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9th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 3
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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 3 Pgs. 180-191 For Student Use Only
  • 2. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
  • 3. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Parts of the Cell:
      • Lysozome- recycles things in cell
      • Microtubles- transporation
      • Cytoplasm- gel and fuel refueling
      • E.R.- protein and lipid factory
      • Mitochondria- power plant
      • Golgi Apparatus- packs and ships
      • Vacuole- water and food storage
      • Nucleus- control center
  • 4. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Cell has 4 main compounds:
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Proteins
      • Nucleic Acids
  • 5. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Biochemistry- study of the chemistry of life
      • Life Processes that use Chemistry
        • Energy
        • Digestion
        • Thinking
  • 6. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Carbohydrates:
      • Energy producing compounds
        • Simple Sugars- (simple carbs) have up to 12 carbons
          • Have 3, 4, 5, or 6 atoms per molecule
        • Glucose- 6 carbon sugar
        • Fructose- (honey) 6 carbon sugar
  • 7. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Photosynthesis:
      • Uses sun to create glucose from CO 2 and H 2 O
        • Glucose= C 6 H 12 O 6
        • This is the ultimate food for most living things
  • 8. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Complex Sugars:
      • Disaccharides: 2 sugars- Fructose + Glucose= Sucrose (table sugar)- C 12 H 22 O 11
      • Polysaccharides: many sugars
        • Starches: found in plants
        • Glucogen: found in humans and animals
        • Cellulose: building sugar in plants
  • 9. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Lipids:
      • Chains of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • Types of Lipids
      • Fatty Acid- has a carboxylic acid at the end
      • Fats- large molecule- three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
      • Oils- fats that are liquids at room temperature
  • 10. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Types of Fats:
      • Saturated Fats: animal fats and Carbons are connected to as many hydrogens as possible
      • Unsaturated Fats: not full of hydrogens
        • Monounsaturated: lacking one hydrogen
        • Polyunsaturated: contain linoleic acid
        • Hydrogenation- adding hydrogen to make oils thicker
  • 11. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Types of Lipids:
      • Choloesterol: used for horomones, bile, and vitamin D
        • Lipoproteins- cholesterol globs that are encased in a membrane of lipids and proteins
          • LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins
          • HDL- High Density Lipoproteins (better for you)
  • 12. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Proteins:
      • Complex molecules that build cells
      • Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and possibly other elements
      • Made of AMINO ACIDS
  • 13. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Proteins:
      • Compose most structures of the cell
      • Special proteins directly control the chemical activities in the cell
    • AMINO ACIDS:
      • Building blocks of proteins
  • 14. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • AMINO ACIDS:
      • They are 20 amino acids
        • Different combinations= different proteins
      • Some are found in the body
      • Some have to be eaten directly in food
  • 15. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Complete Proteins:
      • Have all essential amino acids
      • Found in meat, eggs, fish, milk and cheese
    • Incomplete Proteins:
      • Are missing essential amino acids
      • Found mostly in vegetables
  • 16. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Amino Acid:
      • Have central carbon bonded to (4):
        • 1 hydrogen
        • 1 amine group
        • 1 Carboxyol group
        • Something that distinguishes one amino acid from another
  • 17. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Fibrous Proteins:
      • Long (fairly) straight chains of amino acids
    • Globular Proteins:
      • Form into tight folds
      • Have intricate three dimensional shapes
  • 18. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Proteins:
      • Enzymes- initiate chemical reactions in the cell
      • Catalyst- speed up reactions but are not changed themselves, enzymes are biocatalysts
  • 19. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Nucleic Acids:
      • Most important proteins
        • Found in DNA and RNA
      • DNA:
        • Deoxyribonucleic Acid- plans for your body
  • 20. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Importance of DNA:
      • It is found in every cell of every living organism
      • Contains blueprint for every protein in the body
      • Directs constructions of new cells
      • Directs repair and putting together of new and old cells
      • It controls what traits you will pass on to your children
  • 21. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • DNA in Humans
      • 46 Chromosomes (23 pairs)
      • Found in cells nucleus
      • Found in a (ladder) double helix shape
        • Deoxyribose and Phospate backbone
        • Nitrogen Bases: Adenine, Quanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
      • Order of bases create genetic code
      • 3 bases create one amino acid and amino acids make proteins
      • Gene- one segment of DNA
  • 22. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • RNA:
      • Ribonucleic Acid:
        • Messenger
        • Carries DNA code where it needs to go
        • Is a single chain of the code
  • 23. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
    • Metabolism:
      • Glucose: most important carbohydrates
    • Cellular Respiration:
      • Takes place in Mitochondria
      • Glucose is broken down into energy, CO 2 and H 2 O
      • ATP: cells energy
        • Called Adenosine Triphosphate
      • Metabolism: uses food energy for body processes