9th Grade Chapter 5 Lesson 3

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  • 1. Pgs. 132-135 For Student Use Only
  • 2.
    • Valence Electrons:
      • The properties of elements depend on the number of electrons in the outer most shell.
        • The last shell never holds more than 8 (even if it can hold more)
        • 8 is the MAGIC NUMBER!
      • All atoms seek to have 8 electrons in the outer-most shell
      • The electrons in the outer most shell are known as valence electrons.
  • 3.
    • The Periodic Table:
      • Periodic table grouped so that atoms with similar properties are together.
        • Arranged according to atomic number
        • Arranged from left to right
        • Groups are numbered with Roman Numerals and are in columns
  • 4.
    • Types of Elements:
      • Alkali Metals
        • Very soft, very shiny metals with low melting points
        • Have only 1 electron in outer shell
        • Combine easily with other elements
        • Never appear naturally in pure form
  • 5.
      • Alkaline Earth Metals
        • Have two electrons in outer most shell
        • Harder and denser than alkali metals
        • Do not combine with other substances as readily
  • 6.
    • Transition Metals:
      • All groups ending in B (IB- VIIIB)
      • Have one or two electrons in outer most shell
      • Strong and hard
      • Copper and Gold have distinct colors
      • Some are very durable
  • 7.
    • Inner transition Metals:
      • 30 metals that are under main body of periodic table
      • They fit between IIIB and IVB
      • 2 electrons in outer most shells
      • Many are radioactive
  • 8.
    • Mixed Group:
      • Groups IIIA, IVA, and VA do not have special names
      • There are all kinds of elements mixed into this category
      • Group VIA does not have a special name
        • Can be called the chalcogens or oxygen family
      • Carbon, Oxygen, Silicon, tin, lead, and aluminum are found in this group
  • 9.
    • Halogens:
      • Group VIIA are known as halogens (salt formers)
      • Bond with group IA and IIA
      • Floruine and Chlorine have many uses
      • Bromine kills fungus in plants
      • Halogens help light bulbs last longer
  • 10.
    • Noble Gasses
      • Also called Inert Gases
      • Group VIIIA
      • Rarely react because they already have 8 electrons in outer shell
      • All gases are found in nature in pure states
      • Do not combine easily with other elements
      • Incandescent bulbs, runway lights, and neon signs use Noble Gases