Financial Reporting for Derivatives and Risk Management Activities Thomas J. Linsmeier University of Illinois AAA Annual M...
Workshop Topics <ul><li>Common types of derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management activities </li></ul><ul><li>New fin...
What Are Derivatives? <ul><li>“Derivatives”-- A generic term used to describe a wide variety of financial and commodity in...
Common Derivatives <ul><li>Forwards / Futures </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><li>Swaps </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids ...
Forward / Future Contracts <ul><li>Obligate one party to buy and another party to sell an underlying instrument or commodi...
Options <ul><li>Options provide the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying instrument or ...
Payoff Profiles of Purchased  Puts and Calls Purchased Call Purchased Put Exercise Price Price of underlying instrument Pa...
Swaps <ul><li>Two parties exchange recurring payments  </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to series of forward contracts </li></ul>...
“Plain-Vanilla” Interest Rate Swap Note:  LIBOR is London Interbank Offered Rate Fixed-Rate Payer Fixed-Rate Receiver Floa...
Importance of Forwards, Futures, Swaps, and Options <ul><li>Instruments that involve the exchange of cash flows  </li></ul...
Hybrid Instruments:  Embedded Derivatives <ul><li>Simple derivatives are the fundamental building  blocks of these complex...
Managing Risks with Derivatives <ul><li>Low cost, ease, and speed of transacting make derivatives attractive for managing ...
How Are Derivatives Used? <ul><li>Risk management (hedging) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity price risk </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Commodity Price Risk <ul><li>Cost of mining gold:  $350 per pounce </li></ul><ul><li>Current gold spot price:  $400 per ou...
Original Exposure Gold Production Cost Upside potential Downside Risk 350 50 400 Gold price Profit Loss
Risk Management Tool:  Short Forward 400 Gold price 0 Current forward price Profit Loss
Net Position:  $50 Profit “Locked in” Original Exposure Net Position Short  Forward 50 400 350 Gold price Profit Loss
Interest Rate Risk <ul><li>Company issued a $100 million floating rate note with interest payments based on LIBOR </li></u...
Exposure at Each Interest Payment Date Interest Expense $7 Million (.07  x  $100. million) 0 7% LIBOR Risk of  increase Po...
Risk Management Tool:  Interest Rate Swap Fixed-Rate Payer Company with Exposure Bank or Other Intermediary Receive Floati...
Risk Management Tool:  Interest Rate Swap $7 Million (.07 x $100 Million) 0 7 % Net Net Outflow on Swap Negative Outflows ...
Net Position at Each Interest Payment Date $7 Million Net Interest Expense Net Interest Expense 0 7% Negative Outflows = I...
Reducing Funding Costs With Derivatives <ul><li>Swapping floating-rate cash flows to fixed-rate reduces funding costs only...
Foreign Currency Price Risk <ul><li>US Company commits to purchase machinery from a French manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>...
Original Exposure Cost (in $US) 0 .20 Risk of Increased $US Cost $2 Million ($.20/FF x FF10 Million) $US Price  of a FF  C...
Risk Management Tool:  Purchased Call Option <ul><li>Strategic Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Company believes the price of a F...
Net Cost of Machinery .25 .20 Option payoff functions as a reduction in cost Option payoff $2.5 million NET COST 0 origina...
Speculation with Derivatives <ul><li>Speculation primarily domain of dealers and sophisticated traders </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Speculating with Derivatives <ul><li>A manufacturing company anticipates that a certain commodity will soon drop in price....
FASB Statement 133* <ul><li>“ Accounting for Derivative Instruments and  Hedging Activities” </li></ul>* Portions of the F...
Statement 133: Why The Change? <ul><li>Quantity and variety of derivatives is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting conv...
Four Cornerstone  Decisions of Statement 133 <ul><li>Derivatives are contracts that create rights and obligations that mee...
Statement 133: Key Aspects <ul><li>All derivatives are at fair value on the balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Special accoun...
Why Allow Hedge Accounting? <ul><li>To resolve recognition and measurement anomalies </li></ul><ul><li>These anomalies cau...
Common Reporting Issues: Qualifying Hedges <ul><li>Documentation requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness and ineffect...
Documentation Requirements (Paragraphs 20(a), 28(a)) <ul><li>Formal documentation is required at the inception of the hedg...
Required Documentation -  Example of Cash Flow Hedge of Note Purchase <ul><li>On 1/1/x1, XYZ purchases a call option on 5-...
Effectiveness  (Paragraphs 20 and 28) <ul><li>Effectiveness is defined as the derivative instrument’s ability to generate ...
Example of Highly Effective Fair Value Hedge 6/30/x1 12/31/x1
Hedge Effectiveness Test <ul><li>An item may be excluded from the effectiveness test because it does not provide offsettin...
Effectiveness Implications <ul><li>If the highly effectiveness test is failed, the entire hedge does not qualify for speci...
Ineffectiveness  (Paragraphs 22 and 30) <ul><li>Items included in the effectiveness test that may generate ineffectiveness...
General Disclosure Requirements  (Paragraph 44) <ul><li>For all derivative instruments that qualify as hedging instruments...
Accounting for Fair Value Hedges  (Paragraphs 20-27) <ul><li>A fair value hedge is a hedge of the exposure to a change in ...
Board Views - Fair Value Hedges <ul><li>Fair value hedging is reasonable because the hedged item is a firm commitment or a...
Disclosure Requirements: Fair Value Hedges (Paragraph 45(a)) <ul><li>Net gain or loss recognized in earnings during the re...
Accounting for Cash Flow Hedges  (Paragraphs 28-35) <ul><li>A cash flow hedge is a hedging relationship where the variabil...
Board Views - Cash Flow Hedges  <ul><li>Board decided to permit cash flow hedge accounting as an accommodation to constitu...
Board Views - Cash Flow Hedges (continued)  <ul><li>Gains and losses on derivative contracts do not represent future econo...
Disclosure Requirements: Cash Flow Hedges (Paragraph 45(b)) <ul><li>Net gain or loss recognized in earnings during the rep...
Accounting for Currency Hedges  (Paragraphs 36-42) <ul><li>Board intended to increase the consistency of hedge accounting ...
Accounting for Hedge Termination  (Paragraph 25) <ul><li>Terminate hedge accounting prospectively when: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Impairment Issues  (Paragraph 27) <ul><li>Hedged item is still subject to impairment reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Apply after...
Implementation Issues <ul><li>What qualifies as a derivative instrument, including embedded derivatives? </li></ul><ul><ul...
Implementation Issues (continued) <ul><li>Assessment of hedge effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Appendix A, Section ...
Illustrative Examples <ul><li>Fair value hedge </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow hedge </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix B, Section 1 <...
Definition of a Fair Value Hedge A fair value hedge  is a hedge of the  exposure to a  change in  fair value   of a  recog...
DEFINITION OF FAIR VALUE <ul><li>Fair value is defined as the amount at which an asset (or liability) can be bought (or in...
DEFINITION OF A RECOGNIZED ASSET OR LIABILITY <ul><li>A recognized asset or liability is defined as an asset or liability ...
DEFINITION OF A FIRM COMMITMENT <ul><li>A firm commitment has the characteristics of an asset or liability and must be: </...
Fair Value Hedge Accounting <ul><li>Key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatives are always recorded on the balance sheet a...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Hedgeable Items <ul><li>Changes in fair value of the following items can be hedged: </li></ul><ul>...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA:   Risks That Can Be Hedged   <ul><li>For financial assets or liabilities, the hedged risk can be t...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Items Not Qualifying For Hedge Accounting <ul><li>Projected purchases of treasury stock </li></ul>...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Items Not Qualifying For Hedge Accounting (continued) <ul><li>Other exclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>XYZ manufactures titanium products.  Its titanium supplier requires a...
Example :  Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment $128,709 = (310 - 297) * 10,000, present valued at 6% for 3 months $250,000...
Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at 3/31/x1: </li></ul><ul><li>Forward contract 128,07...
Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at 6/30/x1: </li></ul><ul><li>Forward contract 121,92...
Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at June 30 (con’t): </li></ul><ul><li>Cash   250,000 ...
Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at June 30 (con’t): </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium   3,10...
Cash Flow Hedge <ul><li>A cash flow hedge is a hedging relationship where the variability of the hedged item’s cash flows ...
Statement 133 Criteria:   Hedgeable Items <ul><li>Cash flow hedge provisions allow an entity to designate a derivative ins...
Statement 133 Criteria:   Financial Asset and Financial Liability Hedgeable Risks <ul><li>For forecasted purchase or sale ...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA:   Eligible Forecasted Transaction <ul><li>The eligible forecasted transaction must be: </li></ul><...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA:   Ineligible Forecasted Transaction <ul><li>The following items do not qualify for hedging: </li><...
STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA:   Earnings Recognition <ul><li>An entity’s risk management strategy may exclude a component of a d...
Example:  Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>ABC designated the risk being hedged as its cash flows rela...
Example:  Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Journal entries at end of period 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Deriv...
Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Journal entries at end of period 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Cash  ...
Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Forecasted cash flows: $1,100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Actual c...
Advanced Topics <ul><li>Accounting (1) for the ineffective portion of a hedge and (2) for fair value and cash flow hedges ...
Advanced Topics (continued) <ul><li>Application of the clearly and closely related criterion to determine the existence of...
Advantages of Statement 133 <ul><li>A clear improvement over existing practice </li></ul><ul><li>Increases transparency of...
Disadvantages of Statement 133 <ul><li>Extremely complex standard </li></ul><ul><li>For fair value hedges, hybrid nature o...
A Look to the Future <ul><li>Is hedge accounting warranted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management also involves “taking a ...
Closing Remarks <ul><li>For electronic copies of the slides for use in classroom presentations at a college or university,...
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  • Options give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying instrument or commodity at a predetermined price called the “strike” or “exercise” price. [Read the rest of the first two bullets]
  • The importance of these instruments is that they comprise the basic risk management tools, At a conceptual level, risk management involves alter the pattern of cash flows. What do I mean by this? Let’s go back to the Chicago bookie. People in Chicago like the Bulls. If the Bulls win, he has to pay; if they lose, he collects -- that is the pattern of cash flows. To alter the pattern of cash flows, he could make an offsetting bet with a bookmaker in Las Vegas. That offsetting bet is a derivative used for hedging. Then, if the Bulls win our Chicago bookie pays customers in Chicago, and collects from the Vegas bookie. If the Bulls lose, he collects from his customers in Chicago, and pays the Vegas bookie. After placing the offsetting bet, his exposure to the Bulls is zero. This is what I mean by altering the pattern of cash flows -- our Chicago bookie has used a derivative, the bet with the Las Vegas bookmaker, to alter the pattern of cash flows. So what does this have to do with FFSO? FFSO can be used to alter the pattern of cash flows, and as a result they are the basic RM tools.
  • FFSO, because they are to basic tools used to alter cash flows, can also be used to create other instruments. Two examples are structured notes and swaps with embedded options.
  • Their low cost and ease of use make them particularly attractive for RM. For the same reasons, they are very attractive as speculative instruments. In fact we’ve seen that derivatives figured in most of the financial disasters and financial frauds of the last two years. But the fact that they are widely used in speculation and figure prominently in most recent financial disasters doesn’t mean that there is a problem with them. Rather, it is a symptom of their success. Let me give you an example from a different context. Every liquor store holdup involves a car. But this doesn’t mean that carries are bad. Rather, it’s a symptom of the fact that cars are a very efficient means of transportation. When you go to work, you take a car. When you go to the airport, you take a car. When you go to the scene of a crime, you take a car, and you certainly use a car when you leave the scene of a crime. Cars are the tool people use to get from one place to another. Well, derivatives are the most efficient tool for achieving many financial goals. If you have a legitimate financial goal, derivatives are often the most efficient tool to use. If you are bent on fraud, derivatives are also often the most efficient tool to use in perpetrating the fraud. But this doesn’t mean that derivatives are bad; rather, they are simply the most efficient tool for achieving financial goals, good or evil. What does this have to do with the release? Well, the fact that derivatives are so flexible, and are often the most efficient tool for achieving virtually any goal, has created some of the demand for disclosure about the purposes for which companies are using derivatives and the risks that they are taking.
  • So that’s what derivatives are . Next, we are going to talk about some simple examples of how derivatives are used for risk management. At the end, we will talk about 2 other uses of derivatives. Other uses that we won’t talk about include: (1) creation of synthetic financial instruments (2) tax oriented objectives
  • Talk through example. The first example is a very simple one. We own a gold mine. It costs us $350 an ounce to mine gold. The current spot price is $400/ounce, so our profit is $50/ounce.
  • Talk through the example.
  • Talk through first two bullet points. That is, funding costs are reduced by betting on future movements in interest rates.
  • Talk through example.
  • We usually think of speculation as the domain of dealers and sophisticated traders. (Unfortunately, it is too often the domain of traders who think that they are sophisticated, but aren’t.) Speculative trading is, by definition, based on investors’ views of future market movements. But using interest rate swaps to reduce funding costs also requires that you have a view, that is it is a form of speculation. Talk through this - swap fixed to floating if think rates go down - swap floating to fixed if think rates go up But can this be distinguished from RM? If you look at disclosures under FASB statement 119, you find companies saying they use swaps to hedge. But what is hedging? Is it reducing cash flow variability? Or variability in fair value? It could be either. And how then do we tell the difference between hedging and speculation. The word hedge has no meaning, it really has no useful definition. People do all sorts of loopy things, and label it hedging. This is part of the motivation behind mandating that companies disclose quantitative measure of market risk.
  • Derivatives are also used for speculation, but I will let you review this on your own.
  • linsmeir.ppt

    1. 1. Financial Reporting for Derivatives and Risk Management Activities Thomas J. Linsmeier University of Illinois AAA Annual Meeting August 16, 1998
    2. 2. Workshop Topics <ul><li>Common types of derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management activities </li></ul><ul><li>New financial reporting standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FASB Statement 133 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEC Financial Reporting Release 48 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend session at 10:30 a.m. tomorrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Illustrative examples </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Statement 133 </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Are Derivatives? <ul><li>“Derivatives”-- A generic term used to describe a wide variety of financial and commodity instruments whose value depends on or is derived from the value of an underlying asset/liability, reference rate, or index. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Common Derivatives <ul><li>Forwards / Futures </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><li>Swaps </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids / Embedded derivatives </li></ul>
    5. 5. Forward / Future Contracts <ul><li>Obligate one party to buy and another party to sell an underlying instrument or commodity at a future date </li></ul>Long Short Cash Market Long Short Forward Market Agree to Terms Cash Market Price Now Forward Price Future Date Instrument or Commodity Instrument or Commodity
    6. 6. Options <ul><li>Options provide the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying instrument or commodity at a predetermined price called the “strike” or “exercise” price </li></ul><ul><li>Options normally are in the form of a “Call” or a “Put” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls - enable the holder to buy the underlying instrument or commodity at the strike price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts - enable the holder to sell the underlying instrument or commodity at the strike price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require “up-front” payment or “premium” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Payoff Profiles of Purchased Puts and Calls Purchased Call Purchased Put Exercise Price Price of underlying instrument Payoff Price of underlying instrument Exercise Price Payoff
    8. 8. Swaps <ul><li>Two parties exchange recurring payments </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to series of forward contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Interest-rate swaps most common </li></ul>
    9. 9. “Plain-Vanilla” Interest Rate Swap Note: LIBOR is London Interbank Offered Rate Fixed-Rate Payer Fixed-Rate Receiver Floating Rate (LIBOR) X Notional Principal Fixed Rate of 6.75% X Notional Principal
    10. 10. Importance of Forwards, Futures, Swaps, and Options <ul><li>Instruments that involve the exchange of cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to alter existing cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>Comprise the basic risk management tools </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hybrid Instruments: Embedded Derivatives <ul><li>Simple derivatives are the fundamental building blocks of these complex structures </li></ul><ul><li>Structured note: Note with embedded option or swap </li></ul><ul><li>Complex swap: “Plain vanilla” swap with embedded options or leverage features </li></ul>
    12. 12. Managing Risks with Derivatives <ul><li>Low cost, ease, and speed of transacting make derivatives attractive for managing risk </li></ul><ul><li>Different derivatives provide means of adjusting the timing, amount, and variability of cash flows / fair values </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for both hedging and speculation </li></ul>
    13. 13. How Are Derivatives Used? <ul><li>Risk management (hedging) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity price risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest rate risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign currency price risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speculation </li></ul>
    14. 14. Commodity Price Risk <ul><li>Cost of mining gold: $350 per pounce </li></ul><ul><li>Current gold spot price: $400 per ounce </li></ul><ul><li>Gold reserves sufficient for ten years of production </li></ul><ul><li>Company exposed to risk of decreases in future prices of gold </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forecasted transaction </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Original Exposure Gold Production Cost Upside potential Downside Risk 350 50 400 Gold price Profit Loss
    16. 16. Risk Management Tool: Short Forward 400 Gold price 0 Current forward price Profit Loss
    17. 17. Net Position: $50 Profit “Locked in” Original Exposure Net Position Short Forward 50 400 350 Gold price Profit Loss
    18. 18. Interest Rate Risk <ul><li>Company issued a $100 million floating rate note with interest payments based on LIBOR </li></ul><ul><li>Interest expense: LIBOR X $100 Million </li></ul><ul><li>LIBOR currently is 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Company exposed to risk of increases in LIBOR </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>existing liability </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Exposure at Each Interest Payment Date Interest Expense $7 Million (.07 x $100. million) 0 7% LIBOR Risk of increase Potential decrease
    20. 20. Risk Management Tool: Interest Rate Swap Fixed-Rate Payer Company with Exposure Bank or Other Intermediary Receive Floating Rate (LIBOR) X Notional Principal Pay 7.00% Fixed Rate X Notional Principal Fixed-Rate Receiver
    21. 21. Risk Management Tool: Interest Rate Swap $7 Million (.07 x $100 Million) 0 7 % Net Net Outflow on Swap Negative Outflows = Inflows from Swap Outflows from Swap Pay Fixed Rate of 7%, Receive LIBOR LIBOR
    22. 22. Net Position at Each Interest Payment Date $7 Million Net Interest Expense Net Interest Expense 0 7% Negative Outflows = Inflows from Swap Outflows from Swap Original Interest Expense
    23. 23. Reducing Funding Costs With Derivatives <ul><li>Swapping floating-rate cash flows to fixed-rate reduces funding costs only if rates increase </li></ul><ul><li>Swapping fixed-rate cash flows to floating-rate reduces funding costs if rates decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Funding costs reduced by “expressing a view” (i.e., by betting on movements in future interest rates) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Foreign Currency Price Risk <ul><li>US Company commits to purchase machinery from a French manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Payment of 10 million French francs (FF) to be made six months from now </li></ul><ul><li>Currently $US/FF exchange rate $.20 per FF </li></ul><ul><li>US Company is exposed to risk of increases in the $US price of a FF </li></ul><ul><li>Fair value exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>firm commitment </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Original Exposure Cost (in $US) 0 .20 Risk of Increased $US Cost $2 Million ($.20/FF x FF10 Million) $US Price of a FF Current Exchange Rate
    26. 26. Risk Management Tool: Purchased Call Option <ul><li>Strategic Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Company believes the price of a FF may go down </li></ul><ul><li>Company does not want to pay more than $2.5 million for machinery. </li></ul>.25 Exercise price $US price of a FF Payoff in $US
    27. 27. Net Cost of Machinery .25 .20 Option payoff functions as a reduction in cost Option payoff $2.5 million NET COST 0 original exposure Cost (in $US) $2 million $US price of a FF
    28. 28. Speculation with Derivatives <ul><li>Speculation primarily domain of dealers and sophisticated traders </li></ul><ul><li>Speculative trading based on investors’ views of future market movements </li></ul><ul><li>Using interest rate swaps to reduce funding costs also requires “expressing a view” (i.e. form of speculation) </li></ul><ul><li>Query: Is risk management much different from speculation? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Speculating with Derivatives <ul><li>A manufacturing company anticipates that a certain commodity will soon drop in price. </li></ul><ul><li>To exploit this belief, the company sells the commodity for forward (or future) delivery at a price reflecting the current market consensus </li></ul><ul><li>If the price does decline, the company can buy the commodity in the spot market and deliver it against the forward contract </li></ul><ul><li>Profit = Forward price - spot price </li></ul>
    30. 30. FASB Statement 133* <ul><li>“ Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” </li></ul>* Portions of the FASB's, &quot;A Review of Statement 133-Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities,&quot; copyright 1998 by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, Norwalk, Connecticut 06856, are included by permission.
    31. 31. Statement 133: Why The Change? <ul><li>Quantity and variety of derivatives is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting conventions and standards are outdated, incomplete, and inconsistent </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting financial statements are not transparent </li></ul>
    32. 32. Four Cornerstone Decisions of Statement 133 <ul><li>Derivatives are contracts that create rights and obligations that meet the definition of assets and liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Fair value is the only relevant measure for derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>Only assets & liabilities should be on balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Special hedge accounting should be provided, but should be limited to transactions involving offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows for the risk being hedged </li></ul>
    33. 33. Statement 133: Key Aspects <ul><li>All derivatives are at fair value on the balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Special accounting for the change in value of derivatives designated and qualifying in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair value hedges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash flow (forecasted transaction) hedges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign currency hedges </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Why Allow Hedge Accounting? <ul><li>To resolve recognition and measurement anomalies </li></ul><ul><li>These anomalies cause earnings effects in different periods for hedging instrument and hedged item </li></ul>
    35. 35. Common Reporting Issues: Qualifying Hedges <ul><li>Documentation requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness and ineffectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>General disclosure requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Specific accounting and disclosure rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fair value, cash flow, foreign currency hedges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hedge termination </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment </li></ul>
    36. 36. Documentation Requirements (Paragraphs 20(a), 28(a)) <ul><li>Formal documentation is required at the inception of the hedge and must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of the hedging instrument and the hedged item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the risk being hedged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk management objective/strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How effectiveness will be assessed </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Required Documentation - Example of Cash Flow Hedge of Note Purchase <ul><li>On 1/1/x1, XYZ purchases a call option on 5-year treasury notes as a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge of a forecasted $100 million 5-year treasury note purchase at 12/31/x1 </li></ul><ul><li>XYZ designates the decreases in cash flows related to decreasing interest rates as the hedged risk </li></ul><ul><li>For effectiveness measurement, the call premium is excluded from the test. The call option notional amount and forecasted note amount match. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Effectiveness (Paragraphs 20 and 28) <ul><li>Effectiveness is defined as the derivative instrument’s ability to generate offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the the hedged item. Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For both fair value and cash flow hedges, the hedge is expected to be highly effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness is measured at inception and must be assessed whenever earnings are reported (at least quarterly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness measures intended to be similar to “high correlation” in Statement 80 </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Example of Highly Effective Fair Value Hedge 6/30/x1 12/31/x1
    40. 40. Hedge Effectiveness Test <ul><li>An item may be excluded from the effectiveness test because it does not provide offsetting cash flows, such as an option’s time value (time value is the amount paid for the option, excluding payments for intrinsic value) </li></ul><ul><li>An item may be included in the effectiveness test, but may generate ineffectiveness </li></ul>
    41. 41. Effectiveness Implications <ul><li>If the highly effectiveness test is failed, the entire hedge does not qualify for special accounting </li></ul><ul><li>If the highly effectiveness test is met, some ineffectiveness may occur and a portion of the derivative gain or loss may be recorded through earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffectiveness is recorded differently in cash flow and fair value hedges, depending on the hedging relationship </li></ul>
    42. 42. Ineffectiveness (Paragraphs 22 and 30) <ul><li>Items included in the effectiveness test that may generate ineffectiveness include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different value of hedged item and notional principal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different maturity or repricing dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different underlying interest rate basis e.g. LIBOR versus Prime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit differences </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. General Disclosure Requirements (Paragraph 44) <ul><li>For all derivative instruments that qualify as hedging instruments, the entity shall disclose for each type of hedge the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives for holding derivatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context needed to understand those objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for achieving those objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity’s risk management policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of the items or transactions that are being hedged. </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Accounting for Fair Value Hedges (Paragraphs 20-27) <ul><li>A fair value hedge is a hedge of the exposure to a change in fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment attributable to a particular risk. Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assets or liabilities exposed to price risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in value of hedged item and hedging instrument recorded in earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result is matching for effective hedge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective gain or loss adjusts basis of hedged item </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Board Views - Fair Value Hedges <ul><li>Fair value hedging is reasonable because the hedged item is a firm commitment or an asset or a liability </li></ul><ul><li>Offsetting fair value changes of the hedged item and the hedging instrument through earnings provides a natural offset </li></ul>
    46. 46. Disclosure Requirements: Fair Value Hedges (Paragraph 45(a)) <ul><li>Net gain or loss recognized in earnings during the reporting period representing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge ineffectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the component of the derivatives gain or loss excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where the net gain or loss is reported </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The amount of net gain or loss is recognized in earnings when a hedged firm commitment no longer qualifies as a fair value hedge. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Accounting for Cash Flow Hedges (Paragraphs 28-35) <ul><li>A cash flow hedge is a hedging relationship where the variability of the hedged item’s cash flows is offset by the cash flows of the hedging instrument. Key Aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasted transactions or balance sheet items with variable cash flows qualify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective gain or loss to OCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earnings recognition matches hedged item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective gain or loss may be recorded in earnings </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Board Views - Cash Flow Hedges <ul><li>Board decided to permit cash flow hedge accounting as an accommodation to constituents </li></ul><ul><li>Because the hedged forecasted transaction is not recorded on the books, derivative gains and losses are deferred in other comprehensive income (OCI), adding a layer of complexity </li></ul>
    49. 49. Board Views - Cash Flow Hedges (continued) <ul><li>Gains and losses on derivative contracts do not represent future economic sacrifices (liabilities) or benefits (assets) </li></ul><ul><li>Deferring gains or losses on derivatives as a separate component of OCI, rather than as a separate asset or liability, avoids conceptual difficulties and increases visibility for cash flow hedge transactions </li></ul>
    50. 50. Disclosure Requirements: Cash Flow Hedges (Paragraph 45(b)) <ul><li>Net gain or loss recognized in earnings during the reporting period </li></ul><ul><li>Description of transactions or other events that will result in reclassification of gains and losses deferred in accumulated OCI into earnings within next 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum length of time entity is hedging forecasted transaction variable cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinued hedge gains and losses because it is probable forecasted transaction will not occur </li></ul>
    51. 51. Accounting for Currency Hedges (Paragraphs 36-42) <ul><li>Board intended to increase the consistency of hedge accounting guidance by broadening the scope of eligible foreign currency hedges. Key aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash flow and fair value hedges permitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry forward most of the ideas in Statement 52 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hedge of net investment in sub </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of nonderivative instrument </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some expansion of hedge accounting particularly for forecasted transactions </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Accounting for Hedge Termination (Paragraph 25) <ul><li>Terminate hedge accounting prospectively when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eligibility of qualification criteria not met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derivative expires, is sold, terminated or exercised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge designation is removed </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Impairment Issues (Paragraph 27) <ul><li>Hedged item is still subject to impairment reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Apply after basis of hedged item is adjusted for changes in fair value or cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>Fair value of hedging instrument is not considered </li></ul>
    54. 54. Implementation Issues <ul><li>What qualifies as a derivative instrument, including embedded derivatives? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Paragraphs 6-16, Appendix A, Section1, and Appendix E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What qualifies as a hedged item? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Paragraphs 21 and 29 and Appendix C </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Implementation Issues (continued) <ul><li>Assessment of hedge effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Appendix A, Section 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Paragraphs 48-56 and Appendix B, Section 3 </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Illustrative Examples <ul><li>Fair value hedge </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow hedge </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix B, Section 1 </li></ul>
    57. 57. Definition of a Fair Value Hedge A fair value hedge is a hedge of the exposure to a change in fair value of a recognized asset or liability or of an unrecognized firm commitment attributable to a particular risk. 6/30/x1 12/31/x1
    58. 58. DEFINITION OF FAIR VALUE <ul><li>Fair value is defined as the amount at which an asset (or liability) can be bought (or incurred) or sold (or settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoted market prices are the best indicator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the absence of quoted prices, use other valuation techniques. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. DEFINITION OF A RECOGNIZED ASSET OR LIABILITY <ul><li>A recognized asset or liability is defined as an asset or liability recorded on the balance sheet (i.e., not a future transaction or an unrecorded intangible asset). </li></ul><ul><li>Hedgeable assets or liabilities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available-for-sale securities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commodity-type inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-rate loan obligations </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. DEFINITION OF A FIRM COMMITMENT <ul><li>A firm commitment has the characteristics of an asset or liability and must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific as to price, quantity, and timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With an unrelated party, binding on both parties and usually legally enforceable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probable due to significant disincentive for nonperformance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Agreement with an unrelated party to purchase five machines (a fixed quantity) for $500 per machine (a fixed price) in six months (fixed timing) </li></ul>
    61. 61. Fair Value Hedge Accounting <ul><li>Key concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatives are always recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. </li></ul><ul><li>The change in a derivative’s fair value is always recognized in earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Offsetting gains/losses on hedged items are recognized in earnings and adjust the carrying amount of those items. </li></ul>
    62. 62. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Hedgeable Items <ul><li>Changes in fair value of the following items can be hedged: </li></ul><ul><li>Financial assets or liabilities (four specific risks can be hedged) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-financial assets or liabilities (the only risk that can be hedged is the risk of changes in fair value of the entire hedged asset or liability) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Assets or liabilities already measured at fair value through earnings, such as trading securities, cannot be hedged items. </li></ul>
    63. 63. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Risks That Can Be Hedged <ul><li>For financial assets or liabilities, the hedged risk can be the risk of changes in fair value : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the entire hedged item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to market interest rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to foreign currency exchange rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to an obligor’s creditworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: Prepayment risk cannot be the hedged risk. (However, the option component of a prepayable instrument can be designated as the hedged item.) </li></ul>
    64. 64. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Items Not Qualifying For Hedge Accounting <ul><li>Projected purchases of treasury stock </li></ul><ul><li>Intercompany transactions (except foreign currency) </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated stock issuances in relation to a stock option plan for which no compensation expense is recognized for changes in stock price </li></ul>Transactions not affecting earnings do not qualify for hedge accounting, such as:
    65. 65. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Items Not Qualifying For Hedge Accounting (continued) <ul><li>Other exclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity method investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority interests in consolidated subsidiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity investments in consolidated subsidiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm commitments to enter into business combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An equity instrument issued by the entity and recorded in stockholders equity </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>XYZ manufactures titanium products. Its titanium supplier requires a 6-month firm commitment. On 1/1/x1, XYZ enters into a firm commitment with its supplier to buy 10,000 units of titanium at the current forward rate of $310 per unit on 6/30/x1. </li></ul><ul><li>XYZ wants to purchase and record the titanium at whatever the market price will be on 6/30/x1. Therefore, on 1/1/x1, XYZ enters into a forward contract to sell 10,000 units of titanium at the current forward rate of $310 per unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Hedge effectiveness is based on changes in the 6/30/x1 forward price of titanium. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Example : Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment $128,709 = (310 - 297) * 10,000, present valued at 6% for 3 months $250,000 = (310 - 285) * 10,000
    68. 68. Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at 3/31/x1: </li></ul><ul><li>Forward contract 128,079 </li></ul><ul><li>Gain on forward contract 128,079 </li></ul><ul><li>To record change in fair value of forward contract </li></ul><ul><li>Loss on firm commitment 128,079 </li></ul><ul><li>Firm commitment 128,079 </li></ul><ul><li>To record change in fair value of firm commitment </li></ul>
    69. 69. Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at 6/30/x1: </li></ul><ul><li>Forward contract 121,921 </li></ul><ul><li>Gain on forward contract 121,921 </li></ul><ul><li>To record change in fair value of forward contract </li></ul><ul><li>Loss on firm commitment 121,921 </li></ul><ul><li>Firm commitment 121,921 </li></ul><ul><li>To record change in fair value of firm commitment </li></ul><ul><li>($121,921 = $250,000 less $128,079) </li></ul>
    70. 70. Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at June 30 (con’t): </li></ul><ul><li>Cash 250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Forward contract 250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To record cash receipt upon settlement of forward contract </li></ul>
    71. 71. Example: Fair Value Hedge of Firm Commitment <ul><li>Journal entries at June 30 (con’t): </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium 3,100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cash 3,100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To record purchase of titanium at contracted rate </li></ul><ul><li>Firm Commitment 250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium 250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To derecognize the firm commitment and adjust the carrying amount of the titanium purchase </li></ul>
    72. 72. Cash Flow Hedge <ul><li>A cash flow hedge is a hedging relationship where the variability of the hedged item’s cash flows are offset by the cash flows of the hedging instrument. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Statement 133 Criteria: Hedgeable Items <ul><li>Cash flow hedge provisions allow an entity to designate a derivative instrument as a hedge of the exposure to variability attributable to specific risks in the cash flows of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A recognized asset or liability such as a variable-rate bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A forecasted transaction such as an anticipated issuance of a fixed-rate debt </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Statement 133 Criteria: Financial Asset and Financial Liability Hedgeable Risks <ul><li>For forecasted purchase or sale of a financial asset or liability, hedgeable cash flow risks include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the cash flows relating to the purchase or sale of the entire asset or liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in market interest rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the obligor’s creditworthiness </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Eligible Forecasted Transaction <ul><li>The eligible forecasted transaction must be: </li></ul><ul><li>A single transaction or a group of individual transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Probable to occur </li></ul><ul><li>With a third party external to the reporting entity and present an exposure to variations in cash flows for the hedged risk that could affect reported earnings </li></ul>
    76. 76. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Ineligible Forecasted Transaction <ul><li>The following items do not qualify for hedging: </li></ul><ul><li>Items subject to remeasurement with changes in value attributable to the hedged risk reported currently in earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rate risk of the forecasted purchase or sale of a held-to-maturity security </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasted business combinations subject to Opinion 16 or related to a parent company's interest in a consolidated subsidiary or an equity-method investment </li></ul>
    77. 77. STATEMENT 133 CRITERIA: Earnings Recognition <ul><li>An entity’s risk management strategy may exclude a component of a derivative’s change in fair value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This amount is recognized currently in earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other ineffective portions of hedge may be recognized in earnings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is change in derivative less than change in hedged item? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amounts in OCI shall be reclassified to earnings when the hedged item affects earnings </li></ul>
    78. 78. Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>ABC designated the risk being hedged as its cash flows related to a forecasted sale of 100,000 bushels of Commodity A at the end of period 1 (the bushels originally were acquired for $1 million). </li></ul><ul><li>On the first day of period 1, ABC enters into Derivative Z to sell 100,000 bushels at $1.1 million at the end of period 1. At hedge inception, the derivative is at-the-money (i.e., its fair value was zero). </li></ul><ul><li>Hedge has no ineffectiveness because all terms of the forecasted sale and the derivative match. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of period 1, Derivative Z has a fair value of $25,000 and the 100,000 bushels of Commodity A were sold for $1.075 million. </li></ul>
    79. 79. Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Journal entries at end of period 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative Z 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>OCI 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To record Derivative Z at fair value </li></ul><ul><li>Cash 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative Z 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To record settlement of Derivative Z </li></ul>
    80. 80. Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Journal entries at end of period 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Cash 1,075,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue 1,075,000 </li></ul><ul><li>COGS 1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory 1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To record inventory sale </li></ul><ul><li>OCI 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>To reclassify amount in OCI to earnings upon inventory sale </li></ul>
    81. 81. Example: Cash Flow Hedge of Forecasted Inventory Sale <ul><li>Forecasted cash flows: $1,100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Actual cash flows: </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative $25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of inventory $1,075,000 </li></ul><ul><li> $1,100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Variability of cash flows is offset by derivative </li></ul>
    82. 82. Advanced Topics <ul><li>Accounting (1) for the ineffective portion of a hedge and (2) for fair value and cash flow hedges when swaps are the hedging instrument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Appendix B, Section1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounting for foreign currency risk in the net investment in a subsidiary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See FASB Statement 52 </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. Advanced Topics (continued) <ul><li>Application of the clearly and closely related criterion to determine the existence of embedded derivatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Appendix B, Section 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hedging of a portfolio of similar assets or similar liabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Paragraph 21(a)(1) and Appendix C </li></ul></ul>
    84. 84. Advantages of Statement 133 <ul><li>A clear improvement over existing practice </li></ul><ul><li>Increases transparency of derivatives in financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a complete and consistent accounting model for all types of derivatives and hedging activities </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance is consistent with the Conceptual Framework </li></ul>
    85. 85. Disadvantages of Statement 133 <ul><li>Extremely complex standard </li></ul><ul><li>For fair value hedges, hybrid nature of measurement attribute for hedged item </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes risk management at transaction level </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes derivatives as only hedging instrument </li></ul>
    86. 86. A Look to the Future <ul><li>Is hedge accounting warranted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management also involves “taking a view”, which is similar to speculation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair value all financial instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinuation of cash flow hedges of forecasted transactions? </li></ul>
    87. 87. Closing Remarks <ul><li>For electronic copies of the slides for use in classroom presentations at a college or university, please contact me at linsmeie@uiuc.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>
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