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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3
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9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3

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For Student Use Only

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  • 1. Pgs. 132-135 For Student Use Only
  • 2. <ul><li>Valence Electrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The properties of elements depend on the number of electrons in the outer most shell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The last shell never holds more than 8 (even if it can hold more) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 is the MAGIC NUMBER! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All atoms seek to have 8 electrons in the outer-most shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The electrons in the outer most shell are known as valence electrons. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>The Periodic Table: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic table grouped so that atoms with similar properties are together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged according to atomic number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged from left to right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are numbered with Roman Numerals and are in columns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Types of Elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkali Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very soft, very shiny metals with low melting points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have only 1 electron in outer shell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine easily with other elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never appear naturally in pure form </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><ul><li>Alkaline Earth Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have two electrons in outer most shell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harder and denser than alkali metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not combine with other substances as readily </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Transition Metals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All groups ending in B (IB- VIIIB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have one or two electrons in outer most shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong and hard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper and Gold have distinct colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are very durable </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Inner transition Metals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 metals that are under main body of periodic table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They fit between IIIB and IVB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 electrons in outer most shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are radioactive </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Mixed Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups IIIA, IVA, and VA do not have special names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are all kinds of elements mixed into this category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group VIA does not have a special name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be called the chalcogens or oxygen family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon, Oxygen, Silicon, tin, lead, and aluminum are found in this group </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Halogens: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group VIIA are known as halogens (salt formers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond with group IA and IIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floruine and Chlorine have many uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine kills fungus in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halogens help light bulbs last longer </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Noble Gasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Inert Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group VIIIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely react because they already have 8 electrons in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All gases are found in nature in pure states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not combine easily with other elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent bulbs, runway lights, and neon signs use Noble Gases </li></ul></ul>

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