Chapter 1

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  • 1. On the topic, “Challenges Facing Financial Accounting,” what did the AICPA Special Committee on Financial Reporting suggest should be included in future financial statements? Non-financial Measurements (customer satisfaction indexes, backlog information, and reject rates on goods purchases). Forward-looking Information Soft Assets (a company’s know-how, market dominance, marketing setup, well-trained employees, and brand image). Timeliness (no real time financial information)
  • Question 1 (textbook) Yes, this is correct. Virtually every organization and person in our society uses accounting information. Businesses, investors, creditors, government agencies, and not-for-profit organizations must use accounting information to operate effectively.
  • Question 18 (Chapter 1) No, this treatment is not proper. While the transactions does involve a receipt of cash, it does not represent revenues. Revenues are the gross increase in stockholders’ equity resulting from business activities entered into for the purpose of earning income. This transactions is simply an additional investment made by a stockholder of the business.
  • Question 19 (textbook) Y e s . Net income does appear on the income statement — it is the result of subtracting expenses from revenues. In addition, net income appears in the statement of retained earnings—it is shown as an addition to the beginning retained earnings. Indirectly, the net income of a company is also included in the balance sheet. It is included in the retained earnings account which appears in the stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet.
  • Chapter 1

    1. 1. <ul><li>Explain what accounting is. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the users and uses of accounting. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. </li></ul><ul><li>State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. </li></ul>Study Objectives
    2. 2. <ul><li>Accounting In Action </li></ul>Financial Accounting, Sixth Edition Chapter 1
    3. 3. Accounting in Action <ul><li>Ethics in financial reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Generally accepted accounting principles </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul>What is Accounting? The Building Blocks of Accounting The Basic Accounting Equation Using the Basic Accounting Equation Financial Statements <ul><li>Three activities </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses accounting data </li></ul><ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholders' equity </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Income statement </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of retained earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of cash flows </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is Accounting? SO 1 Explain what accounting is. <ul><li>The purpose of accounting is to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify , record , and communicate the economic events of an </li></ul><ul><li>organization to </li></ul><ul><li>interested users. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is Accounting? Three Activities SO 1 Explain what accounting is. Illustration 1-1 Accounting process The accounting process includes the bookkeeping function.
    6. 6. Who Uses Accounting Data? Management Common Questions Human Resources IRS Labor Unions SEC Marketing Finance Investors Creditors SO 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting. Customers Internal Users External Users
    7. 7. <ul><li>Common Questions Asked </li></ul>Who Uses Accounting Data? User 1. Can we afford to give our employees a pay raise? Human Resources 2. Did the company earn a satisfactory income? 3. Do we need to borrow in the near future? 4. Is cash sufficient to pay dividends to the stockholders? 5. What price for our product will maximize net income? SO 2 Identify the users and uses of accounting. 6. Will the company be able to pay its short-term debts? Investors Management Finance Marketing Creditors
    8. 8. Who Uses Accounting Data? Discussion Question SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept . Q1 . “Accounting is ingrained in our society and it is vital to our economic system.” Do you agree? Explain. See notes page for discussion
    9. 9. The Building Blocks of Accounting Ethics In Financial Reporting SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept . <ul><li>Standards of conduct by which one’s actions are judged as right or wrong, honest or dishonest, fair or not fair, are Ethics . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent financial scandals include: Enron , WorldCom , HealthSouth , AIG , and others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective financial reporting depends on sound ethical behavior. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Ethics <ul><li>Ethics are the standards of conduct by which one's actions are judged as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>right or wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>honest or dishonest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fair or not fair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all of these options. </li></ul></ul>Review Question SO 3 Understand why ethics is a fundamental business concept .
    11. 11. The Building Blocks of Accounting Various users need financial information The accounting profession has attempted to develop a set of standards that are generally accepted and universally practiced. <ul><li>Financial Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Income Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Retained Earnings Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Note Disclosure </li></ul>Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle.
    12. 12. The Building Blocks of Accounting <ul><li>Organizations Involved in Standard Setting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) </li></ul></ul>SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle. http://www.fasb.org/ http://www.sec.gov/ http://www.iasb.org/
    13. 13. The Building Blocks of Accounting <ul><li>Cost Principle (Historical) – dictates that companies record assets at their cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported at cost when purchased and also over the time the asset is held. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost easily verified, whereas market value is often subjective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair value information may be more useful. </li></ul></ul>SO 4 Explain generally accepted accounting principles and the cost principle.
    14. 14. Assumptions <ul><li>Monetary Unit Assumption – include in the accounting records only transaction data that can be expressed in terms of money. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Entity Assumption – requires that activities of the entity be kept separate and distinct from the activities of its owner and all other economic entities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietorship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporation. </li></ul></ul>SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. Forms of Business Ownership
    15. 15. Forms of Business Ownership Proprietorship Partnership Corporation <ul><li>Owned by two or more persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Often retail and service-type businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Generally unlimited personal liability </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership divided into shares of stock </li></ul><ul><li>Separate legal entity organized under state corporation law </li></ul><ul><li>Limited liability </li></ul><ul><li>Generally owned by one person. </li></ul><ul><li>Often small service-type businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Owner receives any profits, suffers any losses, and is personally liable for all debts. </li></ul>SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption.
    16. 16. Assumptions <ul><li>Combining the activities of Kellogg and General Mills would violate the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cost principle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic entity assumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monetary unit assumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethics principle. </li></ul></ul>SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. Review Question
    17. 17. Forms of Business Ownership <ul><li>A business organized as a separate legal entity under state law having ownership divided into shares of stock is a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proprietorship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>partnership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sole proprietorship. </li></ul></ul>SO 5 Explain the monetary unit assumption and the economic entity assumption. Review Question
    18. 18. The Basic Accounting Equation Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity = + Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. Assets are claimed by either creditors or owners. Claims of creditors must be paid before ownership claims. SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    19. 19. The Basic Accounting Equation Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. <ul><ul><li>Resources a business owns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide future services or benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash, Supplies, Equipment, etc. </li></ul></ul>Assets Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity = + SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    20. 20. The Basic Accounting Equation Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. <ul><ul><li>Claims against assets (debts and obligations). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creditors - party to whom money is owed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts payable, Notes payable, etc. </li></ul></ul>Liabilities Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity = + SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    21. 21. The Basic Accounting Equation Provides the underlying framework for recording and summarizing economic events. <ul><ul><li>Ownership claim on total assets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as residual equity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid-in Capital, Retained Earnings (Corporation). </li></ul></ul>Stockholders’ Equity Assets Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity = + SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    22. 22. Stockholders’ Equity Revenues result from business activities entered into for the purpose of earning income. Common sources of revenue are: sales, fees, services, commissions, interest, dividends, royalties, and rent. Illustration 1-6 SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    23. 23. Stockholders’ Equity Expenses are the cost of assets consumed or services used in the process of earning revenue. Common expenses are: salaries expense, rent expense, utilities expense, tax expense, etc. Illustration 1-6 SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    24. 24. Stockholders’ Equity Dividends are the distribution of cash or other assets to stockholders. Dividends reduce retained earnings, however dividends are not an expense. Illustration 1-6 SO 6 State the accounting equation, and define assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity.
    25. 25. Using The Basic Accounting Equation <ul><li>Transactions are a business’s economic events recorded by accountants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be external or internal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all activities represent transactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each transaction has a dual effect on the accounting equation. </li></ul></ul>SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.
    26. 26. Transactions Question: Are the following events recorded in the accounting records? Event Supplies are purchased on account. Criterion Is the financial position (assets, liabilities, or stockholders’ equity) of the company changed? SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. An employee is hired. Dividends are paid to stockholders’. Record/ Don’t Record
    27. 27. Transactions Discussion Question Q18 . In February 2008, Paula King invested an additional $10,000 in Hardy Company. Hardy’s accountant, Lance Jones, recorded this receipt as an increase in cash and revenues. Is this treatment appropriate? Why or why not? See notes page for discussion SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation.
    28. 28. Transactions (Problem) Stockholders’ Equity P1-1A: Barone’s Repair Shop was started on May. Prepare a tabular analysis of the following transactions for the month of May. +10,000 1. +10,000 Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. + + = + 1. Stockholders invested $10,000 cash to start the repair shop. Investment Assets Liabilities
    29. 29. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. 2. Purchased equipment for $5,000 cash. -5,000 2. +5,000 Investment Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities
    30. 30. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. 3. Paid $400 cash for May office rent. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings Expense +
    31. 31. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 4. Received $5,100 from customers for repair service. Revenue +
    32. 32. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 5. Paid dividends of $1,000 cash. -1,000 5. -1,000 +
    33. 33. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 -1,000 5. -1,000 6. Paid part-time employee salaries of $2,000. -2,000 6. -2,000 Expense +
    34. 34. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 -1,000 5. -1,000 -2,000 6. -2,000 Expense 7. Incurred $250 of advertising costs, on account. +250 -250 7. +
    35. 35. Transactions (Problem) +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 -1,000 5. -1,000 -2,000 6. -2,000 Revenue +250 -250 7. 8. Provided repair services on account to customers $750. +750 8. +750 +
    36. 36. Transactions (Problem) 6,820 + 630 + 5,000 = 250 + 10,000 + 2,200 +10,000 1. +10,000 SO 7 Analyze the effects of business transactions on the accounting equation. -5,000 2. +5,000 -400 3. -400 Stockholders’ Equity Cash Accounts Receivable Equipment Accounts Payable Common Stock + + = + Assets Liabilities Retained Earnings +5,100 4. +5,100 -1,000 5. -1,000 -2,000 6. -2,000 +250 -250 7. +750 8. +750 9. Collected $120 cash for services previously billed. +120 9. -120 +
    37. 37. Financial Statements Companies prepare four financial statements from the summarized accounting data: Balance Sheet Income Statement Statement of Cash Flows Retained Earnings Statement SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.
    38. 38. Financial Statements <ul><li>Net income will result during a time period when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assets exceed liabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assets exceed revenues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expenses exceed revenues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revenues exceed expenses. </li></ul></ul>SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Review Question
    39. 39. Financial Statements Income Statement SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. <ul><li>Reports the revenues and expenses for a specific period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Net income – revenues exceed expenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Net loss – expenses exceed revenues. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Financial Statements Income Statement SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Retained Earnings Statement Net income is needed to determine the ending balance in retained earnings.
    41. 41. Financial Statements SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Retained Earnings Statement <ul><li>Statement indicates the reasons why retained earnings has increased or decreased during the period. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Financial Statements SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Balance Sheet Retained Earnings Statement The ending balance in retained earnings is needed in preparing the balance sheet.
    43. 43. Financial Statements SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. <ul><li>Reports the assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity at a specific date. </li></ul><ul><li>Assets listed at the top, followed by liabilities and stockholders’ equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Total assets must equal total liabilities and stockholders’ equity. </li></ul>Balance Sheet
    44. 44. Financial Statements SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Statement of Cash Flows Balance Sheet
    45. 45. Financial Statements SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Statement of Cash Flows <ul><li>Information for a specific period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Where did cash come from? </li></ul><ul><li>What was cash used for? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the change in the cash balance? </li></ul>
    46. 46. Financial Statements <ul><li>Which of the following financial statements is prepared as of a specific date? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance sheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of stockholders’ equity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of cash flows. </li></ul></ul>SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared. Review Question
    47. 47. Financial Statements Discussion Question Q19 . “A company’s net income appears directly on the income statement and the retained earnings statement, and it is included indirectly in the company’s balance sheet.” Do you agree? Explain. See notes page for discussion SO 8 Understand the four financial statements and how they are prepared.
    48. 48. All About You Ethics: Managing Personal Financial Reporting When students need money for school, they often apply for financial aid. Why do the Department of Education and your school want this information? Bottom line : The worse off you look financially, the more likely you are to get money. Question : Should you intentionally make yourself look worse off than you are?
    49. 49. All About You <ul><li>Some Facts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After adjusting for inflation, private-college tuition and fees have increased 37% over the past decade; public-college tuition has risen 54%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-thirds (65.6%) of undergraduate students graduate with some debt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Among graduating seniors, the average debt load is $19,202. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. All About You Source: College Board, Princeton Review , as reported in “College Admissions: Is Gate Open or Closed?,” Wall Street Journal , March 25, 2006, p. A7.
    51. 51. All About You To increase your chances of receiving aid, should you use available cash to pay off your credit card bills, and therefore make yourself look “worse off” to the financial aid decision makers? What Do You Think? YES: You are simply restructuring your assets and liabilities to best conform with the preferences that are built into the federal aid formulas. NO: You are taking advantage of a loophole in the federal aid rules and potentially depriving someone who is actually worse off than you from receiving aid.
    52. 52. Copyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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