8th Grade Chapter 6 Lesson 1

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  • 1. Pgs. 220-229 For Student Use Only
  • 2.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy:
      • Birds have a lightweight skeleton
        • Strong, hollow bones
        • Strong sternums (breastbones) which allow for wing muscles to attach
        • Have toothless bills make of keratin (think our fingernails)
        • Thin, flat headbones
  • 3.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Bones:
        • Humerus- short upper wing bone
        • Radius and ulna- long forearm (forewing)
        • Alula- retractable group of feathers on the front of the wing
      • Muscles:
        • We have no arm strength compared to a bird
        • Pectoral muscles are very strong in the chest
  • 4.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Muscles:
        • Pectorals compose 33% of weight
        • Pectorals raise and lower wings
          • Pectoralis Major- pulls wing down
          • Pectoralis minor- pulls wing up
          • This pectorial arrangement gives the birds center of gravity low
        • Center of gravity- gives birds stability in flight
  • 5.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Heart
        • Bird’s hearts are very strong
          • 4 chambers
          • 2 right and 2 left chambers
          • Right side- low oxygen blood to heart
          • Left side- high oxygen blood to muscles
        • Arteries are as large as the aorta
        • Blood returns to heart through veins
  • 6.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Respiratory System:
        • Birds fly at high altitudes and need to get the most oxygen possible
        • Birds do not have a diaphragm
          • Air is pumped into the lungs by the movement of the thoracic cavity
          • Lungs have air capillaries which allow air to flow through
  • 7.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Respiratory System:
        • Air enters through the trachea
        • Passes through the lungs and into the air sacs
        • As bird exhales air flows forward
        • Air is exchanged
        • Stale air is exchanged
        • Birds get the most air because air goes through twice
  • 8.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Digestion:
        • Birds eat OFTEN(but not much at a time)
        • Have sack in esophagus called a crop
          • Crop- stores and moistens food and constantly releases it
        • Birds digest food quickly
          • Gizzard- grinds food and breaks it down
          • Intestines- digests food
        • Birds excrete food quickly
  • 9.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Senses:
        • Bird’s have the best eyesight
          • Birds have flexible necks because they cannot move HUGE eyes
          • Monocular vision- each eye sees differently
        • Birds of prey
          • Binocular vision- provides narrower vision and lets birds see depth
        • Hearing
          • Most birds have very sharp hearing
  • 10.
    • Avian (Bird) Anatomy
      • Senses:
        • Smell: most birds do not smell well
  • 11.