Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework

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Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Financial Reporting: Its Conceptual Framework Intermediate Accounting 11th edition Nikolai Bazley Jones An electronic presentation By Norman Sunderman and Kenneth Buchanan Angelo State University COPYRIGHT © 2010 South-Western/Cengage Learning
  2. 2. 2 Objectives-Oriented Principles  The SEC has recommended that future accounting standards should not follow a rules- based, nor principles only approach, but should be “objectives-oriented.”  Should be built on an improved and consistently applied conceptual framework  Clearly state the accounting objective  Minimize exceptions  Avoid the use of bright-line tests
  3. 3. 3 Charges Given to the FASB To develop a conceptual framework of accounting theory
  4. 4. 4 Charges Given to the FASB To establish standards (GAAP) for financial accounting practice
  5. 5. 5 FASB Conceptual Framework 1. To guide the FASB in establishing accounting standards 2. To provide a frame of reference for resolving accounting questions in situations where a standard does not exist 3. To determine the bounds for judgment in the preparation of financial statements 4. To increase users’ understanding of and confidence in financial reporting 5. To enhance comparability
  6. 6. 6 Objectives of Financial Reporting General Objective: Provide information that is useful to present and potential investors, creditors, and other users in making rational investment, credit, and similar decisions
  7. 7. 7 Objectives of Financial Reporting Derived External User Objective: Provide information that is useful to present and potential investors, creditors, and other users in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of prospective cash receipts from dividends and interest, and the proceeds from the sale, redemption, or maturity of securities or loans
  8. 8. 8 Objectives of Financial Reporting Derived Company Objective: Provide information to help investors, creditors, and others in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of prospective net cash inflows to the related company
  9. 9. 9 Objectives of Financial Reporting Provide information about a Provide information company’s economic resources, about a company’s cash obligations, and owners’ equity. flows. Provide information about a company’s comprehensive income and its components. Specific Objectives
  10. 10. 10 Other Issues First, financial reporting should provide information about how the management of a company has discharged its stewardship responsibility.
  11. 11. 11 Other Issues Second, a company’s financial statements and other means of financial reporting should include explanations and interpretations by its management to help external users understand the financial information provided.
  12. 12. 12 Other Issues Providing this critical information is known as full disclosure.
  13. 13. 13 Understandability Accounting information should be understandable to users who have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and who are willing to study the information carefully.
  14. 14. 14 Decision Usefulness Decision usefulness is the overall qualitative characteristic to use in judging the quality of accounting information.
  15. 15. 15 Relevance Accounting information is relevant if it can make a difference in a decision.
  16. 16. 16 Reliability Accounting information is reliable when it is reasonably free from error and bias, and faithfully represents what it is intended to represent.
  17. 17. 17 Hierarchy of Qualitative Characteristics Comparability of accounting information enables users to identify and explain similarities and differences between two or more sets of economic facts.
  18. 18. 18 Assumptions and Principles Entity The entity assumption assumes that a proprietorship, partnership, or corporation’s financial activities are distinguished from other financial organizations in keeping its own financial records and reports.
  19. 19. 19 Assumptions and Principles Continuity This assumption assumes that the company will continue to operate in the near future, unless substantial evidence to the contrary exists. This assumption is also known as the going-concern assumption.
  20. 20. 20 Assumptions and Principles Period of Time In accordance with the period-of-time assumption, a company prepares financial statements at the end of each year and includes them its annual report. The period-of-time assumption is the basis for the adjusting entry process at period-end.
  21. 21. 21 Assumptions and Principles Monetary Unit This assumption states that there must be some basis for measuring exchange of goods or services. Currently, the dollar is considered to be a stable monetary unit for preparing a company’s financial statements. The FASB encourages companies to prepare supplemental disclosures about the impact of changing prices.
  22. 22. 22 Assumptions and Principles Historical Cost Usually, the exchange price is retained in the accounting records as the value of an item until it is removed from the records. Replacement Market Cost Value $13,000 $13,500 Cost $16,000
  23. 23. 23 Assumptions and Principles Historical Cost Which amount should be used? Cost $16,000
  24. 24. 24 Assumptions and Principles Realization and Recognition Realization is the process of converting noncash resources and rights into cash or rights to cash. Recognition is the process of formally recording and reporting an item in the financial statements of a company.
  25. 25. 25 Assumptions and Principles Matching and Accrual Accounting The matching principle states that to Accrual accounting is the process of determine thethe financial company for an relating income of a effects of accounting period, the company computes transactions, events, and circumstances the total expenses involvedto the period in having cash consequences in obtaining the revenues of the period and relateswhen the which they occur rather than to these total expenses to the totalpayment occurs. cash receipt or revenues recorded in the period.
  26. 26. 26 Assumptions and Principles Conservatism The principle of conservatism states that when alternative accounting valuations are equally possible, the accountant should select the one that is least likely to overstate assets and income in the current period.
  27. 27. 27 Balance Sheet A balance sheet is a financial It also is called a statement that summarizes the statement of financial position of a company financial position. on a particular date.
  28. 28. 28 Balance Sheet The elements of a balance sheet are:  Assets are the probable future economic benefits obtained and controlled by a company as a result of past transactions or events.  Liabilities are the probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a company to transfer assets or provide services in the future as a result of past transactions or events.  Equity is the owners’ residual interest in the assets of a company that remains after deducting its liabilities.
  29. 29. 29 Income Statement An income statement is a financial statement that summarizes the results of a company’s operations for a period of time.
  30. 30. 30 Income Statement The elements of an income statement are:  Revenues are inflows of assets of a company or settlement of its liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that are the company’s ongoing major or central operations. Revenues increase the equity of a company. Continued
  31. 31. 31 Income Statement The elements of an income statement are:  Expenses are outflows of assets of a company or incurrences of liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that are the company’s ongoing major or central operations. Expenses decrease the equity of a company. Continued
  32. 32. 32 Income Statement The elements of an income statement are:  Gains are increases in the equity of a company from peripheral or incidental transactions, and from all other events and circumstances during a period, except those that result from revenues or investments by owners. Continued
  33. 33. 33 Income Statement The elements of an income statement are:  Losses are decreases in the equity of a company from peripheral or incidental transactions, and from all other events and circumstances during a period, except those that result from expenses or distribution to owners.
  34. 34. 34 Income Statement Expenses decrease the equity of the company. Revenues increase the equity of the company.
  35. 35. 35 Statement of Cash Flows A statement of cash flows is a financial statement that summarizes the cash inflows and outflows of a company for a period of time.
  36. 36. 36 Statement of Cash Flows The elements of a statement of cash flows are:  Operating cash flows are the inflows and outflows of cash from acquiring, selling, and delivering goods for sale, as well as providing services.  Investing cash flows are the inflows and outflows of cash from acquiring and selling investments, property, plant, and equipment, as well as from lending money and collecting on loans. Continued
  37. 37. 37 Statement of Cash Flows The elements of a statement of cash flows are:  Financing cash flows are the inflows and outflows of cash from obtaining resources from owners and paying them dividends, as well as obtaining and repaying resources from creditors on long-term credit.
  38. 38. 38 Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity summarizes the changes in a company’s equity for a period of time.
  39. 39. 39 Statement of Changes in Equity A statement of changes in equity contains two elements:  Investments by owners are increases in the equity of a company resulting from transfers of something valuable to the company in order to obtain or increase ownership interests.  Distribution to owners are decreases in the equity of a company caused by transferring assets, rendering services, or incurring liabilities.
  40. 40. 40 Model of Business Reporting Framework of the Model 1. Financial and nonfinancial data 2. Management’s analysis of the financial and nonfinancial data 3. Forward-looking information 4. Information about management and shareholders 5. Background about the company
  41. 41. 41 IASB Framework The IASB Framework is designed: 1. To help the Board in developing future International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and reviewing existing standards. 2. To promote the harmonization of regulations, accounting standards, and accounting procedures regarding the preparation of financial statements.
  42. 42. 42 IASB Framework  In 2004, the FASB and the IASB added to their respective convergence agendas a project to develop a common conceptual framework.  In addition to promoting international harmonization of future accounting standards, the result of this joint project should provide a more consistent and unified set of concepts that will result in accounting standards that are principles based.
  43. 43. 43 FASB and IASB As part of their convergence project, the FASB and IASB are working on a joint project to develop a common Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. The Boards continue to feel that financial reporting should be general purpose, should be useful in assessing a company’s future cash flows, and should provide information about a company’s resources, claims to those resources, and changes in these items using accrual accounting.
  44. 44. 44 Chapter 2 Task Force Image Gallery clip art included in this electronic presentation is used with the permission of NVTech Inc.

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