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# 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

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### 8th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 1

1. 1. Pgs. 138-144 For Student Use Only
2. 2. <ul><li>Fluids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water and Air are fluids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid means flowing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They pass freely from one place to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids are different than solids because they can flow </li></ul></ul></ul>
3. 3. <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids- definite volume, but NO definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fit into a container but will NOT expand to fill it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases- NO definite volume, NO definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will expand to fill a container and take shape of container </li></ul></ul></ul>
4. 4. <ul><li>John Dalton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built upon Greek knowledge and said that all matter is made up of particles called atoms that combine to make molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All matter is made up atoms that can combine </li></ul></ul></ul>
5. 5. <ul><li>Daniel Bernoulli: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped build foundation of our understanding of molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to the KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KTM= The molecules of matter are in constant motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solids= vibrate without much movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids= move randomly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas= move farther and faster </li></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/gifs/statesofmatter.gif
7. 7. <ul><li>Mixing of Molecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion= the mixing of molecules of one kind with molecules of another kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion occurs in liquids and in gasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion occurs because particles run into each other </li></ul></ul>
8. 8. <ul><li>Molecules Stick Together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesion= the ability of molecules of the SAME kind to stick together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesion= the ability of different kinds of molecules to stick together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water sticking to water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn syrup sticking to plate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog hair sticking to your clothes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
9. 9. <ul><li>Water’s Cohesion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecules are attracted to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecules on the surface are attracted to the molecules on the side or underneath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This creates a “film” on top of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SURFACE TENSION= tendency of liquid to act as if it has a thin film on top </li></ul></ul>
10. 10. http://www.mtbaker.wednet.edu/harmony/ditch/images/water_1.jpg
11. 11. <ul><li>Surface Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes particles to form spheres (bead up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity turn spheres into mounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can allow objects more dense than water to float </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a meniscus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meniscus= where the water rises on the glass </li></ul></ul></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>Working Together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The meniscus forms because the adhesion (glass to water) is stronger than the cohesion (water to water) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CAPILLARY ACTION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a liquid in a thin tube falls above or below normal level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is pulled up a small glass tube by adhesion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury is not as attracted to glass and is more attracted to itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
13. 13. <ul><li>Comparing Density: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you calculate density? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density= mass/ volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grams/mL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Densities of many objects can be compared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Densities are usually compared to water </li></ul></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>Specific Gravity: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity= a number that compares the density of an object with that of water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In other words= zinc has a specific gravity of 7 and is 7 times as dense as water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity= Density of object/ Density of water </li></ul></ul></ul>
15. 15. <ul><li>Pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure= the force exerted per unit of area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pressure= the pressure water exerts on you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure= Force/ Area or P=F/A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PSI= Pounds per Square Inch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The air weighs only a little, but exerts much pressure </li></ul></ul>
16. 16. <ul><li>Compression Pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fluids’ container can cause pressure changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure is spread out evenly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure is caused by the squeezing of a fluid into a container </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depth and Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pressure can cause changes as depth increases (more pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity pulls down on objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: gravitational pressure in fluids is spread evenly in all directions </li></ul></ul></ul>