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# 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2

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For Student Use Only

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### Transcript

• 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Pgs. 145-152 For Student Use Only
• 2. Laws of Fluids
• Fluids can be in motion or at rest
• Fluids at rest is pressed upon either by an outside force or its own weight
• Important Laws:
• Pascal’s Principle (Blaise Pascal)
• Boyle’s Law (Robert Boyle)
• Charles’s Law (Jacques Charles)
• 3. Laws of Fluids
• Pascal’s Principle:
• The pressure applied to any surface of a confined fluid is transmitted equally in every direction throughout the fluid.
• Pressure is distributed equally throughout the whole object
• 4. Laws of Fluids
• Pressure:
• The amount of force pressing down on each unit of area
• For every 1 psi= one pound of force pushes upon each square inch of the objects surface
• Normal Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psi
• Car Tires= 30-35 psi above atmospheric pressure
• Bicycle Tires= 60-90 psi
• 5. Laws of Fluids
• Pressure:
• Hydraulic Jack-
• Use Pascal’s principle
• 2 sealed containers which contain a fluid
• One container with a small piston
• One container with a large piston
• Force= Pressure x Area
• F= PA
• Work input= work output
• 6. Laws of Fluids
• Gas Laws:
• Boyle’s Law:
• NOTE: When the pressure upon a gas is lowered, the volume of the gas increases
• Boyle’s Law= The product of the pressure and volume of a gas is a constant if the temperature remains unchanged
• OR= As long as the temperature of a gas remains constant, its volume will be inversely related to its pressure
• P 1 /P 2 =V 2 V 1
• 7. Laws of Fluids
• Charles’s Law:
• Law= As long as pressure of gas is constant, its volume is directly related to temperature
• V 1 /T 1 =V 2 T 2
• Law= If volume of a gas is a constant, its pressure and temperature are directly related
• P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2
• These are both DIRECT relationships
• 8. Laws of Fluids
• Tying Laws together:
• The hotter the substance the faster the motion, the cooler the substance the slower the motion
• Absolute Zero= when atoms cease to move
• Kelvin Scale= from absolute zero on
• Kelvin= 273.15 + Celsius Temperature
• Gases are even frozen solid
• 9. Laws of Fluids
• Temperatures:
• Kinetic Theory helps explain why gasses behave the way they do (Charles’ Law)
• Gases move fast and spread out as they get hot= more collsions
• Gases slow down as they cool= less collisions
• Volume:
• Kinetic Theory helps explain why gases work in Boyle’s law
• As volume increases and temperature is the same= less collisions (have more room to move)
• As volume decreases and temperature is the same= more collisions (have less room to move)