7th Grade Chapter 4 Lesson 4

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  • 1. Pg. 141-144 For Student Use Only
  • 2. Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
  • 3. Mixtures and Compounds
    • Salt and Pepper mix but still taste different and look different.
  • 4. Mixtures and Compounds
    • Hydrogen and Oxygen make water.
    • Sodium and Chlorine make table salt.
  • 5.
    • Valence Electrons:
      • The electrons in the outermost shell
      • Atoms seek to have 8 electrons in their outer shells
    • Electron Shells:
      • 1 st shell= 2
      • 2 nd shell= 8
      • 3 rd shell= 18
    Chemical Bonding
  • 6. Valence electrons lead to bonding.
  • 7. Chemical Bonding
    • Opposite charges attract and this leads to ionic Bonding.
  • 8. Chemical Bonding
    • Examples of Ionic Bonding
    • NaCl
    • (Sodium Chloride)
  • 9. Chemical Bonding
    • Examples of Covalent Bonding:
    • Water
    • (Hydrogen bonds to Oxygen)
  • 10. Chemical Reactions
    • This describes the reaction that forms.
    • Baking a cake is creating a series of chemical reactions.
  • 11. Chemical Breakdown
    • Example:
    • Electrolysis is used to break water molecules apart.
    • Nitrogen Cycle breaks down nitrogen bonds.