9th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 2

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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 7 Lesson 2 Pgs. 172-180 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Organic Chemistry
    • Life Chemistry
      • Organic chemistry is the study of living chemistry
      • Inorganic Chemistry is the study of non-living chemistry
        • Organic Chemistry deals with Carbon or carbon containing elements
  • 3. Uniqueness of Carbon
    • Why are we referred to as carbon-based life forms?
    • More elements are formed with carbon than any other elements
    • There are an estimated 5 million carbon compounds
  • 4. Carbon Notes
    • Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds
    • Carbon can bond to form several different shapes.
    • Carbon atoms may form single, double, or triple bonds
    • Carbon may form single or double bonds with atoms of many other elements
    • Carbon may form compounds that contain different structural arrangements and combinations with the same molecular formula (different shape, but same formula)
    • Notes from movie: “When Carbon Combines- Useful Carbon & Element of Life”
  • 5. Hydrocarbons
    • Movies Notes: Hydro-Carbons
    • Many organic compounds contain hydrogen and carbon
    • Hydrocarbons are combinations of hydrogen and carbon
    • Naming:
      • Single bond= -ane
      • Double bond= -ene
      • Triple bond= -yne
    • More naming rules:
      • Prefix tells number of carbons in chain
      • See chart pg. 173
  • 6. Hydrocarbons
    • Hydrocarbons:
      • Alkanes- single bonded carbons
      • Alkenes- have one or more double bonds
      • Alkynes- have one more triple bonds
      • Cyclic Hydrocarbons- found in a circle
      • Aromatic compounds- cyclic in shape but have pleasant smell (but can be posinous like benzene)
    • Movie notes: Elements of Chemistry: The element of life
  • 7. Substituted Hydrocarbons
    • Elements of Life: Function Groups
    • Substituted Hydrocarbons:
      • One or more hydrogens are replaced with something else.
      • Groups of atoms that replace the hydrogen is called a functional group
    • Types of Hydrocarbons:
      • Haloalkanes- hydrogen(s) is replaced with Halogen
      • Alcohols- hydrogen(s) is replaced with an –OH group
      • Carboxylic Acids- contains a COOH (carboxyl group), end in –oic
      • Esters- COO- replaces a hydrogen, end in -ate
  • 8. Other Hydrocarbons
    • Soap:
      • Has a long chain with polar and non-polar ends
      • Detergents- artificial soap that can work in “hard water”
    • Polymers:
      • Molecular chains (think slime lab) of monomers
      • Polymerization creates polymers (links monomers together)
    • Common Polymers:
      • Styrofoam (polystyrene)
      • PVC (polyvinylchloride)
      • Teflon (polytetrafluroethylene)
      • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • Movie Notes: