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“A system which does not use any computer devices. All
data would be kept in other ways , mainly paper. “
Uses: Manual system use in daily basis routine work such as
Index files of Recipes
Paper phone book
Structure: its done by hand that could be typing all your
information into notepad
People would have hand written letters
or used typewriters instead of word
Graphs & Diagrams would have been
drawn by hand instead of using
Computer Software to do them .
Large reduction in cost of hardware &
Availability of user-friendly accounting
It is relatively cheaper like maintaining a
Lack of Security
Inconsistency of data
Repetition of work
Too much paper work
“It is a method of storing and organizing
arbitrary collection of data in a form that is
File system used to organized and
represent access to any data.
File System are used on data storage
File system is a section of hard disk that
has been allocated to contain files.
/User /tamp /var /home
Disk File System
Flash File System
Database File System
Transaction File System
Network File System
Flat File System
Give access to uniform data to group of
Useful when many users exists on many
systems with each other’s name
directory located on every single
Reduced overall disk storage cost.
Program data dependence
Lengthy development times
Duplication of data
Limited data sharing
“Database is an organized collection of
related data that is stored in an efficient and
The purpose of database is to help people
and organization keep track of things.
It is a level of
How data is
A system that maintains component part
details for a car manufacture.
An advertising company keeping details
of all clients.
A training company keeping course
information and particular details.
An organization maintaining all sales
Reduced updating errors and increase
Reduced data entry, storage and
Facilitated development of new
Reduced data redundancy.
Improved data security.
Database system are complex and time
consuming to design.
Substantial hardware and software start-
Initial training required for all programmers
Hierarchical Database Model
“Organize data in a series like a family tree or
In which data is organized into a tree-
The structure allows representing
information using Parent/child
Engine Body Wheels
Left Door Right Door Seats
This is good for one-to-many
It can store large numbers of segment
and process information efficiently.
It is a simple structure and minimize disk
input and output.
It is less user-friendly.
It creates inflexibility and programming
It is difficult to recognize the database
as hierarchy has to be maintained.
Network Database Models
“ This conceived as a flexible way of
representing objects and their relationships.”
Ability to handle more relationship type.
Ease of data access
Lack of Structural independence
Object Oriented Database
“It actually manages the data access and the
querying of the data from the databases.”
The amount of information that can be
modeled by an OODBMS Is increased.
It is also easier to model this information.
This is also able to have higher modeling
capabilities through extensibility.
Data and operations are separated.
Inadequate for current problems.
Causing an added training cost for