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  1. 1. MixturesWhat are the two types of mixtures?Heterogeneous HomogeneousWhat is the difference?Heterogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtureshave particles spread out have particles spread outunevenly throughout it. evenly throughout it
  2. 2. Are solutions homogeneous or heterogeneous? Basic Properties of a Solution Dissolved particles will not come out of solution, no matterhow long the solution stands (assuming that the solution iscovered) The solution is clear and transparent The solution will pass through the finest filters The solution is in a single phase, usually liquid
  3. 3. Solute Any solution made with an alcoholSolvent Solution in which water is the solventAqueous Substance that gets dissolvedTincture Substance that does the dissolving
  4. 4. Types of SolutionsGas Solutions: A solution consisting of gases or vapors dissolved in one anotherLiquid Solutions: A solution consisting of a liquid solvent, in which a gas, liquid or solid is dissolved A solution consisting of solidsSolid Solution: uniformly spread throughout one another at the atomic/molecular level.
  5. 5. Boiling Point Elevation/Freezing Point DepressionIf you dissolve a solute in water, it will raise the boiling point, and lower the freezing point. You can find out how much by using the following equation: T = Kf/Kb x m x DF
  6. 6. T = Kf/Kb x m x DF T Change in Temperature Freezing point Depression Constant (1.87 degrees Celsius/molal)Kf/Kb or Boiling point Elevation Constant (.52 degrees Celsius/molal m Molal (moles solute/kg solvent) Dissociation factor (how many parts solute breaks DF up into)
  7. 7. Now, it’s your turn! T = Kf/Kb x m x DF Kf = 1.87 *C/m Kb = .52 *C/mUse the equation to find the freezing point depression.2 moles of NaCl are dissolved in 500 grams of water. Calculate the freezingpoint depression. T = 1.87 *C/m x 4m x 2 = 14.96 New freezing point is -14.96 *C
  8. 8. SolubilityThe solubility of something shows the maximum amount of solute that candissolve in a certain amount of solvent.
  9. 9. What are the 3 main factors that have an effect on solubility?Nature of solute/solvent Temperature Pressure
  10. 10. The four factors affecting the rate of solution are: Stirring Amount of Solute already dissolvedSIZE OF THEPARTICLES.(NO PICTUREAVAILABLE) Temperature
  11. 11. At 30 *C, how manygrams of HCl will beneeded to saturate 50grams of water?About 33 grams
  12. 12. At 70 degrees, you havedissolved 60 grams ofNH4Cl in 100 grams ofwater. Is the solutionunsaturated, saturatedor supersaturated? SATURATED!
  13. 13. By using the solubilityproperties of gases andsolids, is NH3 a gas orsolid? GAS How do we know?Since the solubility goesdown as temperature goesup, it has to be a gas!
  14. 14. • A dilute solution is one in which the amount of solute dissolved is small in relation to the amount of solvent.• A concentrated solution is one in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved.So, can a dilute solution be a saturated solution also?? YEP.
  15. 15. You now know everything there is to know about solutions. Well, not everything. But congratulations anyways…