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# 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

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For Student Use Only

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### Transcript

• 1. Pgs. 138-144 For Student Use Only
• 2.
• Fluids:
• NOTE:
• Water and Air are fluids
• Fluid means flowing.
• They pass freely from one place to another
• Fluids are different than solids because they can flow
• 3.
• Characteristics:
• Liquids- definite volume, but NO definite shape
• Fit into a container but will NOT expand to fill it
• Gases- NO definite volume, NO definite shape
• Will expand to fill a container and take shape of container
• 4.
• John Dalton
• Built upon Greek knowledge and said that all matter is made up of particles called atoms that combine to make molecules
• ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER:
• All matter is made up atoms that can combine
• 5.
• Daniel Bernoulli:
• Helped build foundation of our understanding of molecules
• Led to the KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
• KTM= The molecules of matter are in constant motion
• Molecules in:
• Solids= vibrate without much movement
• Liquids= move randomly
• Gas= move farther and faster
• 6. http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/gifs/statesofmatter.gif
• 7.
• Mixing of Molecules:
• Diffusion= the mixing of molecules of one kind with molecules of another kind
• Diffusion occurs in liquids and in gasses
• Diffusion occurs because particles run into each other
• 8.
• Molecules Stick Together:
• Cohesion= the ability of molecules of the SAME kind to stick together
• Adhesion= the ability of different kinds of molecules to stick together
• Identify:
• Water sticking to water
• Corn syrup sticking to plate
• Dog hair sticking to your clothes
• 9.
• Water’s Cohesion:
• Water molecules are attracted to each other
• Water molecules on the surface are attracted to the molecules on the side or underneath
• This creates a “film” on top of water.
• SURFACE TENSION= tendency of liquid to act as if it has a thin film on top
• 10. http://www.mtbaker.wednet.edu/harmony/ditch/images/water_1.jpg
• 11.
• Surface Tension
• Causes particles to form spheres (bead up)
• Gravity turn spheres into mounds
• Can allow objects more dense than water to float
• Forms a meniscus
• Meniscus= where the water rises on the glass
• 12.
• Working Together:
• The meniscus forms because the adhesion (glass to water) is stronger than the cohesion (water to water)
• CAPILLARY ACTION:
• When a liquid in a thin tube falls above or below normal level
• Water is pulled up a small glass tube by adhesion
• Mercury is not as attracted to glass and is more attracted to itself
• 13.
• Comparing Density:
• How do you calculate density?
• Density= mass/ volume
• Grams/mL
• Densities of many objects can be compared
• Densities are usually compared to water
• 14.
• Specific Gravity:
• Specific Gravity= a number that compares the density of an object with that of water.
• In other words= zinc has a specific gravity of 7 and is 7 times as dense as water
• Specific Gravity= Density of object/ Density of water
• 15.
• Pressure:
• Pressure= the force exerted per unit of area
• Water Pressure= the pressure water exerts on you
• Pressure= Force/ Area or P=F/A
• PSI= Pounds per Square Inch
• The air weighs only a little, but exerts much pressure
• 16.
• Compression Pressure:
• A fluids’ container can cause pressure changes
• Pressure is spread out evenly
• Pressure is caused by the squeezing of a fluid into a container
• Depth and Pressure
• Gravitational Pressure can cause changes as depth increases (more pressure)
• Gravity pulls down on objects
• NOTE: gravitational pressure in fluids is spread evenly in all directions