Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
International Financial Reporting Standards
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

International Financial Reporting Standards

8,901

Published on

2 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,901
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
559
Comments
2
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 4 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs)
  • 2. <ul><li>Basics of recognition and measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>IFRSs: Recognition and measurement of assets. </li></ul><ul><li>IFRS / U.S. GAAP differences: Recognition and measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>IFRS / U.S. GAAP differences: Presentation and disclosure. </li></ul>International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs)
  • 3. Recognition and Measurement: Some background <ul><li>Review of important terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Assets – resources controlled by the enterprise from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition – inclusion of items (e.g., assets, liabilities) into the financial statements with the amount included in statement totals. </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Measurement – choice of the attribute by which to quantify a recognized item. The most commonly used attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net realizable value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current (replacement) cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current market value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present value of future cash flows </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: Some background
  • 5. <ul><li>Historical cost – amount paid to acquire an asset or, for liabilities, the amount received when the obligation is incurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Net realizable value – amount of cash (sometimes the present value) minus collection and other costs incurred. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: Some background
  • 6. <ul><li>Current (replacement) cost – amount needed to acquire an equivalent asset. </li></ul><ul><li>Current market value – amount of cash received from an immediate sale of the asset. </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of future cash flows – amount of cash to be received, discounted at the appropriate interest rate. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: Some background
  • 7. Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs <ul><li>IFRSs </li></ul><ul><li>Substantially similar to U.S. GAAP. </li></ul><ul><li>However, significant differences do exist. </li></ul><ul><li>An effective way to understand IFRSs is to compare to U.S. GAAP. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe IFRSs in terms of significant differences from U.S. GAAP. </li></ul>
  • 8. Questions to consider <ul><li>In what way(s) would US GAAP and IFRSs be expected to differ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  • 9. Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared <ul><li>Types of Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of requirements or guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclosure </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Form 20-F </li></ul><ul><li>Some firms filing Form 20-F initially use IFRSs to prepare financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Form 20-F of some of these firms can be used to gain an understanding of IFRS / U.S. GAAP differences. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 11. <ul><li>Areas with significant differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory (IAS 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) (IAS 16) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intangible Assets (IAS 38) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment of Assets (IAS 36) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing Costs (IAS 23) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leases (IAS 17) </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 12. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Requires lower of cost or net realizable value (U.S. GAAP uses lower of cost or market). </li></ul><ul><li>IAS 2 does not allow use of last-in, first-out (LIFO). </li></ul><ul><li>IFRSs would tend to lead to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher inventory balances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost of goods sold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher net income compared to U.S. GAAP if LIFO is used. </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 13. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for capitalization of interest on borrowings for some inventories. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization of interest on inventories will lead to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher inventory balances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost of goods sold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher net income compared to U.S. GAAP. </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 14. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Application of lower of cost of net realizable value. Assume the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical cost $500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement cost 400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated sales price 450 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated disposal costs 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal profit margin 20% of sales price </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 15. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Lower of cost or net realizable value using IAS 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical cost = $500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net realizable value (NRV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= estimated sales price – estimated selling costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>= $450 - $25 = $425 (lower of cost or NRV) </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 16. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Lower of cost or market under U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical cost = $500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated market is middle value of NRV ($425), Replacement cost ($400), and NRV – normal profit margin ($425 - $90 = $335). Designated market is $400 and lower of cost or market = $400 </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 17. <ul><li>IAS 2, Inventories – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>The recognized inventory amount under IAS 2 is $425 and under U.S. GAAP is $400. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: under U.S. GAAP the $400 now represents historical cost. Under IAS 2, historical cost remains at $500 which might be used as lower of cost or NRV in future years. </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 18. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent to initial measurement, IAS 16 allows the two different measurement approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical cost -- (the benchmark treatment) recognizes the asset at cost less accumulated depreciation, required by U.S. GAAP. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 19. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation -- (the alternative treatment) requires that all assets within a class be revalued periodically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major difference between IFRSs and U.S. GAAP as fixed assets are often substantial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revaluation is generally not allowed under U.S. GAAP. </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 20. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting for revaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation increases require a journal entry to increase the asset to fair value: </li></ul><ul><li>Property, plant, and equipment xxxx </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation surplus xxxx </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The revaluation surplus is an equity account. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 21. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting for revaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation decreases require a journal entry to decrease the asset to fair value: </li></ul><ul><li>Expense xxxx </li></ul><ul><li>Property, plant, and equipment xxxx </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 22. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – numerical comparison to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting for accumulated depreciation at time of revaluation. Assume the following as of 12/31/X2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical cost $10,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulated depreciation 2,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current market value 18,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of carrying value to cost 80% </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 23. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Asset and accumulated depreciation are restated. </li></ul><ul><li>Restated carrying amount equals current market value. </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio of carrying value to gross carrying amount is maintained. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 24. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP: Treatment 1 </li></ul><ul><li> Original Revaluation Total </li></ul><ul><li> Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Gross amt $10,000 + 12,500 = $22,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Acc dep 2,000 + 2,500 = $4,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying value$ 8,000 + 10,000 = $18,000 </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 25. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Asset is first decreased by the amount of accumulated depreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Asset account is then increased by the amount of the revaluation (current market value – carrying value). </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 26. <ul><li>IAS 16, PP&E – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP: Treatment 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulated Depreciation 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Asset 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Asset 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluation surplus 10,000 </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 27. When revaluation is applied: <ul><li>It must be used consistently for an entire class of assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Selectivity within a class is not OK but selectivity of a class is. </li></ul><ul><li>Revaluated assets must be kept at fair value- this need determines the frequency of future revaluations. </li></ul>
  • 28. Treatment of the revaluation surplus <ul><li>Subsequent decreases in asset value are charged first to revaluation surplus, if any, and then expensed. </li></ul><ul><li>When the surplus is realized (e.g., when the asset is sold), it may be transferred to retained earnings, a portion depreciated as the asset is used up, or left untouched. </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased intangibles. </li></ul><ul><li>Intangibles acquired in a business combination. </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not address Goodwill (see IAS 3). </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 30. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased intangibles – consistent with U.S. GAAP except that fair value is used in some cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Intangibles acquired in a business combination – consistent with U.S. GAAP except that in-process development costs are capitalized. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 31. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles: </li></ul><ul><li>Major difference with U.S. GAAP. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. GAAP (SFAS 2) requires expensing of almost all Research and Development (R&D) costs. </li></ul><ul><li>IAS 38 allows capitalization, also called deferral, of many development costs. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 32. Criteria for capitalization of development costs: <ul><li>Technical feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Intent to complete and use/sell. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use/sell. </li></ul><ul><li>How the asset will generate future economic benefits, e.g., the existence of a market and/or usefulness. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of resources to complete developmnent. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reliably measure the expenditure needed. </li></ul>
  • 33. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles – Development Costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development costs of $100,000 during 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of costs qualify for capitalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product sales begin on January 2, 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five years of sales expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalized costs amortized on a straight-line basis </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 34. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles – </li></ul><ul><li>Development Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting treatment under IAS 38 </li></ul><ul><li>in 2005: </li></ul><ul><li>Development expense 30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred development costs 70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cash, payables, etc. 100,000 </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 35. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles – </li></ul><ul><li>Development Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting treatment under IAS 38 in 2006: </li></ul><ul><li>Amortization expense 14,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred dev costs 14,000 </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 36. <ul><li>IAS 38, Intangible Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Internally generated intangibles – Development Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting treatment under U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>- in 2005: </li></ul><ul><li>Dev expense 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cash, payables, etc. 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>No entry </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 37. <ul><li>IAS 36, Impairment of Assets – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Has lower threshold for impairments, sometimes results in impairments when U.S. GAAP does not. </li></ul><ul><li>For assets considered impaired under U.S. GAAP, impairment is carrying amount minus fair value. </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment is carrying amount minus the “recoverable amount” (greater of net selling price or value in use). This is likely to differ from fair value. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 38. <ul><li>IAS 36, Impairment of Assets – compared to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for reversal of impairment loss in subsequent periods when recoverable amount exceeds carrying value. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. GAAP prohibits such reversals. </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment test for goodwill requires both a bottom-up and top-down test. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. GAAP requires only a bottom-up test. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 39. <ul><li>IAS 36, Impairment of Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Assume the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying value $440 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling price 400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of disposal 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected future cash flows 450 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present value of expected future cash flows 380 </li></ul></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 40. <ul><li>IAS 36, Impairment of Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment under IAS 36: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value in use $380 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net selling price 375 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recoverable amount $380 (greater of these two) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impairment loss = carrying amount – recoverable amount = $440 – 380 = $60 </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 41. <ul><li>IAS 36, Impairment of Assets – numerical comparison to U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment under U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying amount of $440 is less than expected future (undiscounted) cash flows of $450. </li></ul><ul><li>No impairment. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 42. <ul><li>IAS 23, Borrowing Costs </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. GAAP (SFAS 34) requires capitalization of interest on borrowings attributable to construction, acquisition, or production of qualifying assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization of interest is the benchmark treatment under IAS 23. However, an alternative treatment allows for expensing of all interest. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 43. <ul><li>IAS 23, Borrowing Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly allows for capitalization of interest on borrowing for the production of some inventories. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. GAAP explicitly prohibits the capitalization of interest on borrowings for production of most inventories. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 44. <ul><li>IAS 17, Leases </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishes between operating and finance (capital) leases in much the same way as U.S. GAAP (SFAS 13). </li></ul><ul><li>The criteria for classifying a lease as either operating or finance is less detailed than U.S. GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Leases is often used as an example in arguing that U.S. GAAP is rules-based and IFRSs are principles-based. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 45. <ul><li>Finance lease criteria, IAS 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Lease transfers ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargain purchase option. </li></ul><ul><li>Lease term is for the major part of the leased asset’s economic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of minimum lease payments equals substantially all of the fair value of the asset. </li></ul><ul><li>The leased asset is specialized so that only the lessee can use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital lease criteria, SFAS 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Lease transfers ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargain purchase option. </li></ul><ul><li>Lease term is for 75 percent of the leased asset’s economic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of minimum lease payments equals 90 percent of the fair value of the asset. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 46. <ul><li>IFRSs and U.S. GAAP differ somewhat in each </li></ul><ul><li>of the following areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Flow Statements (IAS 7) – Classification of dividends and interest paid is more flexible under IFRS. </li></ul><ul><li>Segment Reporting (IAS 14) – U.S. GAAP requires management approach, IFRS is more flexible as of March 2005. This item is part of short-term convergence project. </li></ul><ul><li>Interim Financial Reporting (IAS 34) – U.S. GAAP treats interim periods as integral part of the full year. </li></ul>Recognition and Measurement: IFRSs and U.S. GAAP compared
  • 47. Liabilities <ul><li>Contingent Liabilities vs provisions </li></ul><ul><li>If losses are “probable”, then they must be recognized. </li></ul><ul><li>Same as US GAAP, except that, with IAS37, “probable is defined as “more likely than not”. </li></ul><ul><li>Under US GAAP, the definition of “probable” is left vague. </li></ul>
  • 48. Contingent assets <ul><li>IAS allows recognition if the inflow of economic benefits is “virtually certain”. </li></ul><ul><li>US GAAP generally allows no recognition until it has been realized. </li></ul>
  • 49. Defined Benefit Pension Plans <ul><li>Past service costs are expensed more quickly than under US GAAP. </li></ul><ul><li>A minimum liability (the unfunded accumulated pension obligation) is recognized under US GAAP, but not under IAS 19. </li></ul><ul><li>Both methods allow gains and losses to be brought in slowly and smoothly. </li></ul><ul><li>IAS caps the amount of a pension asset that can be booked. US GAAP has no such cap. </li></ul>
  • 50. A few other areas: <ul><li>Some differences in accounting for income taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue recognition also differs, but differences are hard to pinpoint. </li></ul>

×