presence of collective bargaining reduces the level of collegiality and retards aggressive approaches to change. Figure 1.4 illustrates the contextual factors that reflective planners and strategists must seek to understand. Even within each of these context “cells,” the most successful planning style and approach is variable. Nevertheless, planners and strategists must develop their capacity to shape their approaches to their context, as further described in Chapters 3 and 4. ................................. 9
  20. 20. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change This book draws on an extensive body of knowledge regarding planning in higher education. These resources include the Society for College and University Planning’s (SCUP) A Guide for New Planners (Norris and Poulton 1991), the body of knowledge of the SCUP Planning Institute, articles from SCUP’s refereed journal Planning for Higher Education, and a long list of other SCUP publications. We have also mined additional resources on planning in both higher education and in other sectors and industries. References to these resources are provided both throughout the book and in regularly updated online resource repositories. Many of the references are found in figure 8.1, “A Critical List of Readings for Planning in Higher Education.” Other references are found in Chapter 10. This book is divided into 10 chapters designed to meet the needs of planners and strategists in today’s complex and ever-changing higher education environment. Chapter 1: Introduction to A Guide to Planning for Change provides snapshots of the many forms and faces of planning in higher education. It introduces basic planning concepts and sets the stage for the remainder of the book. Chapter 2: Integrated, Strategic, Aligned Planning describes why each of these three elements is essential to the success of higher education planning. This chapter provides useful models and techniques that can be applied to achieve alignment in strategy execution at the campus, college, departmental, and program levels. It also describes how to align strategic planning, accreditation, program review, continuous improvement, and performance measurement. 10 .................................
  21. 21. ....................... A Guide to Planning for Change Chapter 3: A Model for Strategic Planning and Executing Strategy outlines a comprehensive model for strategic planning that includes navigating and leading change, executing and refining strategy, building organizational capacity, and developing tactical/operational plans and budgets, all of which are critical to creating strategic direction. This flexible model can be adapted to the nuances of any environment or planning opportunity. Chapter 4: Assessing Planning Opportunities provides resources for planners to assess their environments and learn from the planning experiences of others. These resources include a guide to the pitfalls and limitations of planning and a checklist for analyzing planning environments. Chapter 5: The Politics of Planning for Change discusses the social side of planning: politics, power, social networks, institutional culture, leading and navigating change, and providing rewards and incentives for successful planning. This chapter deals with the politics of planning at both the micro level (the politics of individual planning activities and their relationship to others) and the macro level (the politics of planning in an overall enterprise model), weaving a profound understanding of planning, leadership, and change. Chapter 6: Changing Perspectives and Tools in Planning contains a brief summary of how planning has evolved in higher education over the past 50 years. This chapter includes figures that describe and compare planning in each of the past six decades, including the current one. This chapter also sets the stage for an exploration of new planning directions in the future. Chapter 7: New Directions in Planning Topics identifies a portfolio of 20 planning topics important to understanding new directions in planning theory and practice. These new directions suggest the nature of planning, strategy setting, and execution in the future. The printed descriptions of these topics are linked to an online repository of resources prepared by expert practitioners in these fields. These repositories are regularly updated and address the following issues for each topic: (1) What forces are driving new directions? (2) What are the emerging new directions? (3) How and when will these new directions affect integrated, strategic, aligned planning? and (4) What are the key resources that capture these new directions? Chapter 8: Core Readings and Resources provides a core reading list on planning as well as links to online SCUP resources, including actual strategic plans, repositories of case studies, and SCUP Planning Institute resources. Chapter 9: Developing the Competencies of Planners and Strategists presents vignettes on the many career paths followed by practicing planners in higher education today. It also recommends resources and strategies for the professional development of individual planners. Chapter 10: Summary of Resources for Planners and Strategists identifies the links to all the online resources referenced in the text, references the critical reading annotations, and provides a listing of textual references in addition to the annotated critical readings. Figure 1.5 summarizes the contents of these chapters and their relationship to online resources. ................................. 11
  22. 22. A Guide to Planning for Change ....................... 12 .................................

×