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9th Grade Chapter 3 Lesson 4
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9th Grade Chapter 3 Lesson 4


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  • 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 3 Lesson 4 Pgs. 67-73 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Storms
    • Lightning:
      • Lightning- abrupt discharge of electricity through the air
        • Lightning occurs when large amount of static electricity build up in cumulonimbus clouds (perhaps because of friction between ice crystals)
        • The cloud has a different charge from the ground and opposite charges attract
          • Air insults the two charges (keeps them apart)
  • 3. Storms
    • Lightning:
      • Lightning
        • A stream of electrons (negative charged particles) goes from cloud to ground in a jerky pattern- this is called a stepped leader.
        • A positive stream of atoms reaches up to meet the stepped leader (usually from the tallest object around)
        • Return Stroke- (Positive and Negative meet)- electrons flow downward in a mighty current from cloud to ground
  • 4. Storms
    • Lightning:
      • Lightning releases massive amounts of electricity and heats the surrounding air
      • Thunder- is a result of lightning heating the air
        • Thunder- is the explosive shockwave of sound from the rapidly expanding air
  • 5. Storms
    • Lightning:
      • Types of Lightning:
        • Cloud to Ground Lightning: moves from cloud to ground
        • Cloud to Cloud Lightning: moves from cloud to cloud
        • Ground to Cloud Lightning: moves from ground to cloud
        • Heat Lightning: in summer when lightning from high altitude clouds is reflected over the horizon
        • Ball Lightning: rare phenomenon- incandescent sphere of electricity that floats in the air (not well understood)
        • Superbolt- Rare positive cloud to ground lightning
        • Hot Lightning: steady streams of electricity not a series of pulses (usually catches what it strikes on fire)
  • 6. Storms
    • Tornado:
      • Tornado- narrow funnel of rapidly whirling winds
        • Smallest but most violent storms
        • Make a distinctive roaring, hissing noise
      • Tornado Formation:
        • Tornado Alley- Mississippi Valley and Eastern Great Plains has the most tornadoes
        • Formed when: a low pressure system where a mass of cold dry air clashes with a mass of warm, moist air
  • 7. Storms:
    • Tornado Dangers:
      • The wind is the most dangerous thing in a tornado
      • Wind can be from 20 -150 mph
      • Tornadoes are unpredictable
    • Tornado Cousins
      • Waterspouts- tornado over water (weaker)
      • Dust Devil- small funnel-like winds (winds up to 45 mph)
  • 8. Storms
    • Hurricanes:
      • Hurricane- giant whirling storms accompanied by destructive winds, torrential rains, high waves and tides.
      • Winds can be 74-200 mph
        • Scientific Name for Hurricane:
          • Tropical Cyclone
  • 9. Storms
      • Other names for hurricanes:
        • Typhoons
        • Willy-Willies
        • Baguios
        • Cyclones
    • How Hurricanes Form:
      • Need 2 Things
        • Warm Oceans
        • Strong Coriolis
  • 10. Storms
    • Hurricanes
      • Start with tropical disturbance
        • Tropical Disturbance: a thunderstorm over a tropical sea
        • Tropical Depression: when enough warm air (“fuel”) has been added and the rotating winds reach a sustained 23 mph
        • Tropical Storm: when winds reach 39 mph (it is given a name at this point)
        • Hurricane- when winds reach 74 mph
  • 11. Storms
    • Hurricanes:
      • Categories:
        • 1= weakest
        • 2= weak
        • 3= This is a major hurricane
        • 4= Strong hurricane
        • 5= Strongest hurricane ever recorded
  • 12. Storms
    • Hurricane Structure:
      • Eye: Center of the hurricane- a region of low pressure
      • Eye Wall: the cylinder of thick whirling clouds and rain that surround the eye
      • Rain Bands: lines of thunderstorms at lower altitudes
  • 13. Storms
    • Hurricanes
      • Hurricanes stay strong if over water, but once they hit land they weaken
    • Dangers of Hurricane:
      • Winds
      • Floods- winds and low pressure push water towards land
      • Storm Surge- elevated water levels due to low pressure and winds