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9th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1
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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Pgs. 224-235 For student Use Only
  • 2. Minerals
    • Study of Minerals
      • Minerals: inorganic (non-living) crystalline substances found naturally in the earth
        • Building blocks of soil
        • Vital to industry and society
        • Mineralogy is the study of minerals
      • Composition of Minerals:
        • Are NOT mixtures, but are elements or compounds with definite chemical structure
  • 3. Minerals
    • Composition of Minerals:
      • Most common element in minerals: Oxygen (47%)
      • 2 nd most common element: Silicon (28%)
      • 3 rd most common element: Aluminum (3%)
      • Oceans contain minerals too
        • Sodium Chloride
        • Calcium Carbonate
  • 4. Minerals
    • Types of Minerals:
      • Native Elements: substances that exist as a single naturally in the earth’s crust as a single, uncombined element
      • Halides: Compounds containing the halogens
      • Sulfides: minerals that contain sulfur (pyrite- fool’s gold is a sulfide)
  • 5. Minerals
    • Types of Minerals:
      • Oxides: elements that contain oxygen
      • Carbonates: elements that contain carbonate ion
      • Silicates: largest group (92%) contain silicon
        • Ex. Quartz
        • Used for glass, computer chips, and silicone rubber
      • Structures of Minerals:
        • All minerals form crystals
  • 6. Minerals
    • Structure of Minerals:
      • Crystal structure= geometric structures arranged by repeating three-dimensional patterns
      • Crystals- flat surfaces (called faces and defined edges)
      • Crystals of certain minerals have certain shapes
        • This is used in mineral identification
      • See page 227
  • 7. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Surface color: some minerals have definitive color, some do not (can be changed by impurities)
      • Streak Color: some minerals leave distinctive marks on unglazed porcelain (powder left as mineral scrapes over plate)
      • Luster: the way light reflects off the surface of the mineral
  • 8. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Hardness: the resistance to being scratched (use Mohs scale to determine level)
      • Cleavage: where the mineral will break repeatedly
        • Conchoidal Fracture- when broken looks like a smooth curved fracture
      • Specefic gravity: Minerals have different densities as compared to water
  • 9. Minerals
    • Identifying Minerals:
      • Acid Test: carbonates and sulfides react when HCl is dropped on their surface
      • Special Properties:
        • Magnetic- some minerals are magnetic
        • Taste- some minerals have a taste (not the first method of ID)
        • Fluoresce- glow when exposed to UV light
        • Phosphorescent- glow after being exposed to UV light
        • Radioactivity- some minerals are radioactive
  • 10. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Minerals can be mined and used by humans.
        • Used for:
          • Metals
          • Concrete
          • Jewelry
          • Works of Art
  • 11. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Metals: Used for many substances
        • Ore- any mineral that contains a valuable metallic element
        • Other- copper, Iron, Aluminum, Nickel, Zinc, lead, tin, Uranium (fuel for reactors)
        • Precious Metals- Gold, Silver, Platinum
  • 12. Minerals
    • Valuable Minerals:
      • Precious Stones- (rare, valuable)
        • Diamonds (hardest substance known to man), ruby, Corundum, sapphire, emerald, aquamarine
      • Semi-Precious Stones- (not as rare or as valuable)
        • Red Spinel, amethyst, zircon, tourmaline, opal, lapis lazuli, turquoise, chalcedony, jade