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Respiration terminology


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  • 1. Cell Respiration Releasing Chemical Energy
  • 2. Introduction • All organisms must have energy to carry out life processes. • Where does this energy come from? Autotrophs collect energy from the sun and store it as organic compounds. Heterotrophs use energy from another source. (autotrophs!)
  • 3. The Need for Energy • No Energy = no work •Energy = Work
  • 4. Respiration: An Overview • Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions in the body. These reactions are either: 1. Synthesis – combining small molecules to make complex molecules OR 2. Decomposition reactions – breaking down molecules into simpler forms.
  • 5. Reactions Continued • Synthesis reactions require energy – example photosynthesis. • Decomposition reactions release energy. • This energy can be used to make ATP • ATP is a small, useable packet of energy.
  • 6. Cellular Respiration • Cell Respiration is a decomposition reaction that provides the energy cells need to function. • In this series of reactions, sugars, proteins, and lipids are broken down (decomposed) and energy is released.
  • 7. Types of Cellular Respiration There are two types of cell respiration – aerobic and anaerobic. 1. Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. • 2. Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen.
  • 8. Raw Materials for Cell Respiration • What are the raw materials for cell respiration? Carbohydrate s, proteins, and lipids
  • 9. • How does the food become the raw materials? •Food is digested into carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
  • 10. Glucose and Glycogen • Glucose is the form in which animals transport carbohydrates through the blood stream. • Glycogen is the form in which it is stored in animals. • Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles.
  • 11. Mitochondria • Mitochondria are the energy factories of the cells.
  • 12. Mitochondria • Cellular Respiration occurs in the mitochondriaan organelle in the cytoplasm of cells. They have: • an outer membrane that encloses the entire structure • an inner membrane that encloses a fluid-filled matrix • between the two is the intermembrane space • the inner membrane is elaborately folded with shelf-like cristae projecting into the matrix.
  • 13. Stages of Cell Respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Kreb’s Cycle 3. Electron Transport System
  • 14. Glycolysis • Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm. • Glucose is split into 2 three-carbon molecules. • Enzymes partially oxidize glucose and this partial oxidation releases energy that forms a small amount of ATP. • This is an anaerobic process and 2 net ATP are generated. • This ATP is used to start the Kreb’s Cycle.
  • 15. Glycolysis Animations • • • •
  • 16. Kreb’s Cycle • The Kreb’s cycle completes the decomposition and oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. • The carbon dioxide is released as a gas. • The oxidation of one glucose molecule yields up to 38 ATP molecules under ideal conditions (this occurs infrequently)
  • 17. • The reaction of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate starts the cycle by producing citrate (citric acid). • In each turn of the cycle, two molecules of CO2 are produced as waste products, plus three molecules of NADH, one molecule of GTP, and one molecule of FADH2. • The number of carbon atoms in each intermediate is shown in a yellow box. (see picture next slide)
  • 18. Krebs Cycle Animations • • /0470003790/animations/tca/tca.htm
  • 19. The Electron Transport Chain • It is composed of the mitochondrial enzymes that transfer electrons from one complex to another, eventually resulting in the formation of ATP. • In the first part, electrons are transferred from protein to protein and energy is lost as free energy along the way.
  • 20. ATP Synthetase • This free energy is used to move protons into the matrix of the mitochondria. • As they pass through the matrix, they pass through the ATP –synthetase enzyme. • This causes a charge differential (gradient) which drives the forming of ATP from ADP.
  • 21. Electron Transport • /0470003790/animations/electron_transport/ electron_transport.htm • Biology/Bio231/etc.html • m/ETS.html
  • 22. ATP Synthesis • /ATPSynthesis/biochem.html • m/ATPmito.html