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9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
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9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1

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    9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Presentation Transcript

    • 9 th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Pgs. 224-235 For student Use Only
    • Minerals
      • Study of Minerals
        • Minerals: inorganic (non-living) crystalline substances found naturally in the earth
          • Building blocks of soil
          • Vital to industry and society
          • Mineralogy is the study of minerals
        • Composition of Minerals:
          • Are NOT mixtures, but are elements or compounds with definite chemical structure
    • Minerals
      • Composition of Minerals:
        • Most common element in minerals: Oxygen (47%)
        • 2 nd most common element: Silicon (28%)
        • 3 rd most common element: Aluminum (3%)
        • Oceans contain minerals too
          • Sodium Chloride
          • Calcium Carbonate
    • Minerals
      • Types of Minerals:
        • Native Elements: substances that exist as a single naturally in the earth’s crust as a single, uncombined element
        • Halides: Compounds containing the halogens
        • Sulfides: minerals that contain sulfur (pyrite- fool’s gold is a sulfide)
    • Minerals
      • Types of Minerals:
        • Oxides: elements that contain oxygen
        • Carbonates: elements that contain carbonate ion
        • Silicates: largest group (92%) contain silicon
          • Ex. Quartz
          • Used for glass, computer chips, and silicone rubber
        • Structures of Minerals:
          • All minerals form crystals
    • Minerals
      • Structure of Minerals:
        • Crystal structure= geometric structures arranged by repeating three-dimensional patterns
        • Crystals- flat surfaces (called faces and defined edges)
        • Crystals of certain minerals have certain shapes
          • This is used in mineral identification
        • See page 227
    • Minerals
      • Identifying Minerals:
        • Surface color: some minerals have definitive color, some do not (can be changed by impurities)
        • Streak Color: some minerals leave distinctive marks on unglazed porcelain (powder left as mineral scrapes over plate)
        • Luster: the way light reflects off the surface of the mineral
    • Minerals
      • Identifying Minerals:
        • Hardness: the resistance to being scratched (use Mohs scale to determine level)
        • Cleavage: where the mineral will break repeatedly
          • Conchoidal Fracture- when broken looks like a smooth curved fracture
        • Specefic gravity: Minerals have different densities as compared to water
    • Minerals
      • Identifying Minerals:
        • Acid Test: carbonates and sulfides react when HCl is dropped on their surface
        • Special Properties:
          • Magnetic- some minerals are magnetic
          • Taste- some minerals have a taste (not the first method of ID)
          • Fluoresce- glow when exposed to UV light
          • Phosphorescent- glow after being exposed to UV light
          • Radioactivity- some minerals are radioactive
    • Minerals
      • Valuable Minerals:
        • Minerals can be mined and used by humans.
          • Used for:
            • Metals
            • Concrete
            • Jewelry
            • Works of Art
    • Minerals
      • Valuable Minerals:
        • Metals: Used for many substances
          • Ore- any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element
          • Other- copper, Iron, Aluminum, Nickel, Zinc, lead, tin, Uranium (fuel for reactors)
          • Precious Metals- Gold, Silver, Platinum
    • Minerals
      • Valuable Minerals:
        • Precious Stones- (rare, valuable)
          • Diamonds (hardest substance known to man), ruby, Corundum, sapphire, emerald, aquamarine
        • Semi-Precious Stones- (not as rare or as valuable)
          • Red Spinel, amethyst, zircon, tourmaline, opal, lapis lazuli, turquoise, chalcedony, jade