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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1
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9th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1


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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 8 Lesson 1 Pgs. 193-202 For student Use Only
  • 2. Geology
    • Geology is the study of the earth.
      • It covers:
        • Earth’s structure
        • Earth’s features
        • Earthquakes
        • Volcanoes
        • Erosion
        • Fossils
  • 3. Geology
    • Earth is made of three layers:
      • Crust
      • Mantle
      • Core
  • 4. Geology
    • Crust:
      • The Earth’s outer layer of rock
      • Only layer that has been explained and drilled
      • Average 22 mi (35 km) thick
      • Thickest beneath mountain ranges
      • Thinner beneath the oceans
      • Continental and Oceanic crust are the two types of crust
  • 5. Geology
    • Oceanic and Continental crust are made of two different types of rock.
    • Continental Crust
      • Granite (made of Silica and Alumina)
    • Oceanic Crust
      • Basalt (made of Silica and magnesium)
  • 6. Geology
    • Crust is covered with thin layer of soil and sediments
      • Sediments are usually laid down by water
      • Some areas the sedimentary rock has been eroded
    • Composition of crust:
      • Oxygen- most abundant
      • Silicon- 2 nd most abundant
      • Al and Fe other portion
      • Carbon and Hydrogen are less than 0.2%
  • 7. Geology
    • The Mantle
      • Earth’s Middle Layer
      • All information about this layer is from seismic waves
      • Andrija Mohorovicic- discovered that waves travel differently through different materials
        • Moho discontinuity= marks lower layer of crust beginning of mantle
      • Thought to be composed of mostly oxygen, silicon, iron, and magnesium
  • 8. Geology
    • Mantle:
      • Upper Mantle- Moho down to transition, lowest density, solid syurpy rock called plastic flow (due to high heat and pressure)
      • Transition zone- next layer- higher density, higher temperature
      • Lower Mantle- convection currents start deep in earth
  • 9. Geology
    • Earth’s Core
      • Gutenberg discontinuity marks mantle from outer core
      • Core lies from bottom of mantle all the way to center of the earth
      • Core is divided into layers
        • Outer Core
        • Inner Core
      • Core is extremely dense
  • 10. Geology
    • Plates
      • Plates are broken pieces of crust that float on the asthenosphere (upper mantle)
      • There are 7 larger plates
        • North American Plate
        • Pacific Plate
        • Eurasian Plate
        • African Plate
        • Antarctic plate
        • Indo-Australian Plate
        • South American Plate
  • 11. Geology
    • Plates
      • Make up the lithosphere- crust and upper mantle
    • Plate Tectonic Theory:
      • Convection currents in the lithosphere move plates
      • Pangea was first introduced by Sir Francis Bacon
        • This can be believed from a Christian standpoint
  • 12. Geology
    • Earth’s Crust’s Movement
      • Faults: area where the rock fracture and move
        • Earthquakes happen along fault lines
      • Three main types of faults
        • Normal fault: rocks sink up and down (vertically)
        • Strike-slip fault: rocks move side to side
        • Thrust fault: rocks on one side are thrust over the other side
  • 13. Geology
    • Folds:
      • A fold is formed when the rocks bend or buckle under great force
        • Syncline- bend down
        • Anticline- bend up
    • Mountains:
      • Classified by how they form
  • 14. Geology
    • Mountain Formation:
      • Volcanic Mountains
        • Formed when molten rock leaks from the surface
      • Domed mountains
        • Formed when molten rock is forces up under the crust
      • Folded mountains
        • Formed when two adjacent rock layers collide
      • Fault-block mountains
        • Formed where two rocks collide along a fault line