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  • 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012 Implementation of Protocol for Efficient Data Storage and Data Dissemination in VANET Nisha K.Warambhe*1 and Dr. S.S. Dorle*2 1. Department of Electronics Engg. G.H.Raisoni College o Engg, Nagpur 2. Department of Electronics Engg. G.H.Raisoni College o Engg, NagpurAbstract— This paper deals with the protocol design for Most of the VANET application is based on disseminatingEfficient Data Dissemination and Data Storage in vehicular data from an information source (data center) to manyadhoc network (VANET). Here a large amount of data is vehicles (destination) on the road. Data dissemination indistributed to a dense vehicular network from roadside unit VANETs not only helps drivers or vehicles to inform foras well as from on board unit using WAVE and VIPER traffic jams but also to propagate emergency warningprotocol respectively. It is proposed that the system will among the vehicles to avoid collisions. Vehicles on roadconsists of one control node as a roadside unit and two mobilenodes as an on-board unit. Data is disseminated between the face problems of heavy traffic flow and instability andmobile nodes via control node using push-based V2V/V2I results in road accidents. By forwarding appropriatedissemination technique, and then data which is disseminated information to the driver or vehicle on the road likethrough control node in all mobile nodes are stored into the Congestion and traffic management, lots of lives, money,memory of AVRATMEGA32. Stored data can be retrieved and time can be saved. Numbers of innovations have beenfor analysis of accident cause or any emergency situation done to increase safety, comfort, and convenience. Hence,occurs. Analog to digital conversion is required during data exchanging or data disseminating on the roads isdisseminating data between control node and mobile node. becoming more and more interesting due to increase in theThe parameters used for the verification of data number of vehicles equipped with computing technologiesdissemination and data storage are Temperature, Location ofvehicle and accident cause which depends on the event and wireless communication devices. So dataoccurred at the node. Also a hardware model is designed dissemination in VANETs plays an important role forwhich uses AVR ATMEGA32 micro-controller and RF safety and non-safety application.Trans-receiver module and WINAVR and Cygwin is used forprogramming. Recently, efforts have been started to address data dissemination issues in the VANET. In this approach, aIndex Terms— Vehicular adhoc networks (VANET), Data data pouring (DP) and buffering approach to solve the datadissemination concept, AVR ATMEGA 16 and Transreceiver dissemination problem in a VANET is. In DP, data aremodule and VANET alert parameter. periodically broadcast to vehicles on the road. In DP with intersection buffering (DP-IB), first data is poured from the I. INTRODUCTION source and then buffered. After that, rebroadcasting at theVehicular Ad-Hoc Network is a technology that uses intersections is carried out [3]. Also, a mobility-centricmoving cars as nodes in a network to create a mobile approach for data dissemination in vehicular networks hasnetwork, comes under the class of mobile ad-hoc networks. been designed to enhance reliability of the highly mobile,In VANET, Vehicles are expected to communicate with partitioned nature of these networks [4]. In VANET, dataeach other (V2V) and with roadside infrastructure (V2I) in dissemination assumes either that mobile nodes moveorder to enhance road safety applications and comfort randomly or any two nodes can be expected to be close toapplications such as collision avoidance, emergency each other from time to time because they have limited areamessage dissemination, dynamic route scheduling, real- [5].time traffic condition monitoring and any kind ofinformation spreading (i.e. movies, gaming and The challenging problem of data dissemination in VANETadvertisement. Hence, Vehicular adhoc network is are: the vehicular network consists of a number of databecoming more interesting in order to provide convenience sources and data users where each vehicle acts as a dataand efficiency to drivers on the road [1] [2]. source and user at the same time and unpredictable and 65 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012diverse type of applications like traffic management, vehicles, the connectivity among nodes could last only fewsituational awareness, and commercial services The aim of seconds, and fail in unpredictable dissemination is to maximum utilize networkresources to fulfill the demand of all users participating in 2. Partitioned networks:vehicular network. In this paper, the main goal is to solve Vehicular ad hoc networks will be frequently partitioned.the data dissemination problem for I2V2V communication The dynamic nature of traffic may result in large inter-scheme and to increase efficiency, convenience, privacy vehicle gaps in sparsely populated scenarios, and in severaland safety of drivers and RSU present on the road. The isolated clusters of nodes. The degree to which the networkdesigned protocol can reliably disseminate the data and is connected is highly dependant on two factors, such as themaximize the dissemination capacity. It uses a push based range of wireless links and the fraction of participantdata dissemination approach where data is efficiently vehicles, since only a fraction of vehicles on the road couldpushed to the user present in transmission range. It helps to equipped with wireless interfaces. Maintaining end-to-endavoid collision of vehicles, monitoring traffic analysis. connectivity, packet routing, and reliable multi-hop information dissemination will become extremely challenging in such networks. As it concerns specificallyPaper is divided into two sections; Section II narrates the data transmission in VANETs there are severalreview and concept for data dissemination and data storage additional issues to take into account:approach and section III, IV and V narrates design forhardware module and simulated results.  The signal fading, which becomes really fast due II. OVERVIEW to the surrounding buildings;A. Need of Data Dissemination and Data Storage inVANET  The strong interference and collision related to the high number of mobile transmitters (vehicles);Vehicular ad hoc networks face a number of challengeswith the services they provide. The most common  The flapping links caused by fading effect andchallenges are in the aspects of security and privacy [7]. vehicles speed.With regard to security, VANETs can be exploited to send These aspects make vehicular networks different andout improper information to other vehicles [8]. This may be significantly affect their design. The data disseminationdone for the purpose of either clearing up ones own way or destination idea has to compete with the limitations of time,throwing another vehicle out of its way by means of false space and vehicles. There is a need to introduce pushtraffic reports. On the aspect of privacy, VANETs allow strategies, where vehicles push data to their neighboringaccess to information on speed, status and locations of the vehicles so that other vehicles can easily access data whenvehicles within its range [9] [10]. This kind of information necessary. These strategies in turn need to consider themay be exploited by observers to draw conclusions about a impact to data caching and aggregation.drivers personality, lifestyle and social relationships. Toenhance the security and privacy of vehicular network, B. Data Dissemination in VANETData dissemination and data storage in VANETs must beaccurate. It is extremely important to consider several The data dissemination is the process of spreading someaspects while considering any kind of data transfer or data amount of data over a distributed wireless network. It isdissemination in a VANET. Thus the correct approach for used to improve the quality of driving in terms of time,data dissemination in VANETs is necessary to adapt the distance, and safety. The data dissemination techniques aredissemination mechanism according to the different classified as follows:network environments. These aspects include high mobilityand partitioned network [3]. 1. V2I /I2V dissemination1. High mobility: a. Push based: In push based data dissemination, the data is efficiently transmitted from moving vehicles or fixed baseThe environment in which vehicular networks operate is station (RSU) to another vehicle. Vehicles receive the dataextremely dynamic, and includes extreme configurations: when in transmission range of RSU, and then propagate thein highways, relative speed of up to 300 km/h may occur, data to other vehicle. In other words, RSU push the data towhile density of nodes may be 1-2 vehicles per kilometer inlow busy roads. Because of the relative movement of the 66 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012each vehicle present in transmission range [3] [6]. E.g.: roadside unit (RSU) or control node [4]. On board unit isTraffic condition, e-advertisement etc. installed in each vehicular node and controlled by network operator while roadside unit or infrastructure is available at b. Pull based: In Pull based data dissemination; any road and constitutes networkvehicle is enabled to request information about specific infrastructure.AVRATmega32 micro-controller is used forlocation or target. This is also called as request and VANET nodes. For wireless communication between theresponse model. It is used for user-specific type of data [3] both modules, Transreceiver is needed which is interfaced[6]. E.g.: Enquiry about parking lot, coffee shop etc. with the AVRATMEGA32. Following points explains the proposed plan of work.2. V2V Dissemination 1. A Trans-receiver module is connected to every mobilea. Flooding: In flooding, every node participates in node (Vehicle).dissemination process and the data is created and received 2. A Trans-receiver module is connected to a control nodein vicinity. It can reliably & quickly distribute data. This (Infrastructure).approach is used for delay sensitive application and also for 3. Once the vehicle is in range, it would start disseminatingsparse networks during low traffic conditions. But it is not data to the vehicles within the vicinity.suitable for dense network. 4. If two vehicles are close to each other then one of them would slow down the speed, and inform the other vehicle b. Relaying: In relaying type of data dissemination, first to slow down as well.the relay node is selected (next hop).Then relay node 5. The vehicles when in range of the control node wouldforwards the data to the next hop and so on. The main upload/download all the location based data as well asadvantage of this approach is it reduces congestion and weather information of communicating area.hence, it is used for congested networks or dense network. 6. This process would be repeated within the system.Comparison of data dissemination approaches is shown intable1: LCD display of each node w ill display follow ing data TABLE 1 1. Vehicle Location w ith node number Com p u ter 2. Accident Cause COMPARISON OF DATA DISSEMINATION APPROACHES 3. Temperature Measure Dissemination Pros Cons Approach Data Mobile N od ePush based Suitable for popular Not suitable for Storage 1 (Vehicle) data unpopular dataPull based Suitable for Cross traffic incurs V2I nonpopular data, heavy interferences, Data w ill be Control user specific data Collisions. d isp layed N od e (RSU)Flooding Reliably and Not suitable for V2V On LCD of quickly distribute Dense networks. AVR kit Data data Dissem inationRelaying Works well in Selecting best next dense networks hop & reliability is Mobile Data w ill be difficult N od e 2 d isp layed On (Vehicle) LCD of AVR kit.Out of four disseminating approaches, Push baseddissemination approach has been used for protocol design FIG 1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED PLANas it is more suitable for transmitting data between thenodes. Fig 1: shows that the data thus obtained from neighboring nodes will be transmitted to all the mobile nodes (vehicles)III. PRAPOSED DESIGN via control node which constitutes the V2V communication as well as V2I communication in the network. DependingA. Basic idea upon the data, required action will be taken by driver. Main function of system is to store data which is obtained fromIn VANET, basically two nodes are required for the V2V nodes. Three disseminating parameter is used as Vehicleand I2V communication, called as VANET nodes. These Location with node number, Accident Cause andnodes are on board unit (OBU) or mobile nodes and Temperature Measure for verifying data dissemination 67 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012approach. Information about all three parameters will bedisplayed on LCD display of both control node and mobile Antenna PCR2Anode. For verification of data storage approach, datapresent at each node is uploaded to computer via serial port RXD(COM19) and results are verified in MATLAB software. GN D VCC Transmitter ModuleB. Hardware Implementation Antenna FS1000AATMEGA32 comes under the family of AVR .The acronymAVR has been reported to stand for advanced Virtual RISC VCCprocessor and was developed by Atmel in 1996. AVR is a TXD GNDmodified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chipmicro-controller. It uses on-chip flash memory for programstorage. Atmega32 is a 40 pin DIP package IC and has 32- FIG 2: PIN OUTS OF RECEIVER AND TRANSMITTERKB of On-chip flash memory. It executes powerfulinstructions in a single clock cycle which increases the Finally for Temperature measure of surrounding, LM 35 isATmega32 throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz and used. It is small in size and gives 10mv/°c value output forallows the system designer to optimize power consumption every sensation. Its value is always in analog .Hence, it isversus processing speed.ATmega32 has four ports as Port required to be convert in to digital so after digitalA, B, C and D. Here, Port A acts as A-D converter. Pin no conversion its input is given to the pin no 40 (ADC0) of IC1, 2, 3 and 4 of port B are used for input data and pin no 14 ATMEGA32. As ATMEGA32 has internal 10 bit ADC,and 15 of port D are used for transmitting and receiving external ADC is not required. Temperature sensor is useddata between the nodes.ATmega32 AVR is supported with only at control node. For sending data of temperaturea full suite of program and system development tools measure to all nodes, ADC library of WinAVR has to beincluding: C compilers, macro assemblers, program used while programming. Small change in temperaturedebugger/simulators, in-circuit emulators, and evaluation measure is transmitted to each vehicle present inkits. communication range of 100m. Each node can store 100 readings of temperature measure.For wireless data transfers between nodes, RFTransreceiver module is used. RF Transreceiver module Complete hardware is going to work on AC/DC adapter ofconsists of PCF10 (FS1000A) 433 MHZ as a RF +12V. Most of IC are run on the + 5v supply. Hence, L7805transmitter and PCR2A as a RF receiver. Costs of RF IC is used to convert required desired value for operation.modules are very low and are compact in size. These are Four push keys of AVR microcontroller kit are used forgood for short distance and battery power device verifying results.development. Operating frequency range is around433MHz. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)or Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) is mainly used forwireless data transfers. Here, ASK is used for transmission.Both the receiver and transmitter are quite easy to interface.Supply voltage range is 3-12V. These low cost RFtransmitter and RF receiver can be used to transmit signalup to 100 meters (the antenna design, working environmentand supply voltage will seriously impact the effectivedistance). It has only single channel. The serial data givenat the input TXD of the transmitter will be received at theRXD of the receiver. The maximum data rate is around4KBps. RXD and TXD are TTL compatible. HT series ofencoder/decoder pair ICs are used in RF receiver modulefor parallel to serial and the reverse conversion of data.Both the receiver and transmitter are three terminal deviceswith pin outs as shown below. FIG 3: ACTUAL HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROL NODE AND MOBILE NODE Receiver Module 68 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012Figure 3: shows the hardware implementation for designed TABLE 2: PROCESSING STEPS FOR DATA TRANSFERprotocol where AVR ATMEGA 32 kit is interfaced with theRF transmitter and RF receiver. Processing Steps Parameters to be select by vehicle Start of transmissionIV DESIGN APPROACH FOR DATA DISSEMINATIONAND DATA STORAGE IN VANET Node Number Node 1 or Node 2 Event Type Check point Event or Accident EventThe main purpose of all VANET applications is to enhancethe vehicular communication between vehicles as well asinfrastructure. In designing approach, WAVE (Wireless Event Number Check point 1 or Check point 2 or CheckAccess for Vehicular Environment) protocol is used for point 3 or Accidentdata transfer in V2V communication [11] while VIPER(vehicle-to-infrastructure communication privacy End ofenforcement) protocol is used for data transfer in V2I transmissioncommunication [13]. In this section, various aspects havebeen used for designing purpose. First, the coding After End of transmission, the data is then sent totechnique is presented, which play a key role in the respective node.dissemination problem. Next, the set of rules that governdata transfer is described. V. SIMULATION RESULTA. VANET Alert parameters According to VANET alert parameter, Simulation results are taken. WINAVR tool is used for programming purposeThe conventional approach to reduce collisions and the while compilation of programs is done using Cygwin tool.hidden node problem in network is using the VANET alertparameters. Two Alert parameters have been declared fordata transfer as Vehicle location and Vehicle accident.These parameters are defined for each mobile node in thenetwork. Also temperature measure is defined for weatherinformation of communication area, which helps tounderstand the design approach for data dissemination anddata storage in VANET. All the three parameters stores 100readings in the memory of Atmega 32. One more importantthing is consider when there is a change in temperature, itshows that change at mobile nodes first and then at controlnode, which in turn reduces time constraints.B. Processing Steps for Data TransferFor data transfer between the control node and mobilenodes, three parameters (Temperature measure, Vehiclelocation and Vehicle accident) are decided as a VANETalert parameter. For these parameters, four events aredefined as three events for check point and one event foraccident. Whenever an event is occurred at any node,control node check out the type of event and number oftype. After verification of event, the data of the respectiveevent is transmitted to different nodes. If the mobile node isdamaged due to any circumstances, data is stored in the FIG 4: TEMPERATURE DISSEMINATIONrespective node always. Processing steps for data transfer isgiven below: Fig 4: shows that Temperature Dissemination between control node and mobile nodes. Temperature at each node is 31°c. 69 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 6. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012 VI. CONCLUSION This paper deals with the design of a protocol for efficient Data storage and data dissemination in vehicular adhoc network. WINAVR and Cygwin are chosen as the implementation tool because of the close integration with AVR micro-controller family, which also allows close coupling of the MATLAB model with the equivalent hardware implementation. After the testing of the VANET alert parameters, it is observed that using AVR microcontroller data is easily stored and disseminated at node. As the AVR atmega 32 has 32 bit on chip flash memory, external memory is not required which in turn reduces the cost. VII. FUTURE WORK Results obtained for temperature dissemination, location detection and accident detection can be further verified using MATLAB tool. Graphs for each result will help to understand the concept of data storage and data dissemination approaches of VANET. REFERENCE FIG 5: LOCATION DETECTION [1] M.L. Sichitiu, and M. Kihl, “Inter-Vehicle Communication Systems: A Survey,” in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 88-105, 2008.Fig 5: shows the result for location detection where check [2] M. D. Dikaiakos, S. Iqbal, T. Nadeem, and L. Iftode, “VITP: An informationpoint event has been detected at location 1 and then it is transfer protocol for vehicular computing,” in Proc. ACM VANET, 2005, pp. 30–39.disseminated and data is stored at node2. [3] Jing Zhao, Student Member, IEEE, Yang Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, and Guohong Cao, Senior Member, IEEE. Data Pouring and Buffering on the Road:A New Data Dissemination Paradigm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 56, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2007. [4] Hao Wu and Richard Fujimoto Randall Guensler and Michael Hunter MDDV: A Mobility-Centric Data Dissemination Algorithm for Vehicular Networks. [5] Heinzelman,W, W., Kulik, J. and Balakrishnan, H., Adaptive Protocols for Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks. in ACM Mobicom99, (1999). [6] T. Nadeem, P. Shankar and L. Iftode, “A Comparative Study of Data Dissemination Models for VANETs” In 3rd ACM/IEEE Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networks and Services (MOBIQUITOUS 2006), 2006, pp. 1-11. [7] Tian, J. and Rothermel, K. Building Large Peer-to-Peer Systems in Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: New Challenges? Technical Report 2002/05, University of Stuttgart, 2002. [8] M. Raya and J.-P. Hubaux. Securing Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Journal of Computer Security, Special Issue on Security of Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks, 15(1):39 – 68, 2007. FIG 6: ACCIDENT DETECTION [9] Cencioni, P. Di Pietro, R.Univ. di Roma, Rome. VIPER: A vehicle-to- infrastructure communication privacy enforcement protocol. In IEEE InternationalFig6: shows the result for accident detection where Conference on Mobile adhoc and sensor network, pages 1 – 6, Oct. 2007.accident event has been detected at location 1 and then it isdisseminated and data is stored at both nodes 1 and 2. [10] K. Sampigethaya, L. Huang, M. Li, R. Poovendran, K. Matsuura, and K. Sezaki. "CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET". In Proceedings of the Embedded Security in Cars (ESCAR) Workshop, 2005. 70 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 7. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2012[11] Marica Amadeo, Claudia Campolo, Antonella Molinaro, Giuseppe Ruggeri, AWAVE-compliant MAC Protocol to Support Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Non-Safety[12] Mohsen Sardari, Faramarz Hendessi and Faramarz Fekri,DDRC: DataDissemination in Vehicular Networks Using Rateless Codes* in Journal ofInformation science and Engineering 26, 867-881 (2010).[13] Paolo Cencioni and Roberto Di Pietro, VIPER: A Vehicle-Infrastructure Communication Privacy Enforcement Protocol.[14] W. Gao and G. Cao. On Exploiting Transient Contact Patterns forData Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks. In Proceedings of ICNP,pages 193–202, 2010. 71 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE