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  • 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 5 Pgs. 33-38 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Modern Astronomy
    • Aristotle popularized the “geocentric” (earth-centered) view of the universe.
      • He said that there were circular layers that all the heavenly bodies orbited around the earth
      • He also believed that God and nature were one (pantheism)
  • 3. Modern Astronomy
    • Aristarchus proposed that the Earth orbited the sun around the same time of Aristotle.
      • People did not believe his theory.
  • 4. Modern Astronomy
    • Ptolemy- He also believed in the “geocentric” (earth centered) universe.
      • He convinced people by using charts and mathematical data.
      • Many people (including churches) held this belief until after the Middle Ages.
  • 5. Modern Astronomy
    • The Christian View
      • The Reformation redirected people back to the Bible to discover the truths about Creation.
      • This also led to Science being able to study the world as a creation with laws set to govern its workings. (They understood that God and Nature are separate.)
  • 6. Modern Astronomy
    • Nicolaus Copernicus- (Polish Astronomer) offered the “Heliocentric” (sun centered) view of the solar system.
    • The basic telescope helped prove that Copernicus was correct. (This happened after Copernicus died.)
  • 7. Modern Astronomy
    • Galileo Galilei- built an improved telescope and was the first to see that the modern Solar System (sun in the middle)
    • Galileo was also a Christian.
  • 8. Modern Astronomy
    • Johann Kepler- helped prove Copernicus’s heliocentric (sun-centered) ideas using charts and his teachers observations
      • He also discovered that the planets move in elliptical orbits.
  • 9. Modern Astronomy
    • Kepler’s Three Laws of Planetary Motion
      • 1 st Law- every planet orbits the sun in an ellipse with the sun as one of the foci of the ellipse and an empty point in space as the other
      • 2 nd Law- as a planet moves closer to the sun is travels faster and as it moves farther away it slows down
      • 3 rd Law- the time it takes a planet to complete one orbit is related to its distance from the sun
  • 10. Modern Astronomy
    • Kepler used Astronomical Units (AU units) to measure the distances of the planets (in relation to each other)
      • One AU is the distance between Earth to the sun
      • One AU= 93 million miles
  • 11. Modern Astronomy
    • Isaac Newton- explained why planets orbit the sun. He explained GRAVITY
      • Gravity- the force of attraction between 2 objects.
      • He also wrote the Law of Universal Gravitation
        • Law of Universal Gravitation- the strength of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and distance between them