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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3



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    9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3 9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Pgs. 132-135 For Student Use Only
      • Valence Electrons:
        • The properties of elements depend on the number of electrons in the outer most shell.
          • The last shell never holds more than 8 (even if it can hold more)
          • 8 is the MAGIC NUMBER!
        • All atoms seek to have 8 electrons in the outer-most shell
        • The electrons in the outer most shell are known as valence electrons.
      • The Periodic Table:
        • Periodic table grouped so that atoms with similar properties are together.
          • Arranged according to atomic number
          • Arranged from left to right
          • Groups are numbered with Roman Numerals and are in columns
      • Types of Elements:
        • Alkali Metals
          • Very soft, very shiny metals with low melting points
          • Have only 1 electron in outer shell
          • Combine easily with other elements
          • Never appear naturally in pure form
        • Alkaline Earth Metals
          • Have two electrons in outer most shell
          • Harder and denser than alkali metals
          • Do not combine with other substances as readily
      • Transition Metals:
        • All groups ending in B (IB- VIIIB)
        • Have one or two electrons in outer most shell
        • Strong and hard
        • Copper and Gold have distinct colors
        • Some are very durable
      • Inner transition Metals:
        • 30 metals that are under main body of periodic table
        • They fit between IIIB and IVB
        • 2 electrons in outer most shells
        • Many are radioactive
      • Mixed Group:
        • Groups IIIA, IVA, and VA do not have special names
        • There are all kinds of elements mixed into this category
        • Group VIA does not have a special name
          • Can be called the chalcogens or oxygen family
        • Carbon, Oxygen, Silicon, tin, lead, and aluminum are found in this group
      • Halogens:
        • Group VIIA are known as halogens (salt formers)
        • Bond with group IA and IIA
        • Floruine and Chlorine have many uses
        • Bromine kills fungus in plants
        • Halogens help light bulbs last longer
      • Noble Gasses
        • Also called Inert Gases
        • Group VIIIA
        • Rarely react because they already have 8 electrons in outer shell
        • All gases are found in nature in pure states
        • Do not combine easily with other elements
        • Incandescent bulbs, runway lights, and neon signs use Noble Gases