9th Grade Chapter 2 Lesson 3


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9th Grade Chapter 2 Lesson 3

  1. 1. 9 th Grade Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Pgs. 32-38 For Student Use Only
  2. 2. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>All energy in the atmosphere comes from the sun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All energy from the sun (except what is reflected back) is converted into Thermal Energy! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Energy= heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of heat absorbed on the surface of the Earth varies from place to place and time to time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a balance between heat collected and heat reflected </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Insolation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insolation- incoming Solar Energy/Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in watts per square inch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all energy reaches the earth, some is absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy skies can reduce insolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The length of day affects insolation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Insolation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Angle of Insolation (or angle of sun’s rays): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: the sun is lower and the sun’s rays have to cover a larger area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: the sun is higher in the sky and the rays are more concentrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s distance from the sun: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This affects insolation because of closeness or distance from sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perihelion- closest point (more insolation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aphelion- farthest point from the sun (less insolation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The energy that is not reflected into space becomes part of the earth’s energy budget. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Budget- The amount of energy available to heat the earth’s land, water and air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This energy circulates between land, air and water before it is reflected back to space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some energy goes back to space as it radiates from the earth into the atmosphere and out again. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Energy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although some energy is radiated back to space, most infrared energy (heat energy) from the sun and Earth’s surface is trapped inside the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This trapping of energy in the Earth’s atmosphere is referred to the Greenhouse Effect . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This “trapping” maintains Earth’s temperature. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Greenhouse Effect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This trapping of heat resembles what a greenhouse does for gardeners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in atmosphere let UV waves in but stop infrared (heat) waves from leaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This also causes the warmest part of the day to be well after noon (around 3pm over land and 5pm over sea). </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Insolation and Heating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water warms slowly and holds heat longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost ¾ of Earth is covered with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and land heat differently </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Earth’s Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is made of many different materials that heat differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land, Water, and Air heat differently. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Types of Heating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation- heat travels in electromagnetic waves. This requires NO medium to travel through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convection- Heat moving through air (or other fluid) as warm air rises and cool air sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction- Direct contact between 2 objects passes heat </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Heating and Wind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds are caused by a horizontal movement of air. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air moves because as warm air rises cooler air rushes in to take its place (convection currents) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Heat and Atmosphere <ul><li>Heating of Air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adiabatic Heating- the temperature of a gas increases as the gas is compressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adiabatic Cooling- the temperature of a gas lowers as it expands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: As a body of air rises its temperature drops (convection currents) </li></ul></ul>