Management information system
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Management information system

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Management Information System, DBMS, File System and All important information

Management Information System, DBMS, File System and All important information

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Management information system Management information system Presentation Transcript

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  • Introduction “A system which does not use any computer devices. All data would be kept in other ways , mainly paper. “ Uses: Manual system use in daily basis routine work such as  Index files of Recipes  Paper phone book  Paper Dictionary Structure: its done by hand that could be typing all your information into notepad
  • Examples:  People would have hand written letters or used typewriters instead of word processor.  Graphs & Diagrams would have been drawn by hand instead of using Computer Software to do them .
  • Advantages:  Large reduction in cost of hardware & software.  Availability of user-friendly accounting software package.  It is relatively cheaper like maintaining a manual system.
  • Disadvantages:  Data Duplication  Lack of Security  Common Error  Inconsistency of data  Repetition of work  Too much paper work  Space consuming
  • Introduction “It is a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collection of data in a form that is human readable.” Uses:  File system used to organized and represent access to any data.  File System are used on data storage devices.
  • Structure  File system is a section of hard disk that has been allocated to contain files. File System /User /tamp /var /home
  • Example:  Disk File System  Optical Discs  Flash File System  Database File System  Transaction File System  Network File System  Flat File System
  • Advantages  Give access to uniform data to group of users  Useful when many users exists on many systems with each other’s name directory located on every single machine.  Reduced overall disk storage cost.
  • Disadvantages  Program data dependence  Lengthy development times  Duplication of data  Limited data sharing  Security risk
  • Introduction “Database is an organized collection of related data that is stored in an efficient and compact manner.” Purpose: The purpose of database is to help people and organization keep track of things.
  • Structure External Level Conceptual Level Internal Level How user understands the organization of data It is a level of indirection between external and internal How data is physically stored.
  • Examples  A system that maintains component part details for a car manufacture.  An advertising company keeping details of all clients.  A training company keeping course information and particular details.  An organization maintaining all sales order information
  • Advantages  Reduced updating errors and increase consistency.  Reduced data entry, storage and retrieval costs.  Facilitated development of new application programs  Reduced data redundancy.  Improved data security.
  • Disadvantages  Database system are complex and time consuming to design.  Substantial hardware and software start- up costs.  Initial training required for all programmers and users.
  • Relational Database Model
  • Introduction “Relational database organized data in two- dimensional tables called relation.” Uses:  it can be used for storing large amount of data.
  • Table Row (tuple) Column (attribute) A row cannot be identified by its position in the table Column that uniquely identifies each row in the table
  • Examples Roll No. Name Class 1352 Ansa Khalid Msc 1324 Komal Iftikhar Msc. 1460 Gazala Rai Msc 1342 Tehrim Shehzad Msc.
  • Advantages  Data Integrity  Data independence  Structural independence  Data consistency & Accuracy  Easy data retrieval & sharing
  • Disadvantage  Calculation become rigid while working with the larger data.  Slow in performance.  It requires more knowledge to implement.  Once the database created it is not changed easily.
  • Introduction “A database model is the structure or format of a database.”
  • Models
  • Hierarchical Database Model “Organize data in a series like a family tree or organization chart” Structure:  In which data is organized into a tree- like structure.  The structure allows representing information using Parent/child relationship.
  • Car Engine Body Wheels Left Door Right Door Seats
  • Advantages  This is good for one-to-many relationship.  It can store large numbers of segment and process information efficiently.  It is a simple structure and minimize disk input and output.
  • Disadvantages  It is less user-friendly.  It creates inflexibility and programming complexity.  It is difficult to recognize the database as hierarchy has to be maintained.
  • Network Database Models “ This conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.” Employee Supervisor Department Project
  • Advantages  Ability to handle more relationship type.  Ease of data access  Data integrity  Data independence
  • Disadvantages  System complexity  Lack of Structural independence
  • Object Oriented Database Models “It actually manages the data access and the querying of the data from the databases.” Object oriented Database Model Name Year Advisor Classes
  • Advantages  The amount of information that can be modeled by an OODBMS Is increased.  It is also easier to model this information.  This is also able to have higher modeling capabilities through extensibility.
  • Disadvantages  Data and operations are separated.  Inadequate for current problems.  Causing an added training cost for developers.