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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3
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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3

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For Student Use Only

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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 3 Pgs. 213-223 For student Use Only
  • 2. Volcanoes
    • Volcano:
      • Most violent naturally occuring disaster
      • God also can control the volcano
    • Volcano Structure:
      • Volcano- opening in earth’s surface where gases, ash, and molten rock are ejected
  • 3. Volcanoes
    • Volcano:
      • Parts of the Volcano:
        • Vent: central channel
        • Magma: magma is molten rock lies below the surface
        • Cone: dust, ash, and magma can make a conical-shaped mountain
        • Crater: bowl-shaped depression that surrounds the vent
  • 4. Volcanoes
    • Types of Volcanoes:
      • Cinder-Cone: composed of volcanic ash and rock fragments (cinders)
      • Shield: Larger, flatter volcanoes made from runny lava
      • Composite: Composed of layers of cinders and lava
  • 5. Volcanoes
    • Volcanic Activity:
      • Active: Erupted in last 50 years
      • Dormant: has not erupted in many years
      • Extinct: A volcano that will PROBABLY not erupt again
  • 6. Volcanoes
    • Volcano Location:
      • Three main belts (like three main earthquake belts:
        • 1. Ring of Fire- 25% of Earth’s 850 Active volcanoes are there
        • 2. Mediterranean Trans-Asiatic- (Europe to Asia)
        • 3. Mid-Ocean Ridges- mid-ocean
        • ALSO- Some volcanoes are in West Indies and African Rift Valley
  • 7. Volcanoes
    • Volcano Eruptions:
      • Violent eruptions- more powerful than an atomic bombs
    • Signs of Eruptions:
      • 1. Swelling, Bulging in part of volcano (due to magma and gasses)
      • 2. Minor Earthquakes begin
      • 3. Explosion of Gas, Dust, and Steam
  • 8. Volcanoes
    • Volcano Eruptions:
      • Huge rock pieces get thrown into the air
      • Lava can erupt violently or dribble out
        • Depends on
          • Viscosity: viscosity (how it flows)
          • Amount of gas in magma
      • Sometimes (like Nevado De Ruiz) huge mud flows can accompany eruption
  • 9. Volcanoes
    • Solid Ejecta:
      • Pyroclasts: solid particles or blocks of rock
      • Volcanic Ash: pyroclast that is less than 4 mm
      • Cinders: pyroclast that is less than 32mm but more than 4mm
      • Volcanic blocks: solid, irregular lumps of lava
      • Volcanic bombs: lava that is thrown high in the air
  • 10. Volcanoes
    • Volcanic Ejecta:
      • Fiery Blasts:
        • Lava is not usually very fast
        • Super heated gas and Incandescent ash are very dangerous
        • Superheated gas can blow as fast as the wind
        • Nuee Ardente: heated gas and volcanic ash act as an avalanche (glowing avalanche) (Mt. Pelee)
  • 11. Volcanoes
    • Volcanic Structures:
      • Calderas- sunk in hole- bowl shaped surface of crater
      • Tunnels- lava hardens on top and then continues to flow under the surface
  • 12. Volcanoes
    • Volcanic Intrusions:
      • Igneous Intrusion: Magma rock forces up surface of earth
      • Dike: Vertical sheet of magma that hardens in a vertical fissure
      • Sill: horizontal sheet of magma
      • Laccolith: magma rock pushes surrounding surface up
      • Batholith: large magma rock deposit

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