Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1


Published on

For Student Use Only

For Student Use Only

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Pgs. 224-235 For student Use Only
  • 2. Minerals
    • Study of Minerals
      • Minerals: inorganic (non-living) crystalline substances found naturally in the earth
        • Building blocks of soil
        • Vital to industry and society
        • Mineralogy is the study of minerals
      • Composition of Minerals:
        • Are NOT mixtures, but are elements or compounds with definite chemical structure
  • 3. Minerals
    • Composition of Minerals:
      • Most common element in minerals: Oxygen (47%)
      • 2 nd most common element: Silicon (28%)
      • 3 rd most common element: Aluminum (3%)
      • Oceans contain minerals too
        • Sodium Chloride
        • Calcium Carbonate
  • 4. Minerals
    • Types of Minerals:
      • Native Elements: substances that exist as a single naturally in the earth’s crust as a single, uncombined element
      • Halides: Compounds containing the halogens
      • Sulfides: minerals that contain sulfur (pyrite- fool’s gold is a sulfide)
  • 5. Minerals
    • Types of Minerals:
      • Oxides: elements that contain oxygen
      • Carbonates: elements that contain carbonate ion
      • Silicates: largest group (92%) contain silicon
        • Ex. Quartz
        • Used for glass, computer chips, and silicone rubber
      • Structures of Minerals:
        • All minerals form crystals
  • 6. Minerals
    • Structure of Minerals:
      • Crystal structure= geometric structures arranged by repeating three-dimensional patterns
      • Crystals- flat surfaces (called faces and defined edges)
      • Crystals of certain minerals have certain shapes
        • This is used in mineral identification
      • See page 227
  • 7. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Surface color: some minerals have definitive color, some do not (can be changed by impurities)
      • Streak Color: some minerals leave distinctive marks on unglazed porcelain (powder left as mineral scrapes over plate)
      • Luster: the way light reflects off the surface of the mineral
  • 8. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Hardness: the resistance to being scratched (use Mohs scale to determine level)
      • Cleavage: where the mineral will break repeatedly
        • Conchoidal Fracture- when broken looks like a smooth curved fracture
      • Specefic gravity: Minerals have different densities as compared to water
  • 9. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Acid Test: carbonates and sulfides react when HCl is dropped on their surface
      • Special Properties:
        • Magnetic- some minerals are magnetic
        • Taste- some minerals have a taste (not the first method of ID)
        • Fluoresce- glow when exposed to UV light
        • Phosphorescent- glow after being exposed to UV light
        • Radioactivity- some minerals are radioactive
  • 10. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Minerals can be mined and used by humans.
        • Used for:
          • Metals
          • Concrete
          • Jewelry
          • Works of Art
  • 11. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Metals: Used for many substances
        • Ore- any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element
        • Other- copper, Iron, Aluminum, Nickel, Zinc, lead, tin, Uranium (fuel for reactors)
        • Precious Metals- Gold, Silver, Platinum
  • 12. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Precious Stones- (rare, valuable)
        • Diamonds (hardest substance known to man), ruby, Corundum, sapphire, emerald, aquamarine
      • Semi-Precious Stones- (not as rare or as valuable)
        • Red Spinel, amethyst, zircon, tourmaline, opal, lapis lazuli, turquoise, chalcedony, jade