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8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1



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    8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Pgs. 138-144 For Student Use Only
      • Fluids:
        • NOTE:
          • Water and Air are fluids
          • Fluid means flowing.
          • They pass freely from one place to another
          • Fluids are different than solids because they can flow
      • Characteristics:
        • Liquids- definite volume, but NO definite shape
          • Fit into a container but will NOT expand to fill it
        • Gases- NO definite volume, NO definite shape
          • Will expand to fill a container and take shape of container
      • John Dalton
        • Built upon Greek knowledge and said that all matter is made up of particles called atoms that combine to make molecules
          • All matter is made up atoms that can combine
      • Daniel Bernoulli:
        • Helped build foundation of our understanding of molecules
        • Led to the KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
          • KTM= The molecules of matter are in constant motion
        • Molecules in:
          • Solids= vibrate without much movement
          • Liquids= move randomly
          • Gas= move farther and faster
    • http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/gifs/statesofmatter.gif
      • Mixing of Molecules:
        • Diffusion= the mixing of molecules of one kind with molecules of another kind
        • Diffusion occurs in liquids and in gasses
        • Diffusion occurs because particles run into each other
      • Molecules Stick Together:
        • Cohesion= the ability of molecules of the SAME kind to stick together
        • Adhesion= the ability of different kinds of molecules to stick together
          • Identify:
            • Water sticking to water
            • Corn syrup sticking to plate
            • Dog hair sticking to your clothes
      • Water’s Cohesion:
        • Water molecules are attracted to each other
        • Water molecules on the surface are attracted to the molecules on the side or underneath
        • This creates a “film” on top of water.
        • SURFACE TENSION= tendency of liquid to act as if it has a thin film on top
    • http://www.mtbaker.wednet.edu/harmony/ditch/images/water_1.jpg
      • Surface Tension
        • Causes particles to form spheres (bead up)
          • Gravity turn spheres into mounds
        • Can allow objects more dense than water to float
        • Forms a meniscus
          • Meniscus= where the water rises on the glass
      • Working Together:
        • The meniscus forms because the adhesion (glass to water) is stronger than the cohesion (water to water)
        • When a liquid in a thin tube falls above or below normal level
          • Water is pulled up a small glass tube by adhesion
          • Mercury is not as attracted to glass and is more attracted to itself
      • Comparing Density:
        • How do you calculate density?
          • Density= mass/ volume
            • Grams/mL
        • Densities of many objects can be compared
        • Densities are usually compared to water
      • Specific Gravity:
          • Specific Gravity= a number that compares the density of an object with that of water.
            • In other words= zinc has a specific gravity of 7 and is 7 times as dense as water
          • Specific Gravity= Density of object/ Density of water
      • Pressure:
        • Pressure= the force exerted per unit of area
          • Water Pressure= the pressure water exerts on you
        • Pressure= Force/ Area or P=F/A
          • PSI= Pounds per Square Inch
        • The air weighs only a little, but exerts much pressure
      • Compression Pressure:
        • A fluids’ container can cause pressure changes
        • Pressure is spread out evenly
        • Pressure is caused by the squeezing of a fluid into a container
      • Depth and Pressure
        • Gravitational Pressure can cause changes as depth increases (more pressure)
          • Gravity pulls down on objects
          • NOTE: gravitational pressure in fluids is spread evenly in all directions