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7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14
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7th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 pgs. 9-14

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For Student Use Only

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  • 1. 7 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Pgs. 9-14 For student use only
  • 2. Your Back Yard
    • Your backyard is full of organisms
      • Organisms - living things
    • All organisms live in an environment .
      • Environment - all conditions, influences and surroundings of an organism or group of organisms
  • 3. Your Back Yard
    • Physical Features of the ENVIRONMENT
      • Air
      • Water
      • Soil
    • Soil is very important to the environment!
      • All plants get nutrients from soil and soil determines what types of plants grow in the environment.
  • 4. Your Back Yard
    • Soil:
      • Pedology- study of soil
    • Soil is made of:
      • Minerals- material not from living organisms
      • Organic material- material derived from living organisms
  • 5. Your Back Yard
    • Organic Material:
      • Formed from decomposition of once living material
      • Broken down by worms, bacteria, fungi, other organisms
      • This decomposed, processed material is humus .
        • Humus - black or brown, nutrient rich material in soil that holds water
  • 6. Your Back Yard
    • Organic Material-
      • Some farmers add organic material (manure or plow under fields) to their crops or compost material
        • Compost material- kitchen scraps, shredded paper towel and other organic material that is left in a pile to biodegrade
        • Composting is a way to recycle (use again) materials
  • 7. Your Back Yard
    • Organic Material
      • Topsoil- is mostly organic material and is found in the top 2 – 6 inches of soil
      • Organic material makes up 4% to 5% of soil.
      • Peat is all organic material that is found in wet, boggy places.
  • 8. Your Back Yard
    • Minerals:
      • Rock pieces in soil from weathering.
        • Weathering - can be physical or chemical and is the breaking down of rocks
      • The type of weathering and rock determine the particle size and composition of soil.
      • Weathered rocks become subsoil .
        • Subsoil - lower than the topsoil, less organic, and full of rock pieces.
  • 9. Your Back Yard
    • Minerals:
      • Below the subsoil is the bedrock .
        • Bedrock - layer of solid rock and the foundation for other layers. This layer is not weathered!
  • 10. Your Back Yard
    • Weathering
      • Physical- breaks down rocks by physical things like water, wind, and temperature into sands and silts (made of quartz)
          • NOTE: Quartz is the most common mineral in the earth’s crust!
      • Physical weathering breaks rocks into small pieces. This breaking off of small pieces is called exfoliation .
  • 11. Your Back Yard
    • Chemical Weathering:
      • Decomposition of rocks when reacting with other materials such as oxygen, water and acids. (very slow process)
        • Ex. Carbonic Acid (CO2 reacting with water) and acids are also produced by mosses and lichens
      • Changes the composition (make up) of the rock (physical weathering just breaks into smaller pieces)
  • 12. Your Back Yard
    • Erosion:
      • When wind, streams, or ice carry away fragments of rock from weathering.
      • Fragments are carried to the ocean or the land.
      • Plants help prevent erosion by holding soil with their roots.

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