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8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2
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8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2

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  • 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 2 Pgs. 145-152 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Laws of Fluids
    • Fluids can be in motion or at rest
    • Fluids at rest is pressed upon either by an outside force or its own weight
    • Important Laws:
      • Pascal’s Principle (Blaise Pascal)
      • Boyle’s Law (Robert Boyle)
      • Charles’s Law (Jacques Charles)
  • 3. Laws of Fluids
    • Pascal’s Principle:
      • The pressure applied to any surface of a confined fluid is transmitted equally in every direction throughout the fluid.
      • Pressure is distributed equally throughout the whole object
  • 4. Laws of Fluids
    • Pressure:
      • The amount of force pressing down on each unit of area
      • For every 1 psi= one pound of force pushes upon each square inch of the objects surface
        • Normal Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psi
        • Car Tires= 30-35 psi above atmospheric pressure
        • Bicycle Tires= 60-90 psi
  • 5. Laws of Fluids
    • Pressure:
      • Hydraulic Jack-
        • Use Pascal’s principle
        • 2 sealed containers which contain a fluid
          • One container with a small piston
          • One container with a large piston
        • Force= Pressure x Area
          • F= PA
        • Work input= work output
  • 6. Laws of Fluids
    • Gas Laws:
      • Boyle’s Law:
        • NOTE: When the pressure upon a gas is lowered, the volume of the gas increases
        • Boyle’s Law= The product of the pressure and volume of a gas is a constant if the temperature remains unchanged
        • OR= As long as the temperature of a gas remains constant, its volume will be inversely related to its pressure
        • P 1 /P 2 =V 2 V 1
  • 7. Laws of Fluids
    • Charles’s Law:
      • Law= As long as pressure of gas is constant, its volume is directly related to temperature
        • V 1 /T 1 =V 2 T 2
      • Law= If volume of a gas is a constant, its pressure and temperature are directly related
        • P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2
      • These are both DIRECT relationships
  • 8. Laws of Fluids
    • Tying Laws together:
      • The hotter the substance the faster the motion, the cooler the substance the slower the motion
      • Absolute Zero= when atoms cease to move
        • Kelvin Scale= from absolute zero on
        • Kelvin= 273.15 + Celsius Temperature
        • Gases are even frozen solid
  • 9. Laws of Fluids
    • Temperatures:
      • Kinetic Theory helps explain why gasses behave the way they do (Charles’ Law)
        • Gases move fast and spread out as they get hot= more collsions
        • Gases slow down as they cool= less collisions
    • Volume:
      • Kinetic Theory helps explain why gases work in Boyle’s law
        • As volume increases and temperature is the same= less collisions (have more room to move)
        • As volume decreases and temperature is the same= more collisions (have less room to move)