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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3
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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3



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    9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3 9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Presentation Transcript

    • 9 th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Pgs. 213-223 For student Use Only
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcano:
        • Most violent naturally occuring disaster
        • God also can control the volcano
      • Volcano Structure:
        • Volcano- opening in earth’s surface where gases, ash, and molten rock are ejected
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcano:
        • Parts of the Volcano:
          • Vent: central channel
          • Magma: magma is molten rock lies below the surface
          • Cone: dust, ash, and magma can make a conical-shaped mountain
          • Crater: bowl-shaped depression that surrounds the vent
    • Volcanoes
      • Types of Volcanoes:
        • Cinder-Cone: composed of volcanic ash and rock fragments (cinders)
        • Shield: Larger, flatter volcanoes made from runny lava
        • Composite: Composed of layers of cinders and lava
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcanic Activity:
        • Active: Erupted in last 50 years
        • Dormant: has not erupted in many years
        • Extinct: A volcano that will PROBABLY not erupt again
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcano Location:
        • Three main belts (like three main earthquake belts:
          • 1. Ring of Fire- 25% of Earth’s 850 Active volcanoes are there
          • 2. Mediterranean Trans-Asiatic- (Europe to Asia)
          • 3. Mid-Ocean Ridges- mid-ocean
          • ALSO- Some volcanoes are in West Indies and African Rift Valley
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcano Eruptions:
        • Violent eruptions- more powerful than an atomic bombs
      • Signs of Eruptions:
        • 1. Swelling, Bulging in part of volcano (due to magma and gasses)
        • 2. Minor Earthquakes begin
        • 3. Explosion of Gas, Dust, and Steam
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcano Eruptions:
        • Huge rock pieces get thrown into the air
        • Lava can erupt violently or dribble out
          • Depends on
            • Viscosity: viscosity (how it flows)
            • Amount of gas in magma
        • Sometimes (like Nevado De Ruiz) huge mud flows can accompany eruption
    • Volcanoes
      • Solid Ejecta:
        • Pyroclasts: solid particles or blocks of rock
        • Volcanic Ash: pyroclast that is less than 4 mm
        • Cinders: pyroclast that is less than 32mm but more than 4mm
        • Volcanic blocks: solid, irregular lumps of lava
        • Volcanic bombs: lava that is thrown high in the air
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcanic Ejecta:
        • Fiery Blasts:
          • Lava is not usually very fast
          • Super heated gas and Incandescent ash are very dangerous
          • Superheated gas can blow as fast as the wind
          • Nuee Ardente: heated gas and volcanic ash act as an avalanche (glowing avalanche) (Mt. Pelee)
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcanic Structures:
        • Calderas- sunk in hole- bowl shaped surface of crater
        • Tunnels- lava hardens on top and then continues to flow under the surface
    • Volcanoes
      • Volcanic Intrusions:
        • Igneous Intrusion: Magma rock forces up surface of earth
        • Dike: Vertical sheet of magma that hardens in a vertical fissure
        • Sill: horizontal sheet of magma
        • Laccolith: magma rock pushes surrounding surface up
        • Batholith: large magma rock deposit