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9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1
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9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1



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9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 9th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 9 th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Pgs. 84-91 For Student Use Only
  • Oceanography
    • Oceans:
      • Cover 70% of the Earth’s surface
    • Oceanography:
      • The study of the Earth’s ocean and seas
  • Oceanography
    • Ocean Composition
      • Water- 96.5%
      • Salt- 3.5% (of this 3.5%, 78% is common table salt- NaCl)
        • Magnesium Sulfate, Calcium salts, Potassium Salts, Strontium Salts
      • Rubidium
      • Fluorine
      • Barium
      • Zinc
      • Arsenic
      • Silver
      • Gold
      • Oxygen-vital to life in ocean
  • Oceanography
    • Salinity:
      • The measure of the of dissolved substances in the ocean
      • When water evaporates or freezes salinity increases
      • When ice melts or rivers flow into ocean salinity decreases
        • Average Salinity is 3.3% in Artic Ocean
        • Average Salinity is 4.1% in Artic ocean
  • Oceanography
    • Color:
      • Oceans are clear, but reflect the color of the sky.
      • The color of the sea changes as light penetrates
      • The deeper the ocean the bluer the water
  • Oceanography
    • Temperature:
      • Surface temperature varies according to area
      • Temperature also varies according to depth
        • Themocline: the area where sun-warmed water meets deep, cold water
        • Depth of thermocline varies
  • Oceanography
    • Density:
      • 2 Factors determine density:
        • Salinity- more salt = higher density
        • Temperature- cold water is more dense than hot water
      • Denser water sinks
  • Oceanography
    • Pressure:
      • Sea Water exerts pressure on objects within it.
      • Water pressure increases rapidly as you descend through the water
      • Hydrostatic Pressure- measure of water pressure
  • Oceanography
    • Ice of the Seas:
      • Sea Ice- Ice formed in polar regions
      • Glacier- thick sheet of ice and snow
      • Iceberg- floating glacial ice
      • Ice Shelf- glaciers that extend into the ocean
      • Icebergs extend below the surface of the water
  • Oceanography
    • Ocean Currents:
      • Water Movements:
        • Ocean currents
        • Waves
        • Tides
      • Ocean Currents:
        • Defined as: large streams of ocean water that flows as a unit, or below the surface, and, may be created by winds or differences in density
  • Oceanography
    • Surface Currents:
      • Surface Current: Water that flows horizontally along the surface of the ocean
        • Surface currents go in circular motion due to Coriolis Effect
        • Land also effects surface currents
      • Gulf Stream:
        • Main water stream in the Atlantic ocean
        • Deep but thin
  • Oceanography
    • Peru Current: (Humboldt Current)
      • Cold current that flows Northward along South America
      • This is slow and shallow
    • Subsurface Currents:
      • Ocean currents that flow beneath the surface
      • Density Current- results from different density
      • Turbidity Current- mud or silt mixing with sea water
  • Oceanography
    • Upwellings
      • Upwelling: upward flow of water due to wind blowing warm air on the surface