9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

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9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Pgs. 84-91 For Student Use Only
  2. 2. Oceanography <ul><li>Oceans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover 70% of the Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oceanography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of the Earth’s ocean and seas </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Oceanography <ul><li>Ocean Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water- 96.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt- 3.5% (of this 3.5%, 78% is common table salt- NaCl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium Sulfate, Calcium salts, Potassium Salts, Strontium Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubidium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arsenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen-vital to life in ocean </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Oceanography <ul><li>Salinity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The measure of the of dissolved substances in the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When water evaporates or freezes salinity increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When ice melts or rivers flow into ocean salinity decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average Salinity is 3.3% in Artic Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average Salinity is 4.1% in Artic ocean </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Oceanography <ul><li>Color: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans are clear, but reflect the color of the sky. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The color of the sea changes as light penetrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The deeper the ocean the bluer the water </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Oceanography <ul><li>Temperature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface temperature varies according to area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature also varies according to depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Themocline: the area where sun-warmed water meets deep, cold water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depth of thermocline varies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Oceanography <ul><li>Density: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Factors determine density: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity- more salt = higher density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature- cold water is more dense than hot water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denser water sinks </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Oceanography <ul><li>Pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Water exerts pressure on objects within it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water pressure increases rapidly as you descend through the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrostatic Pressure- measure of water pressure </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Oceanography <ul><li>Ice of the Seas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Ice- Ice formed in polar regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacier- thick sheet of ice and snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceberg- floating glacial ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice Shelf- glaciers that extend into the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icebergs extend below the surface of the water </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Oceanography <ul><li>Ocean Currents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Movements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean Currents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as: large streams of ocean water that flows as a unit, or below the surface, and, may be created by winds or differences in density </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Oceanography <ul><li>Surface Currents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Current: Water that flows horizontally along the surface of the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface currents go in circular motion due to Coriolis Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land also effects surface currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main water stream in the Atlantic ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep but thin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Oceanography <ul><li>Peru Current: (Humboldt Current) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold current that flows Northward along South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is slow and shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsurface Currents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents that flow beneath the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density Current- results from different density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbidity Current- mud or silt mixing with sea water </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Oceanography <ul><li>Upwellings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwelling: upward flow of water due to wind blowing warm air on the surface </li></ul></ul>

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