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8th Grade  Chapter 1 Lesson 4
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8th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 4


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For Student Use Only

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  • 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 4 Pgs. 27-32 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Star Magnitude
    • Star Appearance: Some stars appear brighter than other stars
    • Apparent Magnitude- the brightness of a star as it appears to an observer on Earth.
        • Depends on 2 things:
          • Actual Brightness
          • Distance from the earth
  • 3. Star Magnitude
    • Hipparchus developed the system for classifying stars based on their brightness.
      • First Magnitude Stars= Brightest
      • Sixth Magnitude Stars= Faintest
      • The lower the apparent magnitude- the brighter the star. (NOTE: Stars can go negative on the scale)
  • 4. Star Magnitude
    • Apparent Magnitude measures the brightness of stars, but we first must know the distance of the star.
      • Apparent Magnitude is calculated by the inverse square law .
      • Inverse Square Law states: the brightness of a star varies inversely as the square of the distance from the star.
  • 5. Star Magnitude
    • We can also calculate how bright stars really are ( absolute magnitude ) by using their distance and apparent magnitude.
      • Absolute Magnitude : The brightness of the star if all stars were the same distance from Earth. Astronomers use the distance of 10 parsecs from Earth.
    • Absolute Magnitude depends on 2 things:
      • Surface Temperature
      • Size
  • 6. Star Colors
    • Surface Temperature causes different colors in stars.
      • Red Stars- cooler stars
      • Yellow stars- warmer stars
      • White stars- hot
      • Blue-white stars= hottest
  • 7. Star Colors
    • Although some stars are hotter than others, cooler stars can outshine hot stars because of bulk.
      • Size of stars help them to shine brighter.
        • Bigger cooler stars can outshine smaller hot stars.
  • 8. Star Colors
    • Giants and Dwarfs:
      • GIANTS : These stars are extremely bright for how cool they are. That is because they are BIG!
      • Dwarfs : Star that are smaller.
        • White dwarfs are stars that are smaller and dimmer than average stars.
  • 9. Stars
    • Some stars are binary stars :
      • 2 stars that orbit together are a double star.
        • Sirius and Sirius B (The Pup) are binary stars.
      • Optical doubles: can be confused with binary stars. These are stars that appear to be close together from Earth, but are actually far apart.
  • 10. Stars
    • Stars also can occur in groupings called star clusters .
      • Globular Cluster: groups of stars that travel together
  • 11. Stars
    • Star Explosions:
      • Occasionally stars flare up and become very bright this is call a NOVA .
        • During a NOVA a star will become very bright but eventually return to its normal size
      • Occasionally stars also flare up so large that they become SUPERNOVAS!
        • A SUPERNOVA is an explosion of a star.