9 th  Grade Chapter 7  Lesson 3 Pgs. 180-191 For Student Use Only
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Parts of the Cell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysozome- recycles things in cell </li><...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Cell has 4 main compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Biochemistry- study of the chemistry of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Processes...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Carbohydrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy producing compounds </li></ul></ul><u...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses sun to create glucose from CO 2  and H...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Complex Sugars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharides: 2 sugars- Fructose + Glucose...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Lipids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen </li></ul></...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Types of Fats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated Fats: animal fats and Carbons are ...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Types of Lipids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choloesterol: used for horomones, bile, an...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex molecules that build cells </li></ul></ul...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose most structures of the cell </li></ul></u...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>AMINO ACIDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are 20 amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Complete Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have all essential amino acids </li></ul...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Amino Acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have central carbon bonded to (4): </li></ul></...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Fibrous Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long (fairly) straight chains of amino ac...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes- initiate chemical reactions in the cell ...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Nucleic Acids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Importance of DNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is found in every cell of every livin...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>DNA in Humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46 Chromosomes (23 pairs) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>RNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Messe...
BioChemistry:  Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Metabolism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose: most important carbohydrates </li></ul...
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9th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 3

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9th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 3

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 3 Pgs. 180-191 For Student Use Only
  2. 2. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life
  3. 3. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Parts of the Cell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lysozome- recycles things in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubles- transporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm- gel and fuel refueling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.R.- protein and lipid factory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria- power plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi Apparatus- packs and ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuole- water and food storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus- control center </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Cell has 4 main compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Biochemistry- study of the chemistry of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Processes that use Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Carbohydrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy producing compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Sugars- (simple carbs) have up to 12 carbons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have 3, 4, 5, or 6 atoms per molecule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose- 6 carbon sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fructose- (honey) 6 carbon sugar </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses sun to create glucose from CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose= C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the ultimate food for most living things </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Complex Sugars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharides: 2 sugars- Fructose + Glucose= Sucrose (table sugar)- C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides: many sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starches: found in plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucogen: found in humans and animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose: building sugar in plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Lipids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acid- has a carboxylic acid at the end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats- large molecule- three fatty acids attached to a glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils- fats that are liquids at room temperature </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Types of Fats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated Fats: animal fats and Carbons are connected to as many hydrogens as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated Fats: not full of hydrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated: lacking one hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated: contain linoleic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogenation- adding hydrogen to make oils thicker </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Types of Lipids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choloesterol: used for horomones, bile, and vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins- cholesterol globs that are encased in a membrane of lipids and proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HDL- High Density Lipoproteins (better for you) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex molecules that build cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and possibly other elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of AMINO ACIDS </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose most structures of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special proteins directly control the chemical activities in the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AMINO ACIDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building blocks of proteins </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>AMINO ACIDS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are 20 amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different combinations= different proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are found in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have to be eaten directly in food </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Complete Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have all essential amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in meat, eggs, fish, milk and cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are missing essential amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found mostly in vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Amino Acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have central carbon bonded to (4): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 amine group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Carboxyol group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Something that distinguishes one amino acid from another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Fibrous Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long (fairly) straight chains of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globular Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form into tight folds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have intricate three dimensional shapes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Proteins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes- initiate chemical reactions in the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyst- speed up reactions but are not changed themselves, enzymes are biocatalysts </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Nucleic Acids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in DNA and RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid- plans for your body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Importance of DNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is found in every cell of every living organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains blueprint for every protein in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs constructions of new cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs repair and putting together of new and old cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It controls what traits you will pass on to your children </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>DNA in Humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46 Chromosomes (23 pairs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in cells nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in a (ladder) double helix shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose and Phospate backbone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Bases: Adenine, Quanine, Cytosine, and Thymine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of bases create genetic code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 bases create one amino acid and amino acids make proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene- one segment of DNA </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>RNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carries DNA code where it needs to go </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a single chain of the code </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. BioChemistry: Chemistry of Life <ul><li>Metabolism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose: most important carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular Respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is broken down into energy, CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP: cells energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Adenosine Triphosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism: uses food energy for body processes </li></ul></ul>

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