Presented To:
Presented By:
Introduction
“A system which does not use any computer devices. All
data would be kept in other ways , mainly paper. “
Use...
Examples:
 People would have hand written letters
or used typewriters instead of word
processor.
 Graphs & Diagrams woul...
Advantages:
 Large reduction in cost of hardware &
software.
 Availability of user-friendly accounting
software package....
Disadvantages:
 Data Duplication
 Lack of Security
 Common Error
 Inconsistency of data
 Repetition of work
 Too muc...
Introduction
“It is a method of storing and organizing
arbitrary collection of data in a form that is
human readable.”
Use...
Structure
 File system is a section of hard disk that
has been allocated to contain files.
File System
/User /tamp /var /...
Example:
 Disk File System
 Optical Discs
 Flash File System
 Database File System
 Transaction File System
 Network...
Advantages
 Give access to uniform data to group of
users
 Useful when many users exists on many
systems with each other...
Disadvantages
 Program data dependence
 Lengthy development times
 Duplication of data
 Limited data sharing
 Securit...
Introduction
“Database is an organized collection of
related data that is stored in an efficient and
compact manner.”
Purp...
Structure
External
Level
Conceptual
Level
Internal
Level
How user
understands
the
organization
of data
It is a level of
in...
Examples
 A system that maintains component part
details for a car manufacture.
 An advertising company keeping details
...
Advantages
 Reduced updating errors and increase
consistency.
 Reduced data entry, storage and
retrieval costs.
 Facili...
Disadvantages
 Database system are complex and time
consuming to design.
 Substantial hardware and software start-
up co...
Relational Database Model
Introduction
“Relational database organized data in two-
dimensional tables called relation.”
Uses:
 it can be used for s...
Table
Row
(tuple)
Column
(attribute)
A row cannot
be identified
by its position
in the table
Column that
uniquely
identifi...
Examples
Roll No. Name Class
1352 Ansa Khalid Msc
1324 Komal Iftikhar Msc.
1460 Gazala Rai Msc
1342 Tehrim Shehzad Msc.
Advantages
 Data Integrity
 Data independence
 Structural independence
 Data consistency & Accuracy
 Easy data retrie...
Disadvantage
 Calculation become rigid while working
with the larger data.
 Slow in performance.
 It requires more know...
Introduction
“A database model is the structure or format of
a database.”
Models
Hierarchical Database Model
“Organize data in a series like a family tree or
organization chart”
Structure:
 In which dat...
Car
Engine Body Wheels
Left Door Right Door Seats
Advantages
 This is good for one-to-many
relationship.
 It can store large numbers of segment
and process information ef...
Disadvantages
 It is less user-friendly.
 It creates inflexibility and programming
complexity.
 It is difficult to reco...
Network Database Models
“ This conceived as a flexible way of
representing objects and their relationships.”
Employee
Supe...
Advantages
 Ability to handle more relationship type.
 Ease of data access
 Data integrity
 Data independence
Disadvantages
 System complexity
 Lack of Structural independence
Object Oriented Database
Models
“It actually manages the data access and the
querying of the data from the databases.”
Obj...
Advantages
 The amount of information that can be
modeled by an OODBMS Is increased.
 It is also easier to model this in...
Disadvantages
 Data and operations are separated.
 Inadequate for current problems.
 Causing an added training cost for...
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
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Management information system

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Management Information System, DBMS, File System and All important information

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Management information system

  1. 1. Presented To:
  2. 2. Presented By:
  3. 3. Introduction “A system which does not use any computer devices. All data would be kept in other ways , mainly paper. “ Uses: Manual system use in daily basis routine work such as  Index files of Recipes  Paper phone book  Paper Dictionary Structure: its done by hand that could be typing all your information into notepad
  4. 4. Examples:  People would have hand written letters or used typewriters instead of word processor.  Graphs & Diagrams would have been drawn by hand instead of using Computer Software to do them .
  5. 5. Advantages:  Large reduction in cost of hardware & software.  Availability of user-friendly accounting software package.  It is relatively cheaper like maintaining a manual system.
  6. 6. Disadvantages:  Data Duplication  Lack of Security  Common Error  Inconsistency of data  Repetition of work  Too much paper work  Space consuming
  7. 7. Introduction “It is a method of storing and organizing arbitrary collection of data in a form that is human readable.” Uses:  File system used to organized and represent access to any data.  File System are used on data storage devices.
  8. 8. Structure  File system is a section of hard disk that has been allocated to contain files. File System /User /tamp /var /home
  9. 9. Example:  Disk File System  Optical Discs  Flash File System  Database File System  Transaction File System  Network File System  Flat File System
  10. 10. Advantages  Give access to uniform data to group of users  Useful when many users exists on many systems with each other’s name directory located on every single machine.  Reduced overall disk storage cost.
  11. 11. Disadvantages  Program data dependence  Lengthy development times  Duplication of data  Limited data sharing  Security risk
  12. 12. Introduction “Database is an organized collection of related data that is stored in an efficient and compact manner.” Purpose: The purpose of database is to help people and organization keep track of things.
  13. 13. Structure External Level Conceptual Level Internal Level How user understands the organization of data It is a level of indirection between external and internal How data is physically stored.
  14. 14. Examples  A system that maintains component part details for a car manufacture.  An advertising company keeping details of all clients.  A training company keeping course information and particular details.  An organization maintaining all sales order information
  15. 15. Advantages  Reduced updating errors and increase consistency.  Reduced data entry, storage and retrieval costs.  Facilitated development of new application programs  Reduced data redundancy.  Improved data security.
  16. 16. Disadvantages  Database system are complex and time consuming to design.  Substantial hardware and software start- up costs.  Initial training required for all programmers and users.
  17. 17. Relational Database Model
  18. 18. Introduction “Relational database organized data in two- dimensional tables called relation.” Uses:  it can be used for storing large amount of data.
  19. 19. Table Row (tuple) Column (attribute) A row cannot be identified by its position in the table Column that uniquely identifies each row in the table
  20. 20. Examples Roll No. Name Class 1352 Ansa Khalid Msc 1324 Komal Iftikhar Msc. 1460 Gazala Rai Msc 1342 Tehrim Shehzad Msc.
  21. 21. Advantages  Data Integrity  Data independence  Structural independence  Data consistency & Accuracy  Easy data retrieval & sharing
  22. 22. Disadvantage  Calculation become rigid while working with the larger data.  Slow in performance.  It requires more knowledge to implement.  Once the database created it is not changed easily.
  23. 23. Introduction “A database model is the structure or format of a database.”
  24. 24. Models
  25. 25. Hierarchical Database Model “Organize data in a series like a family tree or organization chart” Structure:  In which data is organized into a tree- like structure.  The structure allows representing information using Parent/child relationship.
  26. 26. Car Engine Body Wheels Left Door Right Door Seats
  27. 27. Advantages  This is good for one-to-many relationship.  It can store large numbers of segment and process information efficiently.  It is a simple structure and minimize disk input and output.
  28. 28. Disadvantages  It is less user-friendly.  It creates inflexibility and programming complexity.  It is difficult to recognize the database as hierarchy has to be maintained.
  29. 29. Network Database Models “ This conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.” Employee Supervisor Department Project
  30. 30. Advantages  Ability to handle more relationship type.  Ease of data access  Data integrity  Data independence
  31. 31. Disadvantages  System complexity  Lack of Structural independence
  32. 32. Object Oriented Database Models “It actually manages the data access and the querying of the data from the databases.” Object oriented Database Model Name Year Advisor Classes
  33. 33. Advantages  The amount of information that can be modeled by an OODBMS Is increased.  It is also easier to model this information.  This is also able to have higher modeling capabilities through extensibility.
  34. 34. Disadvantages  Data and operations are separated.  Inadequate for current problems.  Causing an added training cost for developers.
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