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Solutions
 

Solutions

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    Solutions Solutions Presentation Transcript

    • MixturesWhat are the two types of mixtures?Heterogeneous HomogeneousWhat is the difference?Heterogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtureshave particles spread out have particles spread outunevenly throughout it. evenly throughout it
    • Are solutions homogeneous or heterogeneous? Basic Properties of a Solution Dissolved particles will not come out of solution, no matterhow long the solution stands (assuming that the solution iscovered) The solution is clear and transparent The solution will pass through the finest filters The solution is in a single phase, usually liquid
    • Solute Any solution made with an alcoholSolvent Solution in which water is the solventAqueous Substance that gets dissolvedTincture Substance that does the dissolving
    • Types of SolutionsGas Solutions: A solution consisting of gases or vapors dissolved in one anotherLiquid Solutions: A solution consisting of a liquid solvent, in which a gas, liquid or solid is dissolved A solution consisting of solidsSolid Solution: uniformly spread throughout one another at the atomic/molecular level.
    • Boiling Point Elevation/Freezing Point DepressionIf you dissolve a solute in water, it will raise the boiling point, and lower the freezing point. You can find out how much by using the following equation: T = Kf/Kb x m x DF
    • T = Kf/Kb x m x DF T Change in Temperature Freezing point Depression Constant (1.87 degrees Celsius/molal)Kf/Kb or Boiling point Elevation Constant (.52 degrees Celsius/molal m Molal (moles solute/kg solvent) Dissociation factor (how many parts solute breaks DF up into)
    • Now, it’s your turn! T = Kf/Kb x m x DF Kf = 1.87 *C/m Kb = .52 *C/mUse the equation to find the freezing point depression.2 moles of NaCl are dissolved in 500 grams of water. Calculate the freezingpoint depression. T = 1.87 *C/m x 4m x 2 = 14.96 New freezing point is -14.96 *C
    • SolubilityThe solubility of something shows the maximum amount of solute that candissolve in a certain amount of solvent.
    • What are the 3 main factors that have an effect on solubility?Nature of solute/solvent Temperature Pressure
    • The four factors affecting the rate of solution are: Stirring Amount of Solute already dissolvedSIZE OF THEPARTICLES.(NO PICTUREAVAILABLE) Temperature
    • At 30 *C, how manygrams of HCl will beneeded to saturate 50grams of water?About 33 grams
    • At 70 degrees, you havedissolved 60 grams ofNH4Cl in 100 grams ofwater. Is the solutionunsaturated, saturatedor supersaturated? SATURATED!
    • By using the solubilityproperties of gases andsolids, is NH3 a gas orsolid? GAS How do we know?Since the solubility goesdown as temperature goesup, it has to be a gas!
    • • A dilute solution is one in which the amount of solute dissolved is small in relation to the amount of solvent.• A concentrated solution is one in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved.So, can a dilute solution be a saturated solution also?? YEP.
    • You now know everything there is to know about solutions. Well, not everything. But congratulations anyways…